Allentare una colonna

Modifica le colonne da obbligatorio a nullable.

Per saperne di più

Per la documentazione dettagliata che include questo esempio di codice, consulta le seguenti risorse:

Esempio di codice

Go

Prima di provare questo esempio, segui le istruzioni per la configurazione di Go nella guida rapida di BigQuery con le librerie client. Per ulteriori informazioni, consulta la documentazione di riferimento dell'API BigQuery Go.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"

	"cloud.google.com/go/bigquery"
)

// relaxTableAPI demonstrates modifying the schema of a table to remove the requirement that columns allow
// no NULL values.
func relaxTableAPI(projectID, datasetID, tableID string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// datasetID := "mydatasetid"
	// tableID := "mytableid"
	ctx := context.Background()

	client, err := bigquery.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("bigquery.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Setup: We first create a table with a schema that's restricts NULL values.
	sampleSchema := bigquery.Schema{
		{Name: "full_name", Type: bigquery.StringFieldType, Required: true},
		{Name: "age", Type: bigquery.IntegerFieldType, Required: true},
	}
	original := &bigquery.TableMetadata{
		Schema: sampleSchema,
	}
	if err := client.Dataset(datasetID).Table(tableID).Create(ctx, original); err != nil {
		return err
	}

	tableRef := client.Dataset(datasetID).Table(tableID)
	meta, err := tableRef.Metadata(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	// Iterate through the schema to set all Required fields to false (nullable).
	var relaxed bigquery.Schema
	for _, v := range meta.Schema {
		v.Required = false
		relaxed = append(relaxed, v)
	}
	newMeta := bigquery.TableMetadataToUpdate{
		Schema: relaxed,
	}
	if _, err := tableRef.Update(ctx, newMeta, meta.ETag); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	return nil
}

Java

Prima di provare questo esempio, segui le istruzioni di configurazione di Java nella guida rapida di BigQuery all'utilizzo delle librerie client. Per ulteriori informazioni, consulta la documentazione di riferimento dell'API Java di BigQuery.

import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQuery;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryException;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryOptions;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.Field;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.LegacySQLTypeName;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.Schema;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.StandardTableDefinition;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.Table;

public class RelaxColumnMode {

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String datasetName = "MY_DATASET_NAME";
    String tableId = "MY_TABLE_NAME";
    relaxColumnMode(datasetName, tableId);
  }

  public static void relaxColumnMode(String datasetName, String tableId) {
    try {
      // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
      // once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
      BigQuery bigquery = BigQueryOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();

      Table table = bigquery.getTable(datasetName, tableId);

      // Create new relaxed schema based on the existing table schema
      Schema relaxedSchema =
          Schema.of(
              // The only supported modification you can make to a column's mode is changing it from
              // REQUIRED to NULLABLE
              // Changing a column's mode from REQUIRED to NULLABLE is also called column relaxation
              // INFO: LegacySQLTypeName will be updated to StandardSQLTypeName in release 1.103.0
              Field.newBuilder("word", LegacySQLTypeName.STRING)
                  .setMode(Field.Mode.NULLABLE)
                  .build(),
              Field.newBuilder("word_count", LegacySQLTypeName.STRING)
                  .setMode(Field.Mode.NULLABLE)
                  .build(),
              Field.newBuilder("corpus", LegacySQLTypeName.STRING)
                  .setMode(Field.Mode.NULLABLE)
                  .build(),
              Field.newBuilder("corpus_date", LegacySQLTypeName.STRING)
                  .setMode(Field.Mode.NULLABLE)
                  .build());

      // Update the table with the new schema
      Table updatedTable =
          table.toBuilder().setDefinition(StandardTableDefinition.of(relaxedSchema)).build();
      updatedTable.update();
      System.out.println("Table schema successfully relaxed.");
    } catch (BigQueryException e) {
      System.out.println("Table schema not relaxed \n" + e.toString());
    }
  }
}

Node.js

Prima di provare questo esempio, segui le istruzioni di configurazione di Node.js nella guida rapida di BigQuery utilizzando le librerie client. Per ulteriori informazioni, consulta la documentazione di riferimento dell'API BigQuery Node.js.

// Import the Google Cloud client library and create a client
const {BigQuery} = require('@google-cloud/bigquery');
const bigquery = new BigQuery();

async function relaxColumn() {
  /**
   * Changes columns from required to nullable.
   * Assumes existing table with the following schema:
   * [{name: 'Name', type: 'STRING', mode: 'REQUIRED'},
   * {name: 'Age', type: 'INTEGER'},
   * {name: 'Weight', type: 'FLOAT'},
   * {name: 'IsMagic', type: 'BOOLEAN'}];
   */

  /**
   * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
   */
  // const datasetId = 'my_dataset';
  // const tableId = 'my_table';

  const newSchema = [
    {name: 'Name', type: 'STRING', mode: 'NULLABLE'},
    {name: 'Age', type: 'INTEGER'},
    {name: 'Weight', type: 'FLOAT'},
    {name: 'IsMagic', type: 'BOOLEAN'},
  ];

  // Retrieve current table metadata
  const table = bigquery.dataset(datasetId).table(tableId);
  const [metadata] = await table.getMetadata();

  // Update schema
  metadata.schema = newSchema;
  const [apiResponse] = await table.setMetadata(metadata);

  console.log(apiResponse.schema.fields);
}

Python

Prima di provare questo esempio, segui le istruzioni di configurazione di Python nella guida rapida di BigQuery con le librerie client. Per ulteriori informazioni, consulta la documentazione di riferimento dell'API Python per BigQuery.

# from google.cloud import bigquery
# client = bigquery.Client()
# dataset_id = 'my_dataset'
# table_id = 'my_table'

original_schema = [
    bigquery.SchemaField("full_name", "STRING", mode="REQUIRED"),
    bigquery.SchemaField("age", "INTEGER", mode="REQUIRED"),
]

dataset_ref = bigquery.DatasetReference(project, dataset_id)
table_ref = dataset_ref.table(table_id)
table = bigquery.Table(table_ref, schema=original_schema)
table = client.create_table(table)
assert all(field.mode == "REQUIRED" for field in table.schema)

# SchemaField properties cannot be edited after initialization.
# To make changes, construct new SchemaField objects.
relaxed_schema = [
    bigquery.SchemaField("full_name", "STRING", mode="NULLABLE"),
    bigquery.SchemaField("age", "INTEGER", mode="NULLABLE"),
]
table.schema = relaxed_schema
table = client.update_table(table, ["schema"])

assert all(field.mode == "NULLABLE" for field in table.schema)

Passaggi successivi

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