Query Sheets with a permanent table

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Query data from a Google Sheets file by creating a permanent table.

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For detailed documentation that includes this code sample, see the following:

Code sample

Java

Before trying this sample, follow the Java setup instructions in the BigQuery quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery Java API reference documentation.

import com.google.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredentials;
import com.google.auth.oauth2.ServiceAccountCredentials;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQuery;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryException;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryOptions;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.ExternalTableDefinition;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.Field;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.GoogleSheetsOptions;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.QueryJobConfiguration;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.Schema;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.StandardSQLTypeName;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.TableId;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.TableInfo;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.TableResult;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableSet;
import java.io.IOException;

// Sample to queries an external data source using a permanent table
public class QueryExternalSheetsPerm {

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String datasetName = "MY_DATASET_NAME";
    String tableName = "MY_TABLE_NAME";
    String sourceUri =
        "https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1i_QCL-7HcSyUZmIbP9E6lO_T5u3HnpLe7dnpHaijg_E/edit?usp=sharing";
    Schema schema =
        Schema.of(
            Field.of("name", StandardSQLTypeName.STRING),
            Field.of("post_abbr", StandardSQLTypeName.STRING));
    String query =
        String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s WHERE name LIKE 'W%%'", datasetName, tableName);
    queryExternalSheetsPerm(datasetName, tableName, sourceUri, schema, query);
  }

  public static void queryExternalSheetsPerm(
      String datasetName, String tableName, String sourceUri, Schema schema, String query) {
    try {

      // Create credentials with Drive & BigQuery API scopes.
      // Both APIs must be enabled for your project before running this code.
      GoogleCredentials credentials =
          ServiceAccountCredentials.getApplicationDefault()
              .createScoped(
                  ImmutableSet.of(
                      "https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigquery",
                      "https://www.googleapis.com/auth/drive"));

      // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
      // once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
      BigQuery bigquery =
          BigQueryOptions.newBuilder().setCredentials(credentials).build().getService();

      // Skip header row in the file.
      GoogleSheetsOptions sheetsOptions =
          GoogleSheetsOptions.newBuilder()
              .setSkipLeadingRows(1) // Optionally skip header row.
              .setRange("us-states!A20:B49") // Optionally set range of the sheet to query from.
              .build();

      TableId tableId = TableId.of(datasetName, tableName);
      // Create a permanent table linked to the Sheets file.
      ExternalTableDefinition externalTable =
          ExternalTableDefinition.newBuilder(sourceUri, sheetsOptions).setSchema(schema).build();
      bigquery.create(TableInfo.of(tableId, externalTable));

      // Example query to find states starting with 'W'
      TableResult results = bigquery.query(QueryJobConfiguration.of(query));

      results
          .iterateAll()
          .forEach(row -> row.forEach(val -> System.out.printf("%s,", val.toString())));

      System.out.println("Query on external permanent table performed successfully.");
    } catch (BigQueryException | InterruptedException | IOException e) {
      System.out.println("Query not performed \n" + e.toString());
    }
  }
}

Python

Before trying this sample, follow the Python setup instructions in the BigQuery quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery Python API reference documentation.

from google.cloud import bigquery
import google.auth

# Create credentials with Drive & BigQuery API scopes.
# Both APIs must be enabled for your project before running this code.
#
# If you are using credentials from gcloud, you must authorize the
# application first with the following command:
#
# gcloud auth application-default login \
#   --scopes=https://www.googleapis.com/auth/drive,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform
credentials, project = google.auth.default(
    scopes=[
        "https://www.googleapis.com/auth/drive",
        "https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigquery",
    ]
)

# Construct a BigQuery client object.
client = bigquery.Client(credentials=credentials, project=project)

# TODO(developer): Set dataset_id to the ID of the dataset to fetch.
# dataset_id = "your-project.your_dataset"

# Configure the external data source.
dataset = client.get_dataset(dataset_id)
table_id = "us_states"
schema = [
    bigquery.SchemaField("name", "STRING"),
    bigquery.SchemaField("post_abbr", "STRING"),
]
table = bigquery.Table(dataset.table(table_id), schema=schema)
external_config = bigquery.ExternalConfig("GOOGLE_SHEETS")
# Use a shareable link or grant viewing access to the email address you
# used to authenticate with BigQuery (this example Sheet is public).
sheet_url = (
    "https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets"
    "/d/1i_QCL-7HcSyUZmIbP9E6lO_T5u3HnpLe7dnpHaijg_E/edit?usp=sharing"
)
external_config.source_uris = [sheet_url]
options = external_config.google_sheets_options
assert options is not None
options.skip_leading_rows = 1  # Optionally skip header row.
options.range = (
    "us-states!A20:B49"  # Optionally set range of the sheet to query from.
)
table.external_data_configuration = external_config

# Create a permanent table linked to the Sheets file.
table = client.create_table(table)  # Make an API request.

# Example query to find states starting with "W".
sql = 'SELECT * FROM `{}.{}` WHERE name LIKE "W%"'.format(dataset_id, table_id)

query_job = client.query(sql)  # Make an API request.

# Wait for the query to complete.
w_states = list(query_job)
print(
    "There are {} states with names starting with W in the selected range.".format(
        len(w_states)
    )
)

What's next

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