Tables: Add column via query job

Add a new column to a BigQuery table while appending rows via a query job with an explicit destination table.

Documentation pages that include this code sample

Code Sample

Go

Before trying this sample, follow the Go setup instructions in the BigQuery Quickstart Using Client Libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery Go API reference documentation.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"

	"cloud.google.com/go/bigquery"
)

// createTableAndWidenQuery demonstrates how the schema of a table can be modified to add columns by appending
// query results that include the new columns.
func createTableAndWidenQuery(projectID, datasetID, tableID string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// datasetID := "mydataset"
	// tableID := "mytable"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := bigquery.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("bigquery.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// First, we create a sample table.
	sampleSchema := bigquery.Schema{
		{Name: "full_name", Type: bigquery.StringFieldType, Required: true},
		{Name: "age", Type: bigquery.IntegerFieldType, Required: true},
	}
	original := &bigquery.TableMetadata{
		Schema: sampleSchema,
	}
	tableRef := client.Dataset(datasetID).Table(tableID)
	if err := tableRef.Create(ctx, original); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	// Our table has two columns.  We'll introduce a new favorite_color column via
	// a subsequent query that appends to the table.
	q := client.Query("SELECT \"Timmy\" as full_name, 85 as age, \"Blue\" as favorite_color")
	q.SchemaUpdateOptions = []string{"ALLOW_FIELD_ADDITION"}
	q.QueryConfig.Dst = client.Dataset(datasetID).Table(tableID)
	q.WriteDisposition = bigquery.WriteAppend
	q.Location = "US"
	job, err := q.Run(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	_, err = job.Wait(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	return nil
}

Node.js

Before trying this sample, follow the Node.js setup instructions in the BigQuery Quickstart Using Client Libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery Node.js API reference documentation.

// Import the Google Cloud client libraries
const {BigQuery} = require('@google-cloud/bigquery');

// Instantiate client
const bigquery = new BigQuery();

async function addColumnQueryAppend() {
  // Adds a new column to a BigQuery table while appending rows via a query job.

  /**
   * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
   */
  // const datasetId = 'my_dataset';
  // const tableId = 'my_table';

  // Retrieve destination table reference
  const [table] = await bigquery
    .dataset(datasetId)
    .table(tableId)
    .get();
  const destinationTableRef = table.metadata.tableReference;

  // In this example, the existing table contains only the 'name' column.
  // 'REQUIRED' fields cannot  be added to an existing schema,
  // so the additional column must be 'NULLABLE'.
  const query = `SELECT name, year
    FROM \`bigquery-public-data.usa_names.usa_1910_2013\`
    WHERE state = 'TX'
    LIMIT 10`;

  // Set load job options
  const options = {
    query: query,
    schemaUpdateOptions: ['ALLOW_FIELD_ADDITION'],
    writeDisposition: 'WRITE_APPEND',
    destinationTable: destinationTableRef,
    // Location must match that of the dataset(s) referenced in the query.
    location: 'US',
  };

  const [job] = await bigquery.createQueryJob(options);
  console.log(`Job ${job.id} started.`);

  // Wait for the query to finish
  const [rows] = await job.getQueryResults();
  console.log(`Job ${job.id} completed.`);

  // Print the results
  console.log('Rows:');
  rows.forEach(row => console.log(row));
}

Python

Before trying this sample, follow the Python setup instructions in the BigQuery Quickstart Using Client Libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery Python API reference documentation.

from google.cloud import bigquery

# Construct a BigQuery client object.
client = bigquery.Client()

# TODO(developer): Set table_id to the ID of the destination table.
# table_id = "your-project.your_dataset.your_table_name"

# Retrieves the destination table and checks the length of the schema.
table = client.get_table(table_id)  # Make an API request.
print("Table {} contains {} columns".format(table_id, len(table.schema)))

# Configures the query to append the results to a destination table,
# allowing field addition.
job_config = bigquery.QueryJobConfig(
    destination=table_id,
    schema_update_options=[bigquery.SchemaUpdateOption.ALLOW_FIELD_ADDITION],
    write_disposition=bigquery.WriteDisposition.WRITE_APPEND,
)

# Start the query, passing in the extra configuration.
query_job = client.query(
    # In this example, the existing table contains only the 'full_name' and
    # 'age' columns, while the results of this query will contain an
    # additional 'favorite_color' column.
    'SELECT "Timmy" as full_name, 85 as age, "Blue" as favorite_color;',
    job_config=job_config,
)  # Make an API request.
query_job.result()  # Wait for the job to complete.

# Checks the updated length of the schema.
table = client.get_table(table_id)  # Make an API request.
print("Table {} now contains {} columns".format(table_id, len(table.schema)))