include

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Usage

include: "/views/airports.view"
Hierarchy
include

- or -

include

- or -

include
Default Value
None

Accepts
A string containing a filename or pattern

Definition

The include parameter specifies the LookML files that will be available to a model, a view, or an Explore. If you want to use or reference a LookML file within another file, you must add it with the include parameter.

You can use the include parameter in model files, view files, and Explore files. The include parameter can reference different types of LookML files, depending on the context.

In a model file, you can use include to reference these file types:

In a view file, you can use include to reference these file types:

In an Explore file, you can use include to reference these file types:

You can also use include to bring in files from other projects. See the Importing files from other projects documentation page for information on including files from another project. To import files from local LookML projects, you must enable the Local Project Import Labs feature.

Note the following when using include:

  • You don't need to use include for non-LookML file types, such as documentation files or data files.
  • Including files is all-or-nothing, so all the included file's information is added to the including file.
  • You can use multiple include parameters in a file.
  • You can use the * wildcard character to indicate files with strategic naming conventions or with the same extension. For example, you can use "*base.dashboard" to match and include both "database.dashboard" and "crunchbase.dashboard". You can use "*.dashboard" to indicate all files with the extension .dashboard.
  • You can use the * wildcard character to include all files in a directory. For example, you can include all view files in the views/users/ directory by specifying include: "/views/users/*.view". See the documentation page on IDE folders for more information on using wildcards with IDE folders.

Using include in a model file

You can use the include parameter in a model file to include views and dashboards or Explores.

Including views and dashboards in a model

Use the include parameter in a model file to specify the dashboard and view files that will be available to that model. If you want to use or reference a LookML file within a model, you must add it with the include parameter.

In the include parameter, use the extension .view for view files and the extension .dashboard for dashboards. You can leave out the .lkml and .lookml part of these extensions.

You can use the * wildcard character to indicate files with strategic naming conventions or with the same extension. You can also use the * wildcard in combination with directory paths to specify multiple files, as described in the Wildcard examples section of the IDE folders documentation page.

For example, you could use these include parameters in a model file:

include: "/**/*.dashboard"
include: "/*/*base.view.lkml"
include: "//e_commerce/views/*.view.lkml"

These parameters would include the following files:

  • All dashboard files in any directory in your project
  • Any view files that end with base.view.lkml in any immediate child directory of the project, such as /views/database.view.lkml or /public/crunchbase.view.lkml
  • All view files in the /views/ directory of the imported project named e_commerce

If your project has a large number of view files or if your project uses persistent derived tables (PDTs), you should avoid including all view files in your model. Instead, include individual view files like this. Here's an example of including individual view files and all dashboards in a project:

include: "/views/order.view"
include: "/views/user.view"
include: "/**/*.dashboard"

Including models in a model

You cannot include a model file from another project. Instead, to reuse, refine, or extend Explores across projects, in the imported project you can create a separate Explore file, then include that Explore file in other projects. See Including Explores in a Model for more information.

Including Explores in a model

Explores are usually defined within a model file. However, sometimes you need a separate Explore file for a derived table, or to extend or refine an Explore across models.

If you do have a separate Explore file, you need to use the include parameter in the model file to include it. In the include parameter, use the extension .explore.lkml for Explore files.

For example, below is a model file that has two Explores:

  • The aircraft_new Explore, which is defined in its own file called aircraft_new.explore.lkml in the explores folder. Because that Explore is defined in its own file, you must specify the Explore file's path in an include parameter.
  • The accidents Explore, which is defined within the model file. Because it is defined in the model file itself, you don't need to use an include parameter for it in the model. However, you do need an include for the view on which the accidents Explore is based.
connection: "faa"

include: "/explores/aircraft_new.explore.lkml"
include: "/views/accidents.view"

explore: accidents {
  view_name: accidents
  from: accidents
}

Including data tests in a model

Data tests can be defined directly in a model file or a view file. However, you can also create a separate data test file if you want to reuse your data tests in multiple places in your project.

If you do have a separate data test file, you need to use the include parameter in your model file or view file so that you can run the data tests. In the include parameter, use the extension .lkml for data test files.

For example, below is an excerpt from a model file that includes a data test file:

connection: "faa"

include: "/explores/aircraft_new.explore.lkml"
include: "/views/accidents.view"
include: "/tests/data_tests.lkml"

. . .

Once you include the data test file in a model file, you can run the data test to verify that your data test works properly and to see if your model's logic passes the test.

You can also include the data test file in a view file, as described on theIncluding data tests in a view section on this page.

Using include in a view file

For the most part, you don't need to use include in a view file. However, there are some cases in which you do want to include files in your view file:

Including views in a view (to extend or refine)

You can also include a view file in another view file to extend or to refine the included view.

For example, here is the marketing_order_fields view file that includes the basic_order_fields view file and then extends it:

include: "/views/basic_order_fields.view"
view: marketing_order_fields {
  extends: [basic_order_fields]  # The file that contains the basic_order_fields
}                                # view should be included

Including Explores in a view

In most cases, you don't need to include an Explore in a view. However, native derived tables are a special case because they are defined in their own view file that has an explore_source parameter. You use the explore_source parameter to specify an Explore and define the desired columns and other desired characteristics for the native derived table. Explores are usually defined within a model file, but in the case of native derived tables it may be cleaner to create a separate file for the Explore using the .explore.lkml file extension. If you create a separate Explore file, you must include the Explore file in the native derived table view file.

Here is an example of using include in a native derived table view file to point to an Explore file:

include: "/explores/order_items.explore.lkml"

view: user_order_facts {
  derived_table: {
    explore_source: order_items {
      column: user_id {field: order_items.user_id}
      column: lifetime_number_of_orders {field: order_items.order_count}
      column: lifetime_customer_value {field: order_items.total_revenue}
      derived_column: average_customer_order {
        sql:  lifetime_customer_value / lifetime_number_of_orders ;;
      }
    }
  }
  dimension: user_id {hidden: yes}
  dimension: lifetime_number_of_orders {type: number}
  dimension: lifetime_customer_value {type: number}
  dimension: average_customer_order {type: number}
}

See our documentation on using include statements to enable referencing fields for more information on Explore files for native derived tables.

Including data tests in a view

Data tests can be defined directly in a model file or a view file. However, you can also create a separate data test file if you want to reuse your data tests in multiple places in your project.

If you do have a separate data test file, you need to use the include parameter in your model file or view file so that you can run the data tests. In the include parameter, use the extension .lkml for data test files.

For example, below is an excerpt from a view file that includes a data test file:

include: "/tests/data_tests.lkml"

view: orders {
  sql_table_name: looker.orders ;;

  dimension: id {
    primary_key: yes
    type: number
    sql: ${TABLE}.id ;;
  }

. . .

Once you include the data test file in a view file, you can run the data test to verify that your data test works properly and to see if your view's logic passes the test.

You can also include the data test file in a model file, as described on the Including data tests in a model section on this page.

Using include in an Explore file

Explores are usually defined within a model file. However, sometimes you need a separate Explore file for a derived table, or to extend or refine an Explore across models.

If you do have a separate Explore file, you can use the include parameter to include views or other Explores.

Including views in an Explore

If you have a separate Explore file, you need to include any views that are used by the Explore. Use the file extension .view for view files. You can leave out the .lkml part of the file extension. Here is an example Explore file that includes the two views it's using:

include: "/views/aircraft.view"
include: "/views/aircraft_types.view"

explore: aircraft {
  join: aircraft_types {
    type: left_outer
    sql_on: ${aircraft.aircraft_type_id} = ${aircraft_types.aircraft_type_id} ;;
    relationship: many_to_one
  }
}

Including Explores in an Explore

You can include one Explore file in another Explore file, such as when you are extending or refining an Explore. Use the include parameter and add the file extension .explore.lkml.

Here is an example Explore file that includes another Explore file and then extends the Explore:

include: "/explores/base.explore.lkml"

explore: aircraft_information {
  extends: [aircraft]

Using include with IDE folders

When you organize your LookML project files into folders, you need to provide the paths for files within the include statement.

You can use absolute or relative paths in the include statement (see the Path syntax section on this page for examples), and you can use the wildcards * and ** to include multiple files at once (see the Wildcard examples section on this page for examples).

For example, suppose you have this directory structure in your project:

The following statements will include the products view, the order_facts view, and all views in the /views/users/ directory:

include: "/views/products.view"
include: "/views/orders/order_facts.view"
include: "/views/users/*.view"

When you change a file's path, be sure to update any include statements in your project to match the file's new path. You may see LookML validation warnings on your old include statements if they no longer refer to existing files or file paths. In addition, you may see LookML validation errors for referenced objects that can no longer be found because their file paths have changed.

Path syntax

Here are some example syntaxes you can use for including files:

Syntax Description
PATH Relative path starting from current file's location.
./PATH Relative path starting from current file's location. This example points to the same file as the above example: PATH.
../PATH Relative path starting from current file's parent directory.
/PATH Absolute path starting from current project's root.
//PROJECT_NAME/PATH Absolute path starting from the root of an imported project called PROJECT_NAME.

Using wildcards

For projects where only a few files need to be managed, you can list each file in its own include parameter, like this:

include: "/dashboards/user_info.dashboard"
include: "/views/users.view"

Bur for projects with many files to include, you can reduce the number of include parameters that you need to write by using wildcards to include several files at once:

Using wildcards may be especially helpful during development when you need to create a temporary fix for LookML validation warnings, especially when organizing an existing project into IDE folders. But take the following into consideration when using wildcards in your include statements:

Using wildcards with IDE folders

You can use wildcards in combination with IDE folders to include files in a specific directory in your LookML project.

For example, this include statement references all the files in the /explores/ directory of a LookML project:

include: "/explores/*"

Using wildcards for specific file types

You can use wildcards to reference all files of a specific type. For example, this include statement references all Explore files in a LookML project:

include: "/**/*.explore.lkml"

See the Types of files in a LookML project section of the Understanding LookML project files documentation page for a list of the types of LookML files and their file extensions.

Using wildcards with strategic naming patterns

You can also use wildcards with strategic file naming to further optimize your include statements. For example, instead of naming files like this:

/views/apple.view
/views/banana.view
/views/cherry.view
/views/orange.view
/views/celery.view

You can add a strategic prefix or suffix to your filenames, like this:

/views/apple.fruit.view
/views/banana.fruit.view
/views/cherry.fruit.view
/views/orange.fruit.view
/views/celery.vegetable.view

Then use wildcards to reference only the .fruit suffix by using this include:

include: "/views/*.fruit.view"

Wildcard examples

Here are some examples using wildcards (note that you can replace PATH with the path syntaxes in the previous table):

Syntax Description
PATH/*.view Wildcard matching files ending with .view at PATH.
PATH/*.view.lkml Wildcard matching files ending with .view.lkml at PATH.

Because view files have the extension .view.lkml, this example specifies the same file as the previous example, PATH/*.view. The .lkml part is not displayed in the IDE, nor is the .lkml part required for include statements. However, you can use wildcards to leverage this common part of the file extension. See the LookML project files documentation page for a list of project file extensions.
PATH/*.lkml Wildcard matching files ending with .lkml at PATH.

Note that several file types share .lkml as the final part of the file extension, such as .view.lkml and .model.lkml. The .lkml part is not displayed in the IDE, nor is the .lkml part required for include statements. However, you can use wildcards to leverage this common part of the file extension. See the LookML project files documentation page for a list of project file extensions.
PATH/myfile.* Wildcard matching files called myfile with any extension type at PATH.
PATH/myfile.*.lkml Wildcard matching files called myfile with any .lkml extension type at PATH.
PATH/my*file.view Wildcard matching files starting with my and ending with file.view at PATH.
PATH/my*fi*le.view Wildcards matching files starting with my, followed by some characters, then fi, some additional characters, and ending with le.view at PATH.
PATH/*/myfile.lkml Folder name wildcard (match only a single level of nesting). Matches all myfile.lkml files in any direct child directories of PATH.
PATH/**/my_file.view Recursive wildcard matching (match any amount of nesting) for all files called my_file.view.lkml at PATH and all subdirectories.
PATH/**/*.view Recursive wildcard matching all files ending with .view.lkml at PATH's subdirectories.
PATH/**/my_folder/myfile.view Recursive wildcard matching the subpath /my_folder/myfile.view at any depth under PATH.

Examples

See the previous sections for examples of using include in model files, view files, and Explore files.

Things to consider

Including all view files can affect performance of LookML validation

If your project has a large number of view files and you include them all in your model file, this may affect the performance of the LookML Validator. Since the LookML Validator checks all the view files included in the model, you should include only the needed view files in the model file's include parameter.

Consider using strategic naming conventions for view files to enable easy inclusion of groups of views within a model (see the example in Using wildcards with strategic naming patterns on this page). Or, you can use IDE folders to organize your views into folders. Then you can use the * wildcard to include all views in a single folder, instead of including all views in your project. See the section on using include with IDE folders for information.

Including all view files can clutter your database schema

For projects that use persistent derived tables (PDTs), you can include the PDT's view file in your model file. However, each model file that includes the PDT's view file will create a copy of the PDT in the scratch schema on your database. If you have multiple model files and you include all view files in your model files, you may add unnecessary clutter to your database scratch schema. For this reason, be sure that you include a PDT's view file only in the model files where the PDT is needed.