Dataset Locations

This page explains the concept of data location and the different locations where you can create datasets. To learn how to set the location for your dataset, see Creating and Using Datasets.

Key concepts

You specify a location for storing your BigQuery data when you create a dataset. After you create the dataset, the location cannot be changed.

There are two types of locations:

  • A regional location is a specific geographic place, such as Tokyo. For more information, see Regional resources on the Geography and Regions page.

  • A multi-regional location is a large geographic area, such as the United States, that contains at least two geographic places. For more information, see Multi-regional resources on the Geography and Regions page.

BigQuery stores your data in the selected location in accordance with the Service Specific Terms.

Regional locations

Region Name Region Description
asia-northeast1 Tokyo

Multi-regional locations

Multi-Region Name Multi-Region Description
EU European Union
US United States

Currently, you cannot select an individual region in the US or the EU.

Specifying your location

If your data is in a location other than the US or EU multi-region, you must specify the location when you perform actions such as loading data, querying data, and exporting data.

To specify your location:

  • When you query data using the BigQuery web UI, click Show Options, and for Processing Location, click Unspecified and choose your data's location. You can leave processing location set to unspecified if your data is in the US or EU multi-region location. When your data is in the US or the EU, the processing location is automatically detected.
  • When you use the command-line tool, supply the --location global flag and set the value to your location.
  • When you use the API, specify your region in the location property in the jobReference section of the job resource.

Location considerations

When you choose a location for your data, consider the following:

  • Colocate your external data sources
    When you query data in an external data source such as Cloud Storage, the data you're querying must be in the same location as your BigQuery data.
  • Colocate your Cloud Storage buckets for loading data
    When you load data from Cloud Storage, if your BigQuery dataset's location is set to a value other than US, the regional or multi-regional Cloud Storage bucket must be in the same location as the dataset.
  • Colocate your Cloud Storage buckets for exporting data
    You cannot export data between regions unless your dataset location is set to US. For example, you can export data from a US-based dataset to a Cloud Storage bucket in another region, but you cannot export data from any other region to a bucket in the US. For non-US datasets, you must export the data to a regional or multi-regional Cloud Storage bucket in the same region as the dataset.

Next steps

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