The CREATE MODEL statement for PCA models

CREATE MODEL statement for PCA

To create a principal component analysis (PCA) model in BigQuery, use the BigQuery ML CREATE MODEL statement with the PCA model type.

For information about supported model types of each SQL statement and function, and all supported SQL statements and functions for each model type, read End-to-end user journey for each model.

CREATE MODEL syntax

{CREATE MODEL | CREATE MODEL IF NOT EXISTS | CREATE OR REPLACE MODEL}
model_name
[OPTIONS(MODEL_TYPE = { 'PCA' },
    NUM_PRINCIPAL_COMPONENTS = int64_value,
    PCA_EXPLAINED_VARIANCE_RATIO = float64_value,
    SCALE_FEATURES = { TRUE | FALSE }
    PCA_SOLVER = { 'FULL' | 'RANDOMIZED' | 'AUTO' },
)];

CREATE MODEL

Creates and trains a new model in the specified dataset. If the model name exists, CREATE MODEL returns an error.

CREATE MODEL IF NOT EXISTS

Creates and trains a new model only if the model does not currently exist in the specified dataset.

CREATE OR REPLACE MODEL

Creates and trains a model and replaces an existing model with the same name in the specified dataset.

model_name

model_name is the name of the model you're creating or replacing. The model name must be unique per dataset: no other model or table can have the same name. The model name must follow the same naming rules as a BigQuery table. A model name can:

  • Contain up to 1,024 characters
  • Contain letters (upper or lower case), numbers, and underscores

model_name is not case-sensitive.

If you do not have a default project configured, prepend the project ID to the model name in following format, including backticks: `[PROJECT_ID].[DATASET].[MODEL]` ; for example, `myproject.mydataset.mymodel`.

model_option_list

In the model_option_list, the model_type option is required. All others are optional.

CREATE MODEL supports the following options:

MODEL_TYPE

Syntax

MODEL_TYPE = { 'PCA' }

Description

Specify the model type. This option is required.

Arguments

'PCA' Principal component analysis (PCA) is the process of computing the principal components and using them to perform a change of basis on the data. It is commonly used for dimensionality reduction by projecting each data point onto only the first few principal components to obtain lower-dimensional data while preserving as much of the data's variation as possible. The first principal component can equivalently be defined as a direction that maximizes the variance of the projected data.

PCA is an unsupervised learning technique, so model training does not require labels nor split data for training or evaluation.

NUM_PRINCIPAL_COMPONENTS

Syntax

NUM_PRINCIPAL_COMPONENTS = int64_value

Description

Number of principal components to keep.

Arguments

int64_value is an INT64. It can not be larger than the total number of rows or the total feature cardinalities (after one-hot encoding the categorical features).

PCA_EXPLAINED_VARIANCE_RATIO

Syntax

PCA_EXPLAINED_VARIANCE_RATIO = float64_value

Description

The number of principal components is selected such that the percentage of variance explained by the principal components is greater than the ratio specified by this argument.

Arguments

float64_value is a FLOAT64. The value must be within (0, 1).

SCALE_FEATURES

Syntax

SCALE_FEATURES = { TRUE | FALSE }

Description

Whether or not to scale the numerical features to unit variance. Note that the input numerical features are always centered to have zero mean value. Separately, categorical features are one-hot encoded.

Arguments

Accepts a BOOL. The default value is TRUE.

PCA_SOLVER

Syntax

PCA_SOLVER = { 'FULL' | 'RANDOMIZED' | 'AUTO' }

Description

The solver that is used to calculate the principal components.

Arguments

'FULL': Run a full eigendecomposition algorithm. In this case, the maximum allowed feature cardinality (after one-hot encoding the categoricals) is dynamically estimated. The primary factor that determines this value is the lengths of the feature names, and is irrelevant to the values of NUM_PRINCIPAL_COMPONENTS or PCA_EXPLAINED_VARIANCE_RATIO. As a guideline, this maximum-allowed-feature cardinality typically falls between 1000 to 1500. If the total feature cardinality of the input data violates the estimated maximum value, then an invalid query error is returned.

'RANDOMIZED': Run a randomized PCA algorithm. In this case, the maximum allowed feature cardinality is restricted to 10,000. If the feature cardinality of the input data is less than 10,000, then there is a dynamically determined cap on the number of principal components to compute, resulting from resource constraints.

  • If you specify NUM_PRINCIPAL_COMPONENTS, then the value must not be larger than the cap, otherwise it will result in invalid query errors.
  • If you specify PCA_EXPLAINED_VARIANCE_RATIO, then all principal components under the cap are computed. If their total explained variance ratio is less than the specified value, then they will all be returned; otherwise a subset is returned.

'AUTO': The solver is selected by a default policy based on the input data. Typically, when the feature cardinality (after one-hot encoding all the categoricals) is less than a threshold, the exact full eigendecomposition is computed. Otherwise randomized PCA is performed. The threshold is dynamically determined but typically falls between 1000 and 1500. The number of rows in the input data is not considered when in deciding the solver.

The default value is 'AUTO'

query_statement

The AS query_statement clause specifies the standard SQL query that is used to generate the training data. See the Standard SQL Query Syntax page for the supported SQL syntax of the query_statement clause.

CREATE MODEL examples

The following examples create models named mymodel in mydataset in your default project.

Training a PCA model using NUM_PRINCIPAL_COMPONENTS option.

This example creates a PCA model with four principal components.

CREATE MODEL
  `mydataset.mymodel`
OPTIONS
  ( MODEL_TYPE='PCA',
    NUM_PRINCIPAL_COMPONENTS=4 ) AS
SELECT
  *
FROM `mydataset.mytable`

Training a PCA model using PCA_EXPLAINED_VARIANCE_RATIO option.

This example creates a PCA model, where the number of principal components is selected such that the percentage of variance explained by them is greater than 0.8.

CREATE MODEL
  `mydataset.mymodel`
OPTIONS
  ( MODEL_TYPE='PCA',
    PCA_EXPLAINED_VARIANCE_RATIO=0.8 ) AS
SELECT
  *
FROM
  `mydataset.mytable`