Maximum concurrent requests per instance (services)

For Cloud Run services, each revision is automatically scaled to the number of container instances needed to handle all incoming requests.

When more container instances are processing requests, more CPU and memory will be used, resulting in higher costs.

To give you more control, Cloud Run provides a maximum concurrent requests per instance setting that specifies the maximum number of requests that can be processed simultaneously by a given container instance.

Maximum concurrent requests per instance

You can configure the maximum concurrent requests per instance. By default each Cloud Run container instance can receive up to 80 requests at the same time; you can increase this to a maximum of 1000.

Although you should use the default value, if needed you can lower the maximum concurrency. For example, if your code cannot process parallel requests, set concurrency to 1.

The specified concurrency value is a maximum and Cloud Run might not send as many requests to a given container instance if the CPU of the instance is already highly utilized.

The following diagram shows how the maximum concurrent requests per instance setting affects the number of container instances needed to handle incoming concurrent requests:

maximum concurrent requests per instance diagram

When to limit maximum concurrency to one request at a time.

You can limit concurrency so that only one request at a time will be sent to each running container instance. You should consider doing this in cases where:

  • Each request uses most of the available CPU or memory.
  • Your container image is not designed for handling multiple requests at the same time, for example, if your container relies on global state that two requests cannot share.

Note that a concurrency of 1 is likely to negatively affect scaling performance, because many container instances will have to start up to handle a spike in incoming requests.

Case study

The following metrics show a use case where 400 clients are making 3 requests per second to a Cloud Run service that is set to a maximum concurrent requests per instance of 1. The green top line shows the requests over time, the bottom blue line shows the number of container instances started to handle the requests.

Concurrency set to one

The following metrics show 400 clients making 3 requests per second to a Cloud Run service that is set to a maximum concurrent requests per instance of 80. The green top line shows the requests over time, the bottom blue line shows the number of container instances started to handle the requests. Notice that far fewer instances are needed to handle the same request volume.

Concurrency set to 80

What's next

To manage the maximum concurrent requests per instance of your Cloud Run services, see Setting maximum concurrent requests per instance.

To optimize your maximum concurrent requests per instance setting, see development tips for tuning concurrency.