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# @google-cloud/pubsub 0.25.0 » Namespace: protobuf

## Abstract types

### Duration

static

A Duration represents a signed, fixed-length span of time represented as a count of seconds and fractions of seconds at nanosecond resolution. It is independent of any calendar and concepts like "day" or "month". It is related to Timestamp in that the difference between two Timestamp values is a Duration and it can be added or subtracted from a Timestamp. Range is approximately +-10,000 years.

# Examples

Example 1: Compute Duration from two Timestamps in pseudo code.

``````Timestamp start = ...;
Timestamp end = ...;
Duration duration = ...;

duration.seconds = end.seconds - start.seconds;
duration.nanos = end.nanos - start.nanos;

if (duration.seconds < 0 && duration.nanos > 0) {
duration.seconds += 1;
duration.nanos -= 1000000000;
} else if (durations.seconds > 0 && duration.nanos < 0) {
duration.seconds -= 1;
duration.nanos += 1000000000;
}``````

Example 2: Compute Timestamp from Timestamp + Duration in pseudo code.

``````Timestamp start = ...;
Duration duration = ...;
Timestamp end = ...;

end.seconds = start.seconds + duration.seconds;
end.nanos = start.nanos + duration.nanos;

if (end.nanos < 0) {
end.seconds -= 1;
end.nanos += 1000000000;
} else if (end.nanos >= 1000000000) {
end.seconds += 1;
end.nanos -= 1000000000;
}``````

Example 3: Compute Duration from datetime.timedelta in Python.

``````td = datetime.timedelta(days=3, minutes=10)
duration = Duration()
duration.FromTimedelta(td)``````

# JSON Mapping

In JSON format, the Duration type is encoded as a string rather than an object, where the string ends in the suffix "s" (indicating seconds) and is preceded by the number of seconds, with nanoseconds expressed as fractional seconds. For example, 3 seconds with 0 nanoseconds should be encoded in JSON format as "3s", while 3 seconds and 1 nanosecond should be expressed in JSON format as "3.000000001s", and 3 seconds and 1 microsecond should be expressed in JSON format as "3.000001s".

#### Parameter

seconds

number

Signed seconds of the span of time. Must be from -315,576,000,000 to +315,576,000,000 inclusive. Note: these bounds are computed from: 60 sec/min 60 min/hr 24 hr/day 365.25 days/year 10000 years

nanos

number

Signed fractions of a second at nanosecond resolution of the span of time. Durations less than one second are represented with a 0 `seconds` field and a positive or negative `nanos` field. For durations of one second or more, a non-zero value for the `nanos` field must be of the same sign as the `seconds` field. Must be from -999,999,999 to +999,999,999 inclusive.

### Empty

static

A generic empty message that you can re-use to avoid defining duplicated empty messages in your APIs. A typical example is to use it as the request or the response type of an API method. For instance:

``````service Foo {
}``````

The JSON representation for `Empty` is empty JSON object `{}`.

static

`FieldMask` represents a set of symbolic field paths, for example:

``````paths: "f.a"
paths: "f.b.d"``````

Here `f` represents a field in some root message, `a` and `b` fields in the message found in `f`, and `d` a field found in the message in `f.b`.

Field masks are used to specify a subset of fields that should be returned by a get operation or modified by an update operation. Field masks also have a custom JSON encoding (see below).

When used in the context of a projection, a response message or sub-message is filtered by the API to only contain those fields as specified in the mask. For example, if the mask in the previous example is applied to a response message as follows:

``````f {
a : 22
b {
d : 1
x : 2
}
y : 13
}
z: 8``````

The result will not contain specific values for fields x,y and z (their value will be set to the default, and omitted in proto text output):

``````f {
a : 22
b {
d : 1
}
}``````

A repeated field is not allowed except at the last position of a paths string.

If a FieldMask object is not present in a get operation, the operation applies to all fields (as if a FieldMask of all fields had been specified).

Note that a field mask does not necessarily apply to the top-level response message. In case of a REST get operation, the field mask applies directly to the response, but in case of a REST list operation, the mask instead applies to each individual message in the returned resource list. In case of a REST custom method, other definitions may be used. Where the mask applies will be clearly documented together with its declaration in the API. In any case, the effect on the returned resource/resources is required behavior for APIs.

# Field Masks in Update Operations

A field mask in update operations specifies which fields of the targeted resource are going to be updated. The API is required to only change the values of the fields as specified in the mask and leave the others untouched. If a resource is passed in to describe the updated values, the API ignores the values of all fields not covered by the mask.

If a repeated field is specified for an update operation, the existing repeated values in the target resource will be overwritten by the new values. Note that a repeated field is only allowed in the last position of a `paths` string.

If a sub-message is specified in the last position of the field mask for an update operation, then the existing sub-message in the target resource is overwritten. Given the target message:

``````f {
b {
d : 1
x : 2
}
c : 1
}``````

And an update message:

``````f {
b {
d : 10
}
}``````

then if the field mask is:

paths: "f.b"

then the result will be:

``````f {
b {
d : 10
}
c : 1
}``````

However, if the update mask was:

paths: "f.b.d"

then the result would be:

``````f {
b {
d : 10
x : 2
}
c : 1
}``````

In order to reset a field's value to the default, the field must be in the mask and set to the default value in the provided resource. Hence, in order to reset all fields of a resource, provide a default instance of the resource and set all fields in the mask, or do not provide a mask as described below.

If a field mask is not present on update, the operation applies to all fields (as if a field mask of all fields has been specified). Note that in the presence of schema evolution, this may mean that fields the client does not know and has therefore not filled into the request will be reset to their default. If this is unwanted behavior, a specific service may require a client to always specify a field mask, producing an error if not.

As with get operations, the location of the resource which describes the updated values in the request message depends on the operation kind. In any case, the effect of the field mask is required to be honored by the API.

## Considerations for HTTP REST

The HTTP kind of an update operation which uses a field mask must be set to PATCH instead of PUT in order to satisfy HTTP semantics (PUT must only be used for full updates).

# JSON Encoding of Field Masks

In JSON, a field mask is encoded as a single string where paths are separated by a comma. Fields name in each path are converted to/from lower-camel naming conventions.

As an example, consider the following message declarations:

``````message Profile {
User user = 1;
Photo photo = 2;
}
message User {
string display_name = 1;
}``````

In proto a field mask for `Profile` may look as such:

``````mask {
paths: "user.display_name"
paths: "photo"
}``````

In JSON, the same mask is represented as below:

``````{
}``````

# Field Masks and Oneof Fields

Field masks treat fields in oneofs just as regular fields. Consider the following message:

``````message SampleMessage {
oneof test_oneof {
string name = 4;
SubMessage sub_message = 9;
}
}``````

``````mask {
paths: "name"
}``````

Or:

``````mask {
paths: "sub_message"
}``````

Note that oneof type names ("test_oneof" in this case) cannot be used in paths.

The implementation of any API method which has a FieldMask type field in the request should verify the included field paths, and return an `INVALID_ARGUMENT` error if any path is duplicated or unmappable.

#### Parameter

paths

Array of string

The set of field mask paths.

### Timestamp

static

A Timestamp represents a point in time independent of any time zone or calendar, represented as seconds and fractions of seconds at nanosecond resolution in UTC Epoch time. It is encoded using the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar which extends the Gregorian calendar backwards to year one. It is encoded assuming all minutes are 60 seconds long, i.e. leap seconds are "smeared" so that no leap second table is needed for interpretation. Range is from 0001-01-01T00:00:00Z to 9999-12-31T23:59:59.999999999Z. By restricting to that range, we ensure that we can convert to and from RFC 3339 date strings. See https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3339.txt.

# Examples

Example 1: Compute Timestamp from POSIX `time()`.

``````Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_seconds(time(NULL));
timestamp.set_nanos(0);``````

Example 2: Compute Timestamp from POSIX `gettimeofday()`.

``````struct timeval tv;
gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);

Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_seconds(tv.tv_sec);
timestamp.set_nanos(tv.tv_usec  1000);``````

Example 3: Compute Timestamp from Win32 `GetSystemTimeAsFileTime()`.

``````FILETIME ft;
GetSystemTimeAsFileTime(&ft);
UINT64 ticks = (((UINT64)ft.dwHighDateTime) << 32) | ft.dwLowDateTime;

// A Windows tick is 100 nanoseconds. Windows epoch 1601-01-01T00:00:00Z
// is 11644473600 seconds before Unix epoch 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z.
Timestamp timestamp;
timestamp.set_seconds((INT64) ((ticks / 10000000) - 11644473600LL));
timestamp.set_nanos((INT32) ((ticks % 10000000) ```` 100));````

Example 4: Compute Timestamp from Java `System.currentTimeMillis()`.

``````long millis = System.currentTimeMillis();

Timestamp timestamp = Timestamp.newBuilder().setSeconds(millis / 1000)
.setNanos((int) ((millis % 1000) * 1000000)).build();``````

Example 5: Compute Timestamp from current time in Python.

``````timestamp = Timestamp()
timestamp.GetCurrentTime()``````

# JSON Mapping

In JSON format, the Timestamp type is encoded as a string in the RFC 3339 format. That is, the format is "{year}-{month}-{day}T{hour}:{min}:{sec}[.{frac_sec}]Z" where {year} is always expressed using four digits while {month}, {day}, {hour}, {min}, and {sec} are zero-padded to two digits each. The fractional seconds, which can go up to 9 digits (i.e. up to 1 nanosecond resolution), are optional. The "Z" suffix indicates the timezone ("UTC"); the timezone is required. A proto3 JSON serializer should always use UTC (as indicated by "Z") when printing the Timestamp type and a proto3 JSON parser should be able to accept both UTC and other timezones (as indicated by an offset).

For example, "2017-01-15T01:30:15.01Z" encodes 15.01 seconds past 01:30 UTC on January 15, 2017.

In JavaScript, one can convert a Date object to this format using the standard toISOString() method. In Python, a standard `datetime.datetime` object can be converted to this format using `strftime` with the time format spec '%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S.%fZ'. Likewise, in Java, one can use the Joda Time's `ISODateTimeFormat.dateTime()` to obtain a formatter capable of generating timestamps in this format.

#### Parameter

seconds

number

Represents seconds of UTC time since Unix epoch 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z. Must be from 0001-01-01T00:00:00Z to 9999-12-31T23:59:59Z inclusive.

nanos

number

Non-negative fractions of a second at nanosecond resolution. Negative second values with fractions must still have non-negative nanos values that count forward in time. Must be from 0 to 999,999,999 inclusive.