This page describes how Cloud SQL works with MySQL users. MySQL user accounts provide security by controlling access to MySQL databases.
Why you need MySQL user accounts
MySQL user accounts enable you to log in to and administer your Cloud SQL instance. User accounts are also required for applications to access your instance.
Because Cloud SQL for MySQL is a managed service, it restricts access to certain system procedures and tables that require advanced privileges. In Cloud SQL, customers cannot create or have access to users with superuser attributes.
MySQL user account format
MySQL user accounts have two components: a user name and a host name. The user name identifies the user, and the host name specifies what hosts that user can connect from. The user name and host name are combined to create a user account:
You can specify a specific IP address or address range for host name, or use the percent character ("%") to leave the host name unrestricted. Note that if you connect to your instance using IP addresses, you must add your client IP address as an Authorized Address, even if your user's host name is unrestricted.
User accounts are defined by both the user name and the host name. For
'root'@'%' is a different user account than
Default MySQL users
MySQL instances have one default user account:
The root user account
You configure the root user account for a new instance so you can access the instance. For simplicity, the root user account is configured to connect from any host:
root user with a strong password. Because it exists on most
MySQL installations, the
root user is a common target for unauthorized access.
Any person or program that gains access to your instance has almost
unlimited access to and control over your instance and data. For help with
root user account, see Configuring the
root user account.
For MySQL for Cloud SQL First Generation:
When you create a new First Generation instance, it has two default user
There are two system users:
Used for data imports.
Used as a replication user for replicas.
You cannot delete or modify these users.
Other MySQL user accounts
You can also create other MySQL user accounts; this is a good practice because
it enables you to use different MySQL user accounts for different purposes. You
can also create a
root account with a restricted hostname, or limit privileges
for your user accounts.
For more information about user account names, see the MySQL documentation.
MySQL 5.6 and 5.7 User privileges
MySQL provides fine-grained privileges you can grant or remove for a user. This enables you to control what a user can do on your instance.
When you create a user by using the
mysql client, you
must explicitly grant that user privileges with the
For more information about the privileges supported by MySQL, see Privileges Provided by MySQL.
MySQL 8.0 user privileges (cloudsqlsuperuser)
In MySQL 8.0 for Cloud SQL, when you create a new user, the user is
automatically granted the cloudsqlsuperuser role. The cloudsqlsuperuser role is
a Cloud SQL role that contains a number of MySQL privileges. This role
gives the user all of the MySQL static privileges, except for
The cloudsqlsuperuser role only supports the following dynamic privileges:
The cloudsqlsuperuser role doesn't support any Data Definition Language (DDL) operations on the MySQL database.
To see a complete list of privileges granted to the cloudsqlsuperuser role,
statement in the
SHOW GRANTS 'cloudsqlsuperuser'