Read/write transaction

Use a read/write transaction.

Documentation pages that include this code sample

To view the code sample used in context, see the following documentation:

Code sample

C#

To learn how to install and use the client library for Cloud Spanner, see the Cloud Spanner Client Libraries.

public static async Task ReadWriteWithTransactionAsync(
    string projectId,
    string instanceId,
    string databaseId)
{
    // This sample transfers 200,000 from the MarketingBudget
    // field of the second Album to the first Album. Make sure to run
    // the addColumn and writeDataToNewColumn samples first,
    // in that order.

    string connectionString =
    $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}"
    + $"/databases/{databaseId}";

    using (TransactionScope scope = new TransactionScope(
        TransactionScopeAsyncFlowOption.Enabled))
    {
        decimal transferAmount = 200000;
        decimal secondBudget = 0;
        decimal firstBudget = 0;

        // Create connection to Cloud Spanner.
        using (var connection =
            new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
        {
            // Create statement to select the second album's data.
            var cmdLookup = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
            "SELECT * FROM Albums WHERE SingerId = 2 AND AlbumId = 2");
            // Excecute the select query.
            using (var reader = await cmdLookup.ExecuteReaderAsync())
            {
                while (await reader.ReadAsync())
                {
                    // Read the second album's budget.
                    secondBudget =
                      reader.GetFieldValue<decimal>("MarketingBudget");
                    // Confirm second Album's budget is sufficient and
                    // if not raise an exception. Raising an exception
                    // will automatically roll back the transaction.
                    if (secondBudget < transferAmount)
                    {
                        throw new Exception("The second album's "
                            + $"budget {secondBudget} "
                            + "is less than the "
                            + "amount to transfer.");
                    }
                }
            }
            // Read the first album's budget.
            cmdLookup = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
            "SELECT * FROM Albums WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1");
            using (var reader = await cmdLookup.ExecuteReaderAsync())
            {
                while (await reader.ReadAsync())
                {
                    firstBudget =
                      reader.GetFieldValue<decimal>("MarketingBudget");
                }
            }

            // Specify update command parameters.
            var cmd = connection.CreateUpdateCommand("Albums",
                new SpannerParameterCollection {
                {"SingerId", SpannerDbType.Int64},
                {"AlbumId", SpannerDbType.Int64},
                {"MarketingBudget", SpannerDbType.Int64},
            });
            // Update second album to remove the transfer amount.
            secondBudget -= transferAmount;
            cmd.Parameters["SingerId"].Value = 2;
            cmd.Parameters["AlbumId"].Value = 2;
            cmd.Parameters["MarketingBudget"].Value = secondBudget;
            await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
            // Update first album to add the transfer amount.
            firstBudget += transferAmount;
            cmd.Parameters["SingerId"].Value = 1;
            cmd.Parameters["AlbumId"].Value = 1;
            cmd.Parameters["MarketingBudget"].Value = firstBudget;
            await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
            scope.Complete();
            Console.WriteLine("Transaction complete.");
        }
    }
}

C++

To learn how to install and use the client library for Cloud Spanner, see the Cloud Spanner Client Libraries.

void ReadWriteTransaction(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;

  // A helper to read a single album MarketingBudget.
  auto get_current_budget =
      [](spanner::Client client, spanner::Transaction txn,
         std::int64_t singer_id,
         std::int64_t album_id) -> StatusOr<std::int64_t> {
    auto key = spanner::KeySet().AddKey(spanner::MakeKey(singer_id, album_id));
    auto rows = client.Read(std::move(txn), "Albums", std::move(key),
                            {"MarketingBudget"});
    using RowType = std::tuple<std::int64_t>;
    auto row = spanner::GetSingularRow(spanner::StreamOf<RowType>(rows));
    if (!row) return std::move(row).status();
    return std::get<0>(*std::move(row));
  };

  auto commit = client.Commit(
      [&client, &get_current_budget](
          spanner::Transaction const& txn) -> StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto b1 = get_current_budget(client, txn, 1, 1);
        if (!b1) return std::move(b1).status();
        auto b2 = get_current_budget(client, txn, 2, 2);
        if (!b2) return std::move(b2).status();
        std::int64_t transfer_amount = 200000;

        return spanner::Mutations{
            spanner::UpdateMutationBuilder(
                "Albums", {"SingerId", "AlbumId", "MarketingBudget"})
                .EmplaceRow(1, 1, *b1 + transfer_amount)
                .EmplaceRow(2, 2, *b2 - transfer_amount)
                .Build()};
      });

  if (!commit) throw std::runtime_error(commit.status().message());
  std::cout << "Transfer was successful [spanner_read_write_transaction]\n";
}

Go

To learn how to install and use the client library for Cloud Spanner, see the Cloud Spanner Client Libraries.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func writeWithTransaction(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		getBudget := func(key spanner.Key) (int64, error) {
			row, err := txn.ReadRow(ctx, "Albums", key, []string{"MarketingBudget"})
			if err != nil {
				return 0, err
			}
			var budget int64
			if err := row.Column(0, &budget); err != nil {
				return 0, err
			}
			return budget, nil
		}
		album2Budget, err := getBudget(spanner.Key{2, 2})
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		const transferAmt = 200000
		if album2Budget >= transferAmt {
			album1Budget, err := getBudget(spanner.Key{1, 1})
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			album1Budget += transferAmt
			album2Budget -= transferAmt
			cols := []string{"SingerId", "AlbumId", "MarketingBudget"}
			txn.BufferWrite([]*spanner.Mutation{
				spanner.Update("Albums", cols, []interface{}{1, 1, album1Budget}),
				spanner.Update("Albums", cols, []interface{}{2, 2, album2Budget}),
			})
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Moved %d from Album2's MarketingBudget to Album1's.", transferAmt)
		}
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

To learn how to install and use the client library for Cloud Spanner, see the Cloud Spanner Client Libraries.

static void writeWithTransaction(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        // Transfer marketing budget from one album to another. We do it in a transaction to
        // ensure that the transfer is atomic.
        Struct row =
            transaction.readRow("Albums", Key.of(2, 2), Arrays.asList("MarketingBudget"));
        long album2Budget = row.getLong(0);
        // Transaction will only be committed if this condition still holds at the time of
        // commit. Otherwise it will be aborted and the callable will be rerun by the
        // client library.
        long transfer = 200000;
        if (album2Budget >= transfer) {
          long album1Budget =
              transaction
                  .readRow("Albums", Key.of(1, 1), Arrays.asList("MarketingBudget"))
                  .getLong(0);
          album1Budget += transfer;
          album2Budget -= transfer;
          transaction.buffer(
              Mutation.newUpdateBuilder("Albums")
                  .set("SingerId")
                  .to(1)
                  .set("AlbumId")
                  .to(1)
                  .set("MarketingBudget")
                  .to(album1Budget)
                  .build());
          transaction.buffer(
              Mutation.newUpdateBuilder("Albums")
                  .set("SingerId")
                  .to(2)
                  .set("AlbumId")
                  .to(2)
                  .set("MarketingBudget")
                  .to(album2Budget)
                  .build());
        }
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

To learn how to install and use the client library for Cloud Spanner, see the Cloud Spanner Client Libraries.

// This sample transfers 200,000 from the MarketingBudget field
// of the second Album to the first Album, as long as the second
// Album has enough money in its budget. Make sure to run the
// addColumn and updateData samples first (in that order).

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

const transferAmount = 200000;

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  let firstBudget, secondBudget;
  const queryOne = {
    columns: ['MarketingBudget'],
    keys: [[2, 2]], // SingerId: 2, AlbumId: 2
  };

  const queryTwo = {
    columns: ['MarketingBudget'],
    keys: [[1, 1]], // SingerId: 1, AlbumId: 1
  };

  Promise.all([
    // Reads the second album's budget
    transaction.read('Albums', queryOne).then(results => {
      // Gets second album's budget
      const rows = results[0].map(row => row.toJSON());
      secondBudget = rows[0].MarketingBudget;
      console.log(`The second album's marketing budget: ${secondBudget}`);

      // Makes sure the second album's budget is large enough
      if (secondBudget < transferAmount) {
        throw new Error(
          `The second album's budget (${secondBudget}) is less than the transfer amount (${transferAmount}).`
        );
      }
    }),

    // Reads the first album's budget
    transaction.read('Albums', queryTwo).then(results => {
      // Gets first album's budget
      const rows = results[0].map(row => row.toJSON());
      firstBudget = rows[0].MarketingBudget;
      console.log(`The first album's marketing budget: ${firstBudget}`);
    }),
  ])
    .then(() => {
      console.log(firstBudget, secondBudget);
      // Transfers the budgets between the albums
      firstBudget += transferAmount;
      secondBudget -= transferAmount;

      console.log(firstBudget, secondBudget);

      // Updates the database
      // Note: Cloud Spanner interprets Node.js numbers as FLOAT64s, so they
      // must be converted (back) to strings before being inserted as INT64s.
      transaction.update('Albums', [
        {
          SingerId: '1',
          AlbumId: '1',
          MarketingBudget: firstBudget.toString(),
        },
        {
          SingerId: '2',
          AlbumId: '2',
          MarketingBudget: secondBudget.toString(),
        },
      ]);
    })
    .then(() => {
      // Commits the transaction and send the changes to the database
      return transaction.commit();
    })
    .then(() => {
      console.log(
        `Successfully executed read-write transaction to transfer ${transferAmount} from Album 2 to Album 1.`
      );
    })
    .catch(err => {
      console.error('ERROR:', err);
    })
    .then(() => {
      transaction.end();
      // Closes the database when finished
      return database.close();
    });
});

PHP

To learn how to install and use the client library for Cloud Spanner, see the Cloud Spanner Client Libraries.

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;
use UnexpectedValueException;

/**
 * Performs a read-write transaction to update two sample records in the
 * database.
 *
 * This will transfer 200,000 from the `MarketingBudget` field for the second
 * Album to the first Album. If the `MarketingBudget` for the second Album is
 * too low, it will raise an exception.
 *
 * Before running this sample, you will need to run the `update_data` sample
 * to populate the fields.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * read_write_transaction($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function read_write_transaction($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $transferAmount = 200000;

        // Read the second album's budget.
        $secondAlbumKey = [2, 2];
        $secondAlbumKeySet = $spanner->keySet(['keys' => [$secondAlbumKey]]);
        $secondAlbumResult = $t->read(
            'Albums',
            $secondAlbumKeySet,
            ['MarketingBudget'],
            ['limit' => 1]
        );

        $firstRow = $secondAlbumResult->rows()->current();
        $secondAlbumBudget = $firstRow['MarketingBudget'];
        if ($secondAlbumBudget < $transferAmount) {
            // Throwing an exception will automatically roll back the transaction.
            throw new UnexpectedValueException(
                'The second album\'s budget is lower than the transfer amount: ' . $transferAmount
            );
        }

        $firstAlbumKey = [1, 1];
        $firstAlbumKeySet = $spanner->keySet(['keys' => [$firstAlbumKey]]);
        $firstAlbumResult = $t->read(
            'Albums',
            $firstAlbumKeySet,
            ['MarketingBudget'],
            ['limit' => 1]
        );

        // Read the first album's budget.
        $firstRow = $firstAlbumResult->rows()->current();
        $firstAlbumBudget = $firstRow['MarketingBudget'];

        // Update the budgets.
        $secondAlbumBudget -= $transferAmount;
        $firstAlbumBudget += $transferAmount;
        printf('Setting first album\'s budget to %s and the second album\'s ' .
            'budget to %s.' . PHP_EOL, $firstAlbumBudget, $secondAlbumBudget);

        // Update the rows.
        $t->updateBatch('Albums', [
            ['SingerId' => 1, 'AlbumId' => 1, 'MarketingBudget' => $firstAlbumBudget],
            ['SingerId' => 2, 'AlbumId' => 2, 'MarketingBudget' => $secondAlbumBudget],
        ]);

        // Commit the transaction!
        $t->commit();

        print('Transaction complete.' . PHP_EOL);
    });
}

Python

To learn how to install and use the client library for Cloud Spanner, see the Cloud Spanner Client Libraries.

def read_write_transaction(instance_id, database_id):
    """Performs a read-write transaction to update two sample records in the
    database.

    This will transfer 200,000 from the `MarketingBudget` field for the second
    Album to the first Album. If the `MarketingBudget` is too low, it will
    raise an exception.

    Before running this sample, you will need to run the `update_data` sample
    to populate the fields.
    """
    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    def update_albums(transaction):
        # Read the second album budget.
        second_album_keyset = spanner.KeySet(keys=[(2, 2)])
        second_album_result = transaction.read(
            table="Albums",
            columns=("MarketingBudget",),
            keyset=second_album_keyset,
            limit=1,
        )
        second_album_row = list(second_album_result)[0]
        second_album_budget = second_album_row[0]

        transfer_amount = 200000

        if second_album_budget < transfer_amount:
            # Raising an exception will automatically roll back the
            # transaction.
            raise ValueError("The second album doesn't have enough funds to transfer")

        # Read the first album's budget.
        first_album_keyset = spanner.KeySet(keys=[(1, 1)])
        first_album_result = transaction.read(
            table="Albums",
            columns=("MarketingBudget",),
            keyset=first_album_keyset,
            limit=1,
        )
        first_album_row = list(first_album_result)[0]
        first_album_budget = first_album_row[0]

        # Update the budgets.
        second_album_budget -= transfer_amount
        first_album_budget += transfer_amount
        print(
            "Setting first album's budget to {} and the second album's "
            "budget to {}.".format(first_album_budget, second_album_budget)
        )

        # Update the rows.
        transaction.update(
            table="Albums",
            columns=("SingerId", "AlbumId", "MarketingBudget"),
            values=[(1, 1, first_album_budget), (2, 2, second_album_budget)],
        )

    database.run_in_transaction(update_albums)

    print("Transaction complete.")

Ruby

To learn how to install and use the client library for Cloud Spanner, see the Cloud Spanner Client Libraries.

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner         = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client          = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
transfer_amount = 200_000

client.transaction do |transaction|
  first_album  = transaction.read("Albums", [:MarketingBudget], keys: [[1, 1]]).rows.first
  second_album = transaction.read("Albums", [:MarketingBudget], keys: [[2, 2]]).rows.first

  raise "The second album does not have enough funds to transfer" if second_album[:MarketingBudget] < transfer_amount

  new_first_album_budget  = first_album[:MarketingBudget] + transfer_amount
  new_second_album_budget = second_album[:MarketingBudget] - transfer_amount

  transaction.update "Albums", [
    { SingerId: 1, AlbumId: 1, MarketingBudget: new_first_album_budget  },
    { SingerId: 2, AlbumId: 2, MarketingBudget: new_second_album_budget }
  ]
end

puts "Transaction complete"

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