Nachrichten des Avro-Schematyps veröffentlichen

Veröffentlichen Sie Nachrichten, die einem Avro-Schema entsprechen, in einem Thema mit einem angehängten Avro-Schema.

Dokumentationsseiten mit diesem Codebeispiel

Das Codebeispiel im Kontext finden Sie in der folgenden Dokumentation:

Codebeispiel

C#

Lesen Sie unter Pub/Sub-Kurzanleitung: Clientbibliotheken verwenden die Anleitung für die Einrichtung von C#, bevor Sie dieses Beispiel ausprobieren. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zu Pub/Sub C# API.


using Avro.IO;
using Avro.Specific;
using Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1;
using Newtonsoft.Json;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class PublishAvroMessagesAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> PublishAvroMessagesAsync(string projectId, string topicId, IEnumerable<AvroUtilities.State> messageStates)
    {
        TopicName topicName = TopicName.FromProjectTopic(projectId, topicId);
        PublisherClient publisher = await PublisherClient.CreateAsync(topicName);

        PublisherServiceApiClient publishApi = PublisherServiceApiClient.Create();
        var topic = publishApi.GetTopic(topicName);

        int publishedMessageCount = 0;
        var publishTasks = messageStates.Select(async state =>
        {

            try
            {
                string messageId = null;
                switch (topic.SchemaSettings.Encoding)
                {
                    case Encoding.Binary:
                        using (var ms = new MemoryStream())
                        {
                            var encoder = new BinaryEncoder(ms);
                            var writer = new SpecificDefaultWriter(state.Schema);
                            writer.Write(state, encoder);
                            messageId = await publisher.PublishAsync(ms.ToArray());
                        }
                        break;
                    case Encoding.Json:
                        var jsonMessage = AvroUtilities.StateUtils.StateToJsonString(state);
                        messageId = await publisher.PublishAsync(jsonMessage);
                        break;
                }
                Console.WriteLine($"Published message {messageId}");
                Interlocked.Increment(ref publishedMessageCount);
            }
            catch (Exception exception)
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"An error ocurred when publishing message {state}: {exception.Message}");
            }
        });
        await Task.WhenAll(publishTasks);
        return publishedMessageCount;
    }
}

C++

Lesen Sie unter Pub/Sub-Kurzanleitung: Clientbibliotheken verwenden die Anleitung für die Einrichtung von C++, bevor Sie dieses Beispiel ausprobieren. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Pub/Sub C++ API-Referenzdokumentation.

namespace pubsub = ::google::cloud::pubsub;
using ::google::cloud::future;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](pubsub::Publisher publisher) {
  auto constexpr kNewYork =
      R"js({ "name": "New York", "post_abbr": "NY" })js";
  auto constexpr kPennsylvania =
      R"js({ "name": "Pennsylvania", "post_abbr": "PA" })js";
  std::vector<future<void>> done;
  auto handler = [](future<StatusOr<std::string>> f) {
    auto id = f.get();
    if (!id) throw std::runtime_error(id.status().message());
  };
  for (auto const* data : {kNewYork, kPennsylvania}) {
    done.push_back(
        publisher.Publish(pubsub::MessageBuilder{}.SetData(data).Build())
            .then(handler));
  }
  // Block until all messages are published.
  for (auto& d : done) d.get();
}

Go

Lesen Sie unter Pub/Sub-Kurzanleitung: Clientbibliotheken verwenden die Anleitung für die Einrichtung von Go, bevor Sie dieses Beispiel ausprobieren. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zu Pub/Sub Go API.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"io/ioutil"

	"cloud.google.com/go/pubsub"
	"github.com/linkedin/goavro/v2"
)

func publishAvroRecords(w io.Writer, projectID, topicID, avscFile string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// topicID := "my-topic"
	// avscFile = "path/to/an/avro/schema/file(.avsc)/formatted/in/json"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := pubsub.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("pubsub.NewClient: %v", err)
	}

	avroSource, err := ioutil.ReadFile(avscFile)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("ioutil.ReadFile err: %v", err)
	}
	codec, err := goavro.NewCodec(string(avroSource))
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("goavro.NewCodec err: %v", err)
	}
	record := map[string]interface{}{"name": "Alaska", "post_abbr": "AK"}

	// Get the topic encoding type.
	t := client.Topic(topicID)
	cfg, err := t.Config(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("topic.Config err: %v", err)
	}
	encoding := cfg.SchemaSettings.Encoding

	var msg []byte
	switch encoding {
	case pubsub.EncodingBinary:
		msg, err = codec.BinaryFromNative(nil, record)
		if err != nil {
			return fmt.Errorf("codec.BinaryFromNative err: %v", err)
		}
	case pubsub.EncodingJSON:
		msg, err = codec.TextualFromNative(nil, record)
		if err != nil {
			return fmt.Errorf("codec.TextualFromNative err: %v", err)
		}
	default:
		return fmt.Errorf("invalid encoding: %v", encoding)
	}

	result := t.Publish(ctx, &pubsub.Message{
		Data: msg,
	})
	_, err = result.Get(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("result.Get: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Published avro record: %s\n", string(msg))
	return nil
}

Java

Lesen Sie unter Pub/Sub-Kurzanleitung: Clientbibliotheken verwenden die Anleitung für die Einrichtung von Java, bevor Sie dieses Beispiel ausprobieren. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zu Pub/Sub Java API.


import com.google.api.core.ApiFuture;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Publisher;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.TopicAdminClient;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.Encoding;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.TopicName;
import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import org.apache.avro.io.Encoder;
import org.apache.avro.io.EncoderFactory;
import utilities.State;

public class PublishAvroRecordsExample {

  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    // Use a topic created with an Avro schema.
    String topicId = "your-topic-id";

    publishAvroRecordsExample(projectId, topicId);
  }

  public static void publishAvroRecordsExample(String projectId, String topicId)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

    Encoding encoding = null;

    TopicName topicName = TopicName.of(projectId, topicId);

    // Get the topic encoding type.
    try (TopicAdminClient topicAdminClient = TopicAdminClient.create()) {
      encoding = topicAdminClient.getTopic(topicName).getSchemaSettings().getEncoding();
    }

    // Instantiate an avro-tools-generated class defined in `us-states.avsc`.
    State state = State.newBuilder().setName("Alaska").setPostAbbr("AK").build();

    Publisher publisher = null;

    block:
    try {
      publisher = Publisher.newBuilder(topicName).build();

      // Prepare to serialize the object to the output stream.
      ByteArrayOutputStream byteStream = new ByteArrayOutputStream();

      Encoder encoder = null;

      // Prepare an appropriate encoder for publishing to the topic.
      switch (encoding) {
        case BINARY:
          System.out.println("Preparing a BINARY encoder...");
          encoder = EncoderFactory.get().directBinaryEncoder(byteStream, /*reuse=*/ null);
          break;

        case JSON:
          System.out.println("Preparing a JSON encoder...");
          encoder = EncoderFactory.get().jsonEncoder(State.getClassSchema(), byteStream);
          break;

        default:
          break block;
      }

      // Encode the object and write it to the output stream.
      state.customEncode(encoder);
      encoder.flush();

      // Publish the encoded object as a Pub/Sub message.
      ByteString data = ByteString.copyFrom(byteStream.toByteArray());
      PubsubMessage message = PubsubMessage.newBuilder().setData(data).build();
      System.out.println("Publishing message: " + message);

      ApiFuture<String> future = publisher.publish(message);
      System.out.println("Published message ID: " + future.get());

    } finally {
      if (publisher != null) {
        publisher.shutdown();
        publisher.awaitTermination(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
      }
    }
  }
}

Node.js

Lesen Sie unter Pub/Sub-Kurzanleitung: Clientbibliotheken verwenden die Anleitung für die Einrichtung von Node.js, bevor Sie dieses Beispiel ausprobieren. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zu Pub/Sub Node.js API.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment this variable before running the sample.
 */
// const topicName = 'YOUR_TOPIC_NAME';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {PubSub, Encodings} = require('@google-cloud/pubsub');

// And the Apache Avro library
const avro = require('avro-js');
const fs = require('fs');

// Creates a client; cache this for further use
const pubSubClient = new PubSub();

async function publishAvroRecords(topicName) {
  // Get the topic metadata to learn about its schema encoding.
  const topic = pubSubClient.topic(topicName);
  const [topicMetadata] = await topic.getMetadata();
  const topicSchemaMetadata = topicMetadata.schemaSettings;

  if (!topicSchemaMetadata) {
    console.log(`Topic ${topicName} doesn't seem to have a schema.`);
    return;
  }
  const schemaEncoding = topicSchemaMetadata.encoding;

  // Make an encoder using the official avro-js library.
  const definition = fs
    .readFileSync('system-test/fixtures/provinces.avsc')
    .toString();
  const type = avro.parse(definition);

  // Encode the message.
  const province = {
    name: 'Ontario',
    post_abbr: 'ON',
  };
  let dataBuffer;
  switch (schemaEncoding) {
    case Encodings.Binary:
      dataBuffer = type.toBuffer(province);
      break;
    case Encodings.Json:
      dataBuffer = Buffer.from(type.toString(province));
      break;
    default:
      console.log(`Unknown schema encoding: ${schemaEncoding}`);
      break;
  }
  if (!dataBuffer) {
    console.log(`Invalid encoding ${schemaEncoding} on the topic.`);
    return;
  }

  const messageId = await topic.publish(dataBuffer);
  console.log(`Avro record ${messageId} published.`);
}

PHP

Lesen Sie unter Pub/Sub-Kurzanleitung: Clientbibliotheken verwenden die Anleitung für die Einrichtung von PHP, bevor Sie dieses Beispiel ausprobieren. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zur PHP-API von Pub/Sub.

use Google\Cloud\PubSub\PubSubClient;
use Google\Cloud\PubSub\V1\Encoding;

use AvroStringIO;
use AvroSchema;
use AvroIODatumWriter;
use AvroDataIOWriter;

/**
 * Publish a message using an AVRO schema.
 *
 * This sample uses `wikimedia/avro` for AVRO encoding.
 *
 * @param string $projectId
 * @param string $topicId
 * @param string $definitionFile
 * @return void
 */
function publish_avro_records($projectId, $topicId, $definitionFile)
{
    $pubsub = new PubSubClient([
        'projectId' => $projectId,
    ]);

    $definition = file_get_contents($definitionFile);

    $messageData = [
        'name' => 'Alaska',
        'post_abbr' => 'AK',
    ];

    $topic = $pubsub->topic($topicId);

    // get the encoding type.
    $topicInfo = $topic->info();
    $encoding = '';
    if (isset($topicInfo['schemaSettings']['encoding'])) {
        $encoding = $topicInfo['schemaSettings']['encoding'];
    }

    // if encoding is not set, we can't continue.
    if ($encoding === '') {
        printf('Topic %s does not have schema enabled', $topicId);
        return;
    }

    // If you are using gRPC, encoding may be an integer corresponding to an
    // enum value on Google\Cloud\PubSub\V1\Encoding.
    if (!is_string($encoding)) {
        $encoding = Encoding::name($encoding);
    }

    $encodedMessageData = '';
    if ($encoding == 'BINARY') {
        // encode as AVRO binary.
        $io = new AvroStringIO();
        $schema = AvroSchema::parse($definition);
        $writer = new AvroIODatumWriter($schema);
        $dataWriter = new AvroDataIOWriter($io, $writer, $schema);

        $dataWriter->append($messageData);

        $dataWriter->close();

        // AVRO binary data must be base64-encoded.
        $encodedMessageData = base64_encode($io->string());
    } else {
        // encode as JSON.
        $encodedMessageData = json_encode($messageData);
    }

    $topic->publish(['data' => $encodedMessageData]);

    printf('Published message with %s encoding', $encoding);
}

Python

Lesen Sie unter Pub/Sub-Kurzanleitung: Clientbibliotheken verwenden die Anleitung für die Einrichtung von Python, bevor Sie dieses Beispiel ausprobieren. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zu Pub/Sub Python API.

from avro.io import BinaryEncoder, DatumWriter
import avro
import io
import json
from google.api_core.exceptions import NotFound
from google.cloud.pubsub import PublisherClient
from google.pubsub_v1.types import Encoding

# TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
# project_id = "your-project-id"
# topic_id = "your-topic-id"
# avsc_file = "path/to/an/avro/schema/file/(.avsc)/formatted/in/json"

publisher_client = PublisherClient()
topic_path = publisher_client.topic_path(project_id, topic_id)

# Prepare to write Avro records to the binary output stream.
avro_schema = avro.schema.parse(open(avsc_file, "rb").read())
writer = DatumWriter(avro_schema)
bout = io.BytesIO()

# Prepare some data using a Python dictionary that matches the Avro schema
record = {"name": "Alaska", "post_abbr": "AK"}

try:
    # Get the topic encoding type.
    topic = publisher_client.get_topic(request={"topic": topic_path})
    encoding = topic.schema_settings.encoding

    # Encode the data according to the message serialization type.
    if encoding == Encoding.BINARY:
        encoder = BinaryEncoder(bout)
        writer.write(record, encoder)
        data = bout.getvalue()
        print(f"Preparing a binary-encoded message:\n{data}")
    elif encoding == Encoding.JSON:
        data = json.dumps(record).encode("utf-8")
        print(f"Preparing a JSON-encoded message:\n{data}")
    else:
        print(f"No encoding specified in {topic_path}. Abort.")
        exit(0)

    future = publisher_client.publish(topic_path, data)
    print(f"Published message ID: {future.result()}")

except NotFound:
    print(f"{topic_id} not found.")

Ruby

Lesen Sie unter Pub/Sub-Kurzanleitung: Clientbibliotheken verwenden die Anleitung für die Einrichtung von Ruby, bevor Sie dieses Beispiel ausprobieren. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zu Pub/Sub Ruby API.

# topic_id = "your-topic-id"
# avsc_file = "path/to/an/avro/schema/file/(.avsc)/formatted/in/json"
require "google/cloud/pubsub"

pubsub = Google::Cloud::Pubsub.new

topic = pubsub.topic topic_id

record = { "name" => "Alaska", "post_abbr" => "AK" }

if topic.message_encoding_binary?
  require "avro"
  avro_schema = Avro::Schema.parse File.read(avsc_file)
  writer = Avro::IO::DatumWriter.new avro_schema
  buffer = StringIO.new
  encoder = Avro::IO::BinaryEncoder.new buffer
  writer.write record, encoder
  topic.publish buffer
  puts "Published binary-encoded AVRO message."
elsif topic.message_encoding_json?
  require "json"
  topic.publish record.to_json
  puts "Published JSON-encoded AVRO message."
else
  raise "No encoding specified in #{topic.name}."
end

Nächste Schritte

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