Publish messages of protobuf schema type

Publish messages that conform to a protocol buffer schema to a topic with a protocol buffer schema attached.

Documentation pages that include this code sample

To view the code sample used in context, see the following documentation:

Code sample

C++

Before trying this sample, follow the C++ setup instructions in the Pub/Sub Quickstart Using Client Libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub C++ API reference documentation.

namespace pubsub = google::cloud::pubsub;
using google::cloud::future;
using google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](pubsub::Publisher publisher) {
  std::vector<std::pair<std::string, std::string>> states{
      {"New York", "NY"},
      {"Pennsylvania", "PA"},
  };
  std::vector<future<void>> done;
  auto handler = [](future<StatusOr<std::string>> f) {
    auto id = f.get();
    if (!id) throw std::runtime_error(id.status().message());
  };
  for (auto const& data : states) {
    google::cloud::pubsub::samples::State state;
    state.set_name(data.first);
    state.set_post_abbr(data.second);
    done.push_back(publisher
                       .Publish(pubsub::MessageBuilder{}
                                    .SetData(state.SerializeAsString())
                                    .Build())
                       .then(handler));
  }
  // Block until all messages are published.
  for (auto& d : done) d.get();
}

Java

Before trying this sample, follow the Java setup instructions in the Pub/Sub Quickstart Using Client Libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Java API reference documentation.


import com.google.api.core.ApiFuture;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Publisher;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.TopicAdminClient;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.protobuf.util.JsonFormat;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.Encoding;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.TopicName;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import utilities.StateProto.State;

public class PublishProtobufMessagesExample {

  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    // Use a topic created with a proto schema.
    String topicId = "your-topic-id";

    publishProtobufMessagesExample(projectId, topicId);
  }

  public static void publishProtobufMessagesExample(String projectId, String topicId)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

    Encoding encoding = null;

    TopicName topicName = TopicName.of(projectId, topicId);

    // Get the topic encoding type.
    try (TopicAdminClient topicAdminClient = TopicAdminClient.create()) {
      encoding = topicAdminClient.getTopic(topicName).getSchemaSettings().getEncoding();
    }

    Publisher publisher = null;

    // Instantiate a protoc-generated class defined in `us-states.proto`.
    State state = State.newBuilder().setName("Alaska").setPostAbbr("AK").build();

    block:
    try {
      publisher = Publisher.newBuilder(topicName).build();

      PubsubMessage.Builder message = PubsubMessage.newBuilder();

      // Prepare an appropriately formatted message based on topic encoding.
      switch (encoding) {
        case BINARY:
          message.setData(state.toByteString());
          System.out.println("Publishing a BINARY-formatted message:\n" + message);
          break;

        case JSON:
          String jsonString = JsonFormat.printer().omittingInsignificantWhitespace().print(state);
          message.setData(ByteString.copyFromUtf8(jsonString));
          System.out.println("Publishing a JSON-formatted message:\n" + message);
          break;

        default:
          break block;
      }

      // Publish the message.
      ApiFuture<String> future = publisher.publish(message.build());
      System.out.println("Published message ID: " + future.get());

    } finally {
      if (publisher != null) {
        publisher.shutdown();
        publisher.awaitTermination(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
      }
    }
  }
}

Python

Before trying this sample, follow the Python setup instructions in the Pub/Sub Quickstart Using Client Libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Python API reference documentation.

from google.api_core.exceptions import NotFound
from google.cloud.pubsub import PublisherClient
from google.protobuf.json_format import MessageToJson
from google.pubsub_v1.types import Encoding

from utilities import us_states_pb2

# TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
# project_id = "your-project-id"
# topic_id = "your-topic-id"

publisher_client = PublisherClient()
topic_path = publisher_client.topic_path(project_id, topic_id)

try:
    # Get the topic encoding type.
    topic = publisher_client.get_topic(request={"topic": topic_path})
    encoding = topic.schema_settings.encoding

    # Instantiate a protoc-generated class defined in `us-states.proto`.
    state = us_states_pb2.StateProto()
    state.name = "Alaska"
    state.post_abbr = "AK"

    # Encode the data according to the message serialization type.
    if encoding == Encoding.BINARY:
        data = state.SerializeToString()
        print(f"Preparing a binary-encoded message:\n{data}")
    elif encoding == Encoding.JSON:
        json_object = MessageToJson(state)
        data = str(json_object).encode("utf-8")
        print(f"Preparing a JSON-encoded message:\n{data}")
    else:
        print(f"No encoding specified in {topic_path}. Abort.")
        exit(0)

    future = publisher_client.publish(topic_path, data)
    print(f"Published message ID: {future.result()}")

except NotFound:
    print(f"{topic_id} not found.")

Ruby

Before trying this sample, follow the Ruby setup instructions in the Pub/Sub Quickstart Using Client Libraries. For more information, see the Pub/Sub Ruby API reference documentation.

# topic_id = "your-topic-id"
require "google/cloud/pubsub"
require_relative "utilities/us-states_pb"

pubsub = Google::Cloud::Pubsub.new

topic = pubsub.topic topic_id

state = Utilities::StateProto.new name: "Alaska", post_abbr: "AK"

if topic.message_encoding_binary?
  topic.publish Utilities::StateProto.encode(state)
  puts "Published binary-encoded protobuf message."
elsif topic.message_encoding_json?
  topic.publish Utilities::StateProto.encode_json(state)
  puts "Published JSON-encoded protobuf message."
else
  raise "No encoding specified in #{topic.name}."
end

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