Google Cloud Deploy is a managed service that automates delivery of your applications to a series of target environments in a defined promotion sequence. When you want to deploy your updated application, you create a release, whose lifecycle is managed by a delivery pipeline.
How a Google Cloud Deploy pipeline works
The Google Cloud Deploy delivery pipeline contains the following information:
A name, which you use when referring to the delivery pipeline, and a description.
The promotion sequence, describing the order in which to deploy to the configured targets.
Optionally, labels and annotations.
Also optionally, the target definitions themselves.
Targets can be defined in the same delivery pipeline configuration file, or in one or more separate files. Multiple delivery pipelines can use the same target or targets, but a given target can be used only once in a given delivery pipeline.
The Google Cloud Deploy delivery process
The following is a description of what happens in a simple Google Cloud Deploy continuous delivery scenario.
This configuration file defines the promotion sequence in which to deploy your application to a series of targets.
You define your targets, either in the pipeline configuration file or in a separate file or files.
You register your pipeline with the Google Cloud Deploy service.
Now that the service knows about your application, it manages the deployment to targets according to your defined promotion sequence.
The output of your CI process includes a call to Google Cloud Deploy to initiate your delivery pipeline.
This call creates a
releaseresource, representing the rendered manifest for each target, each of which is generated using the provided rendering source, skaffold.yaml, and references to specific container images to deploy. For this first call to create a release, Google Cloud Deploy automatically creates a
rolloutresource, which associates the release with the first target environment. Based on that rollout, your application is deployed to the first target.
You can use any CI tool as long as it outputs one or more container images to provide to your Google Cloud Deploy delivery pipeline.
Furthermore, the call to create a release and invoke a delivery pipeline doesn't have to come from the CI tool. It can come from a script or any system responding to completion of the CI process.
When you're ready to deploy your application to the next target, you call Google Cloud Deploy to promote it.
In each case, the call to invoke the promotion causes Google Cloud Deploy to create a new rollout.
Promotion continues through all targets in your promotion sequence, the last of which is
prod(or whatever name you use for your final target to put the application into production).
The process of release creation and promotion is described in more detail in Google Cloud Deploy service architecture.
Throughout pipeline execution, Google Cloud Deploy collects metrics and audit details.
To promote a release
is to deploy it to the next target in the promotion sequence defined in your
pipeline. The first call to Google Cloud Deploy creates a
release, then a
rollout resource that's used to deploy to the first target in the promotion
sequence. Each subsequent call to promote the release results in a rollout to
the next target.
You can specify that an approval is needed for promotion to any target. For
example, you might want to require approval for promotion into a production
target. To require approval for a target, set the
requireApproval property in
the target definition.
When a target requires approval, Google Cloud Deploy generates a Pub/Sub message that can be consumed by an integrated system (such as a ticketing system) subscribing to that message.
See Require approval for more information on promotions and managing approval for promotions.
Google Cloud Deploy provides Pub/Sub notifications for the following events:
- Render: start, success, and failure
- Deploy: start, success, and failure
- Approval required
- Approval approved
- Approval rejected
Google Cloud Deploy uses a Pub/Sub topic to send these notifications.
See Using notifications with your pipeline for more details.
Google Cloud Deploy supports rolling back your deployed application in any target. A rollback in Google Cloud Deploy consists of triggering a rollout against the last successfully deployed release, using the same parameters that were used in that successful deployment.
See Rolling back a deployment for more details.
About Skaffold and Google Cloud Deploy
Google Cloud Deploy uses Skaffold to separate rendering tools from the delivery pipeline. This makes manifest rendering more flexible without affecting how you define your delivery pipeline. You can use Skaffold to easily configure a local development workspace to use with Google Cloud Deploy's continuous delivery pipelines.
See the Skaffold Quickstart to learn the basics.
Google Cloud Deploy with other Google Cloud tools
Google Cloud Deploy supports almost any tool upstream in a CI/CD pipeline. That is, you can use any development environment and source code repository, any continuous integration (CI) system, and any artifact repository.
Downstream, Google Cloud Deploy deploys to Google Kubernetes Engine only.
If you were to use mostly Google Cloud tools, your source-to-prod flow would look like this:
Use Cloud Code to create your application source.
Cloud Code extends several popular IDEs (VS Code, IntelliJ, Cloud Shell) to make it easier to build applications to deploy and run on Google Cloud.
Use Skaffold to manage your local development loop.
Google Cloud Deploy uses Skaffold, through Cloud Build, to render and deploy your manifests. This means that you need to maintain a
skaffold.yamlfile, but does not otherwise mean you need to make Skaffold part of your local development flow. But you can take advantage of it for continuous development.
Build your application using Cloud Build.
Cloud Build lets you set up a CI pipeline that can be triggered from a commit to your source code repository. The output from Cloud Build will be artifacts including deployable container images. You can add a call to Google Cloud Deploy to create a release and invoke your delivery pipeline.
Store your artifacts in Artifact Registry.
Google Cloud Deploy retrieves the container image or images from Artifact Registry, which lets you centrally store artifacts and dependencies.
Configure your delivery pipeline in Google Cloud Deploy to take the container image and deploy it in a progression of n targets.
Each of those targets identified in your delivery pipeline represents a GKE cluster or Anthos cluster where your application is ultimately deployed.
Manage your application on GKE or Anthos.
GKE is the Google Cloud managed environment for running containerized applications on Kubernetes.
Anthos provides a consistent development and operations experience for cloud and on-premises environments.
Monitor your application's performance using Google Cloud's operations suite.
Google Cloud's operations suite offers integrated monitoring and logging for your application.
For a quick-and-easy look at how to create a delivery pipeline and use it to deploy an application, try the quickstart.
Try out the Google Cloud Deploy walkthrough.
Learn more about how Google Cloud Deploy components work together.
Review Google Cloud Architecture Framework: Operational excellence for articles on how to use the principles of operational excellence to build an automated delivery foundation.