Ajouter une colonne à l'aide d'une tâche de requête

Restez organisé à l'aide des collections Enregistrez et classez les contenus selon vos préférences.

Ajoutez une colonne à une table BigQuery lors de l'ajout de lignes via une tâche de requête incluant une table de destination explicite.

En savoir plus

Pour obtenir une documentation détaillée incluant cet exemple de code, consultez les articles suivants :

Exemple de code

Go

Avant d'essayer cet exemple, suivez les instructions de configuration pour Go du guide de démarrage rapide de BigQuery : Utiliser les bibliothèques clientes. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la documentation de référence de l'API BigQuery pour Go.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"

	"cloud.google.com/go/bigquery"
)

// createTableAndWidenQuery demonstrates how the schema of a table can be modified to add columns by appending
// query results that include the new columns.
func createTableAndWidenQuery(projectID, datasetID, tableID string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// datasetID := "mydataset"
	// tableID := "mytable"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := bigquery.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("bigquery.NewClient: %w", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// First, we create a sample table.
	sampleSchema := bigquery.Schema{
		{Name: "full_name", Type: bigquery.StringFieldType, Required: true},
		{Name: "age", Type: bigquery.IntegerFieldType, Required: true},
	}
	original := &bigquery.TableMetadata{
		Schema: sampleSchema,
	}
	tableRef := client.Dataset(datasetID).Table(tableID)
	if err := tableRef.Create(ctx, original); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	// Our table has two columns.  We'll introduce a new favorite_color column via
	// a subsequent query that appends to the table.
	q := client.Query("SELECT \"Timmy\" as full_name, 85 as age, \"Blue\" as favorite_color")
	q.SchemaUpdateOptions = []string{"ALLOW_FIELD_ADDITION"}
	q.QueryConfig.Dst = client.Dataset(datasetID).Table(tableID)
	q.WriteDisposition = bigquery.WriteAppend
	q.Location = "US"
	job, err := q.Run(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	_, err = job.Wait(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	return nil
}

Node.js

Avant d'essayer cet exemple, suivez les instructions de configuration pour Node.js du guide de démarrage rapide de BigQuery : Utiliser les bibliothèques clientes. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la documentation de référence de l'API BigQuery pour Node.js.

// Import the Google Cloud client libraries
const {BigQuery} = require('@google-cloud/bigquery');

// Instantiate client
const bigquery = new BigQuery();

async function addColumnQueryAppend() {
  // Adds a new column to a BigQuery table while appending rows via a query job.

  /**
   * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
   */
  // const datasetId = 'my_dataset';
  // const tableId = 'my_table';

  // Retrieve destination table reference
  const [table] = await bigquery
    .dataset(datasetId)
    .table(tableId)
    .get();
  const destinationTableRef = table.metadata.tableReference;

  // In this example, the existing table contains only the 'name' column.
  // 'REQUIRED' fields cannot  be added to an existing schema,
  // so the additional column must be 'NULLABLE'.
  const query = `SELECT name, year
    FROM \`bigquery-public-data.usa_names.usa_1910_2013\`
    WHERE state = 'TX'
    LIMIT 10`;

  // Set load job options
  const options = {
    query: query,
    schemaUpdateOptions: ['ALLOW_FIELD_ADDITION'],
    writeDisposition: 'WRITE_APPEND',
    destinationTable: destinationTableRef,
    // Location must match that of the dataset(s) referenced in the query.
    location: 'US',
  };

  const [job] = await bigquery.createQueryJob(options);
  console.log(`Job ${job.id} started.`);

  // Wait for the query to finish
  const [rows] = await job.getQueryResults();
  console.log(`Job ${job.id} completed.`);

  // Print the results
  console.log('Rows:');
  rows.forEach(row => console.log(row));
}

PHP

Avant d'essayer cet exemple, suivez les instructions de configuration pour PHP du guide de démarrage rapide de BigQuery : Utiliser les bibliothèques clientes. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la documentation de référence de l'API BigQuery pour PHP.

use Google\Cloud\BigQuery\BigQueryClient;

/**
 * Append a column using a query job.
 *
 * @param string $projectId The project Id of your Google Cloud Project.
 * @param string $datasetId The BigQuery dataset ID.
 * @param string $tableId The BigQuery table ID.
 */
function add_column_query_append(
    string $projectId,
    string $datasetId,
    string $tableId
): void {
    $bigQuery = new BigQueryClient([
      'projectId' => $projectId,
    ]);
    $dataset = $bigQuery->dataset($datasetId);
    $table = $dataset->table($tableId);

    // In this example, the existing table contains only the 'Name' and 'Title'.
    // A new column 'Description' gets added after the query job.

    // Define query
    $query = sprintf('SELECT "John" as name, "Unknown" as title, "Dummy person" as description;');

    // Set job configs
    $queryJobConfig = $bigQuery->query($query);
    $queryJobConfig->destinationTable($table);
    $queryJobConfig->schemaUpdateOptions(['ALLOW_FIELD_ADDITION']);
    $queryJobConfig->writeDisposition('WRITE_APPEND');

    // Run query with query job configuration
    $bigQuery->runQuery($queryJobConfig);

    // Print all the columns
    $columns = $table->info()['schema']['fields'];
    printf('The columns in the table are ');
    foreach ($columns as $column) {
        printf('%s ', $column['name']);
    }
}

Python

Avant d'essayer cet exemple, suivez les instructions de configuration pour Python du guide de démarrage rapide de BigQuery : Utiliser les bibliothèques clientes. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la documentation de référence de l'API BigQuery pour Python.

from google.cloud import bigquery

# Construct a BigQuery client object.
client = bigquery.Client()

# TODO(developer): Set table_id to the ID of the destination table.
# table_id = "your-project.your_dataset.your_table_name"

# Retrieves the destination table and checks the length of the schema.
table = client.get_table(table_id)  # Make an API request.
print("Table {} contains {} columns".format(table_id, len(table.schema)))

# Configures the query to append the results to a destination table,
# allowing field addition.
job_config = bigquery.QueryJobConfig(
    destination=table_id,
    schema_update_options=[bigquery.SchemaUpdateOption.ALLOW_FIELD_ADDITION],
    write_disposition=bigquery.WriteDisposition.WRITE_APPEND,
)

# Start the query, passing in the extra configuration.
query_job = client.query(
    # In this example, the existing table contains only the 'full_name' and
    # 'age' columns, while the results of this query will contain an
    # additional 'favorite_color' column.
    'SELECT "Timmy" as full_name, 85 as age, "Blue" as favorite_color;',
    job_config=job_config,
)  # Make an API request.
query_job.result()  # Wait for the job to complete.

# Checks the updated length of the schema.
table = client.get_table(table_id)  # Make an API request.
print("Table {} now contains {} columns".format(table_id, len(table.schema)))

Étape suivante

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