Expressions, Functions, and Operators

This page explains Cloud Spanner SQL expressions, including functions and operators.

Function call rules

The following rules apply to all functions unless explicitly indicated otherwise in the function description:

  • For functions that accept numeric types, if one operand is a floating point operand and the other operand is another numeric type, both operands are converted to FLOAT64 before the function is evaluated.
  • If an operand is NULL, the result is NULL, with the exception of the IS operator.

  • For functions that are time zone sensitive (as indicated in the function description), the default time zone, America/Los_Angeles, is used if a time zone is not specified.

Conversion rules

"Conversion" includes, but is not limited to, casting and coercion.

  • Casting is explicit conversion and uses the CAST() function.
  • Coercion is implicit conversion, which Cloud Spanner SQL performs automatically under the conditions described below.
  • There is a third group of conversion functions that have their own function names, such as UNIX_DATE().

The table below summarizes all possible CAST and coercion possibilities for Cloud Spanner SQL data types. "Coercion To" applies to all expressions of a given data type (e.g. a column) .

From Type CAST to Coercion To
INT64 BOOL
INT64
FLOAT64
STRING
FLOAT64
FLOAT64 INT64
FLOAT64
STRING
 
BOOL BOOL
INT64
STRING
 
STRING BOOL
INT64
FLOAT64
STRING
BYTES
DATE
TIMESTAMP
 
BYTES BYTES
STRING
 
DATE DATE
STRING
TIMESTAMP
 
TIMESTAMP DATE
STRING
TIMESTAMP
 
ARRAY ARRAY  
STRUCT STRUCT  

Casting

Syntax:

CAST(expr AS typename)

Cast syntax is used in a query to indicate that the result type of an expression should be converted to some other type.

Example:

CAST(x=1 AS STRING)

This results in "true" if x is 1, "false" for any other non-NULL value, and NULL if x is NULL.

Casts between supported types that do not successfully map from the original value to the target domain produce runtime errors. For example, casting BYTES to STRING where the byte sequence is not valid UTF-8 results in a runtime error.

When casting an expression x of the following types, these rules apply:

From To Rule(s) when casting x
INT64 FLOAT64 Returns a close but potentially not exact FLOAT64 value.
INT64 BOOL Returns FALSE if x is 0, TRUE otherwise.
FLOAT64 INT64 Returns the closest INT64 value.
Halfway cases such as 1.5 or -0.5 round away from zero.
FLOAT64 STRING Returns an approximate string representation.
BOOL INT64 Returns 1 if x is TRUE, 0 otherwise.
BOOL STRING Returns "true" if x is TRUE, "false" otherwise.
STRING FLOAT64 Returns x as a FLOAT64 value, interpreting it as having the same form as a valid FLOAT64 literal.
Also supports casts from "inf", "+inf", "-inf", and "nan".
Conversions are case-insensitive.
STRING BOOL Returns TRUE if x is "true" and FALSE if x is "false"
All other values of x are invalid and throw an error instead of casting to BOOL.
STRINGs are case-insensitive when converting to BOOL.
STRING BYTES STRINGs are cast to BYTES using UTF-8 encoding. For example, the STRING "©", when cast to BYTES, would become a 2-byte sequence with the hex values C2 and A9.
BYTES STRING Returns x interpreted as a UTF-8 STRING.
For example, the BYTES literal b'\xc2\xa9', when cast to STRING, is interpreted as UTF-8 and becomes the unicode character "©".
An error occurs if x is not valid UTF-8.
ARRAY ARRAY Must be the exact same ARRAY type.
STRUCT STRUCT Allowed if the following conditions are met:
  1. The two STRUCTs have the same number of fields.
  2. The original STRUCT field types can be explicitly cast to the corresponding target STRUCT field types (as defined by field order, not field name).

Casting hex strings to integers

If you are working with hex strings (0x123), you can cast those strings as integers:

SELECT '0x123' as hex_value, CAST('0x123' as INT64) as hex_to_int;

+-----------+------------+
| hex_value | hex_to_int |
+-----------+------------+
| 0x123     | 291        |
+-----------+------------+

SELECT '0x123' as hex_value, CAST('-0x123' as INT64) as hex_to_int;

+-----------+------------+
| hex_value | hex_to_int |
+-----------+------------+
| 0x123     | -291       |
+-----------+------------+

Casting date types

Cloud Spanner SQL supports casting date types to/from strings as follows:

CAST(date_expression AS STRING)
CAST(string_expression AS DATE)

Casting from a date type to a string is independent of time zone and is of the form YYYY-MM-DD. When casting from string to date, the string must conform to the supported date literal format, and is independent of time zone. If the string expression is invalid or represents a date that is outside of the supported min/max range, then an error is produced.

Casting timestamp types

Cloud Spanner SQL supports casting timestamp types to/from strings as follows:

CAST(timestamp_expression AS STRING)
CAST(string_expression AS TIMESTAMP)

When casting from timestamp types to string, the timestamp is interpreted using the default time zone, America/Los_Angeles. The number of subsecond digits produced depends on the number of trailing zeroes in the subsecond part: the CAST function will truncate zero, three, or six digits.

When casting from string to a timestamp, string_expression must conform to the supported timestamp literal formats, or else a runtime error occurs. The string_expression may itself contain a time_zone—see time zones. If there is a time zone in the string_expression, that time zone is used for conversion, otherwise the default time zone, America/Los_Angeles, is used. If the string has fewer than six digits, then it is implicitly widened.

An error is produced if the string_expression is invalid, has more than six subsecond digits (i.e. precision greater than microseconds), or represents a time outside of the supported timestamp range.

Casting between date and timestamp types

Cloud Spanner SQL supports casting between date and timestamp types as follows:

CAST(date_expression AS TIMESTAMP)
CAST(timestamp_expression AS DATE)

Casting from a date to a timestamp interprets date_expression as of midnight (start of the day) in the default time zone, America/Los_Angeles. Casting from a timestamp to date effectively truncates the timestamp as of the default time zone.

Coercion

Cloud Spanner SQL coerces the result type of an expression to another type if needed to match function signatures. For example, if function func() is defined to take a single argument of type INT64 and an expression is used as an argument that has a result type of FLOAT64, then the result of the expression will be coerced to INT64 type before func() is computed.

Additional conversion functions

Cloud Spanner SQL provides the following additional conversion functions:

Aggregate functions

An aggregate function is a function that performs a calculation on a set of values. COUNT, MIN and MAX are examples of aggregate functions.

SELECT COUNT(*) as total_count, COUNT(fruit) as non_null_count,
       MIN(fruit) as min, MAX(fruit) as max
FROM UNNEST([NULL, "apple", "pear", "orange"]) as fruit;
+-------------+----------------+-------+------+
| total_count | non_null_count | min   | max  |
+-------------+----------------+-------+------+
| 4           | 3              | apple | pear |
+-------------+----------------+-------+------+

The following sections describe the aggregate functions that Cloud Spanner SQL supports.

ANY_VALUE

ANY_VALUE(expression)

Description

Returns any value from the input or NULL if there are zero input rows. Returns NULL if expression evaluates to NULL for all rows and non-NULL value otherwise. The value returned is non-deterministic, which means you might receive a different result each time you use this function.

Supported Argument Types

Any

Returned Data Types

Matches the input data type.

Examples

SELECT ANY_VALUE(fruit) as any_value
FROM UNNEST(["apple", "banana", "pear"]) as fruit;

+-----------+
| any_value |
+-----------+
| apple     |
+-----------+

ARRAY_AGG

ARRAY_AGG([DISTINCT] expression)

Description

Returns an ARRAY of expression values.

Supported Argument Types

All data types except ARRAY.

Optional Clause

DISTINCT: Each distinct value of expression is aggregated only once into the result.

Output Element Order

The order of the elements in the output is non-deterministic, which means you might receive a different result each time you use this function.

Returned Data Types

ARRAY

If there are zero input rows, this function returns NULL.

Examples

SELECT ARRAY_AGG(x) AS array_agg
FROM UNNEST([NULL, 1, -2, 3, -2, 1, NULL]) AS x;

+-------------------------------+
| array_agg                     |
+-------------------------------+
| [NULL, 1, -2, 3, -2, 1, NULL] |
+-------------------------------+

SELECT ARRAY_AGG(DISTINCT x) AS array_agg
FROM UNNEST([NULL, 1, -2, 3, -2, 1, NULL]) AS x;

+------------------+
| array_agg        |
+------------------+
| [1, 3, -2, NULL] |
+------------------+

AVG

AVG([DISTINCT] expression)

Description

Returns the average of non-NULL input values, or NaN if the input contains a NaN.

Supported Argument Types

Any numeric input type, such as INT64. Note that, for floating point input types, the return result is non-deterministic, which means you might receive a different result each time you use this function.

Optional Clause

DISTINCT: Each distinct value of expression is aggregated only once into the result.

Returned Data Types

  • FLOAT64

Examples

SELECT AVG(x) as avg
FROM UNNEST([0, 2, NULL, 4, 4, 5]) as x;

+-----+
| avg |
+-----+
| 3   |
+-----+

SELECT AVG(DISTINCT x) AS avg
FROM UNNEST([0, 2, NULL, 4, 4, 5]) AS x;

+------+
| avg  |
+------+
| 2.75 |
+------+

BIT_AND

BIT_AND([DISTINCT] expression)

Description

Performs a bitwise AND operation on expression and returns the result.

Supported Argument Types

INT64

Optional Clause

DISTINCT: Each distinct value of expression is aggregated only once into the result.

Returned Data Types

INT64

Examples

SELECT BIT_AND(x) as bit_and FROM UNNEST([0xF001, 0x00A1]) as x;

+---------+
| bit_and |
+---------+
| 1       |
+---------+

BIT_OR

BIT_OR([DISTINCT] expression)

Description

Performs a bitwise OR operation on expression and returns the result.

Supported Argument Types

INT64

Optional Clause

DISTINCT: Each distinct value of expression is aggregated only once into the result.

Returned Data Types

INT64

Examples

SELECT BIT_OR(x) as bit_or FROM UNNEST([0xF001, 0x00A1]) as x;

+--------+
| bit_or |
+--------+
| 61601  |
+--------+

BIT_XOR

BIT_XOR([DISTINCT] expression)

Description

Performs a bitwise XOR operation on expression and returns the result.

Supported Argument Types

INT64

Optional Clause

DISTINCT: Each distinct value of expression is aggregated only once into the result.

Returned Data Types

INT64

Examples

SELECT BIT_XOR(x) AS bit_xor FROM UNNEST([5678, 1234]) AS x;

+---------+
| bit_xor |
+---------+
| 4860    |
+---------+

SELECT BIT_XOR(x) AS bit_xor FROM UNNEST([1234, 5678, 1234]) AS x;
+---------+
| bit_xor |
+---------+
| 5678    |
+---------+

SELECT BIT_XOR(DISTINCT x) AS bit_xor FROM UNNEST([1234, 5678, 1234]) AS x;

+---------+
| bit_xor |
+---------+
| 4860    |
+---------+

COUNT

1.

COUNT(*)

2.

COUNT([DISTINCT] expression)

Description

  1. Returns the number of rows in the input.
  2. Returns the number of rows with expression evaluated to any value other than NULL.

Supported Argument Types

expression can be any data type.

Optional Clause

DISTINCT: Each distinct value of expression is aggregated only once into the result.

Return Data Types

INT64

Examples

SELECT
  COUNT(*) AS count_star,
  COUNT(x) AS count_x,
  COUNT(DISTINCT x) AS count_dist_x
FROM UNNEST([1, 4, NULL, 4, 5]) AS x;

+------------+---------+--------------+
| count_star | count_x | count_dist_x |
+------------+---------+--------------+
| 5          | 4       | 3            |
+------------+---------+--------------+

COUNTIF

COUNTIF([DISTINCT] expression)

Description

Returns the count of TRUE values for expression. Returns 0 if there are zero input rows or expression evaluates to FALSE for all rows.

Supported Argument Types

BOOL

Optional Clause

DISTINCT: Each distinct value of expression is aggregated only once into the result.

Return Data Types

INT64

Examples

SELECT COUNTIF(x<0) AS num_negative, COUNTIF(x>0) AS num_positive
FROM UNNEST([5, -2, 3, 6, -10, NULL, -7, 4, 0]) AS x;

+--------------+--------------+
| num_negative | num_positive |
+--------------+--------------+
| 3            | 4            |
+--------------+--------------+

LOGICAL_AND

LOGICAL_AND(expression)

Description

Returns the logical AND of all non-NULL expressions. Returns NULL if there are zero input rows or expression evaluates to NULL for all rows.

Supported Argument Types

BOOL

Return Data Types

BOOL

Examples

SELECT LOGICAL_AND(x) as logical_and FROM UNNEST([true, false, true]) as x;

+-------------+
| logical_and |
+-------------+
| false       |
+-------------+

LOGICAL_OR

LOGICAL_OR(expression)

Description

Returns the logical OR of all non-NULL expressions. Returns NULL if there are zero input rows or expression evaluates to NULL for all rows.

Supported Argument Types

BOOL

Return Data Types

BOOL

Examples

SELECT LOGICAL_OR(x) as logical_or FROM UNNEST([true, false, true]) as x;

+------------+
| logical_or |
+------------+
| true       |
+------------+

MAX

MAX(expression)

Description

Returns the maximum value of non-NULL expressions. Returns NULL if there are zero input rows or expression evaluates to NULL for all rows. Returns NaN if the input contains a NaN.

Supported Argument Types

Any data type except: STRUCT ARRAY

Return Data Types

Same as the data type used as the input values.

Examples

SELECT MAX(x) AS max
FROM UNNEST([8, NULL, 37, 4, NULL, 55]) AS x;

+-----+
| max |
+-----+
| 55  |
+-----+

MIN

MIN(expression)

Description

Returns the minimum value of non-NULL expressions. Returns NULL if there are zero input rows or expression evaluates to NULL for all rows. Returns NaN if the input contains a NaN.

Supported Argument Types

Any data type except: STRUCT ARRAY

Return Data Types

Same as the data type used as the input values.

Examples

SELECT MIN(x) AS min
FROM UNNEST([8, NULL, 37, 4, NULL, 55]) AS x;

+-----+
| min |
+-----+
| 4   |
+-----+

STRING_AGG

STRING_AGG([DISTINCT] expression [, delimiter])

Description

Returns a value (either STRING or BYTES) obtained by concatenating non-null values.

If a delimiter is specified, concatenated values are separated by that delimiter; otherwise, a comma is used as a delimiter.

Supported Argument Types

STRING BYTES

Optional Clause

DISTINCT: Each distinct value of expression is aggregated only once into the result.

Output Element Order

The order of the elements in the output is non-deterministic, which means you might receive a different result each time you use this function.

Return Data Types

STRING BYTES

Examples

SELECT STRING_AGG(fruit) AS string_agg
FROM UNNEST(["apple", NULL, "pear", "banana", "pear"]) AS fruit;

+------------------------+
| string_agg             |
+------------------------+
| apple,pear,banana,pear |
+------------------------+

SELECT STRING_AGG(fruit, " & ") AS string_agg
FROM UNNEST(["apple", NULL, "pear", "banana", "pear"]) AS fruit;

+------------------------------+
| string_agg                   |
+------------------------------+
| apple & pear & banana & pear |
+------------------------------+

SELECT STRING_AGG(DISTINCT fruit, " & ") AS string_agg
FROM UNNEST(["apple", NULL, "pear", "banana", "pear"]) AS fruit;

+-----------------------+
| string_agg            |
+-----------------------+
| apple & banana & pear |
+-----------------------+

SUM

SUM([DISTINCT] expression)

Description

Returns the sum of non-null values.

If the expression is a floating point value, the sum is non-deterministic, which means you might receive a different result each time you use this function.

Supported Argument Types

Any supported numeric data types.

Optional Clause

DISTINCT: Each distinct value of expression is aggregated only once into the result.

Return Data Types

  • Returns INT64 if the input is an integer.

  • Returns FLOAT64 if the input is a floating point value.

Returns NULL if the input contains only NULLs.

Returns Inf if the input contains Inf.

Returns -Inf if the input contains -Inf.

Returns NaN if the input contains a NaN.

Returns NaN if the input contains a combination of Inf and -Inf.

Examples

SELECT SUM(x) AS sum
FROM UNNEST([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1]) AS x;

+-----+
| sum |
+-----+
| 25  |
+-----+

SELECT SUM(DISTINCT x) AS sum
FROM UNNEST([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1]) AS x;

+-----+
| sum |
+-----+
| 15  |
+-----+

Mathematical functions

All mathematical functions have the following behaviors:

  • They return NULL if any of the input parameters is NULL.
  • They return NaN if any of the arguments is NaN.

ABS

ABS(X)

Description

Computes absolute value. Returns an error if the argument is an integer and the output value cannot be represented as the same type; this happens only for the largest negative input value, which has no positive representation. Returns +inf for a +/-inf argument.

SIGN

SIGN(X)

Description

Returns -1, 0, or +1 for negative, zero and positive arguments respectively. For floating point arguments, this function does not distinguish between positive and negative zero. Returns NaN for a NaN argument.

IS_INF

IS_INF(X)

Description

Returns TRUE if the value is positive or negative infinity. Returns NULL for NULL inputs.

IS_NAN

IS_NAN(X)

Description

Returns TRUE if the value is a NaN value. Returns NULL for NULL inputs.

IEEE_DIVIDE

IEEE_DIVIDE(X, Y)

Description

Divides X by Y; this function never fails. Returns FLOAT64. Unlike the division operator (/), this function does not generate errors for division by zero or overflow.

Special cases:

  • If the result overflows, returns +/-inf.
  • If Y=0 and X=0, returns NaN.
  • If Y=0 and X!=0, returns +/-inf.
  • If X = +/-inf and Y = +/-inf, returns NaN.

The behavior of IEEE_DIVIDE is further illustrated in the table below.

Special cases for IEEE_DIVIDE

The following table lists special cases for IEEE_DIVIDE.

Numerator Data Type (X) Denominator Data Type (Y) Result Value
Anything except 0 0 +/-inf
0 0 NaN
0 NaN NaN
NaN 0 NaN
+/-inf +/-inf NaN

SQRT

SQRT(X)

Description

Computes the square root of X. Generates an error if X is less than 0. Returns +inf if X is +inf.

POW

POW(X, Y)

Description

Returns the value of X raised to the power of Y. If the result underflows and is not representable, then the function returns a value of zero. Returns an error if one of the following is true:

  • X is a finite value less than 0 and Y is a noninteger
  • X is 0 and Y is a finite value less than 0

The behavior of POW() is further illustrated in the table below.

POWER

POWER(X, Y)

Description

Synonym of POW().

Special cases for POW(X, Y) and POWER(X, Y)

The following are special cases for POW(X, Y) and POWER(X, Y).

X Y POW(X, Y) or POWER(X, Y)
1.0 Any value including NaN 1.0
any including NaN 0 1.0
-1.0 +/-inf 1.0
ABS(X) < 1 -inf +inf
ABS(X) > 1 -inf 0
ABS(X) < 1 +inf 0
ABS(X) > 1 +inf +inf
-inf Y < 0 0
-inf Y > 0 -inf if Y is an odd integer, +inf otherwise
+inf Y < 0 0
+inf Y > 0 +inf

EXP

EXP(X)

Description

Computes e to the power of X, also called the natural exponential function. If the result underflows, this function returns a zero. Generates an error if the result overflows. If X is +/-inf, then this function returns +inf or 0.

LN

LN(X)

Description

Computes the natural logarithm of X. Generates an error if X is less than or equal to zero. If X is +inf, then this function returns +inf.

LOG

LOG(X [, Y])

Description

If only X is present, LOG is a synonym of LN. If Y is also present, LOG computes the logarithm of X to base Y. Generates an error in these cases:

  • X is less than or equal to zero
  • Y is 1.0
  • Y is less than or equal to zero.

The behavior of LOG(X, Y) is further illustrated in the table below.

Special cases for LOG(X, Y)

X Y LOG(X, Y)
-inf Any value NaN
Any value +inf NaN
+inf 0.0 Y < 1.0 -inf
+inf Y > 1.0 +inf

LOG10

LOG10(X)

Description

Similar to LOG, but computes logarithm to base 10.

GREATEST

GREATEST(X1,...,XN)

Description

Returns NULL if any of the inputs is NULL. Otherwise, returns NaN if any of the inputs is NaN. Otherwise, returns the largest value among X1,...,XN according to the < comparison.

LEAST

LEAST(X1,...,XN)

Description

Returns NULL if any of the inputs is NULL. Returns NaN if any of the inputs is NaN. Otherwise, returns the smallest value among X1,...,XN according to the > comparison.

DIV

DIV(X, Y)

Description

Returns the result of integer division of X by Y. Division by zero returns an error. Division by -1 may overflow. See the table below for possible result types.

MOD

MOD(X, Y)

Description

Modulo function: returns the remainder of the division of X by Y. Returned value has the same sign as X. An error is generated if Y is 0. See the table below for possible result types.

ROUND

ROUND(X [, N])

Description

If only X is present, ROUND rounds X to the nearest integer. If N is present, ROUND rounds X to N decimal places after the decimal point. If N is negative, ROUND will round off digits to the left of the decimal point. Rounds halfway cases away from zero. Generates an error if overflow occurs.

TRUNC

TRUNC(X [, N])

Description

If only X is present, TRUNC rounds X to the nearest integer whose absolute value is not greater than the absolute value of X. If N is also present, TRUNC behaves like ROUND(X, N), but always rounds towards zero and never overflows.

CEIL

CEIL(X)

Description

Returns the smallest integral value (with FLOAT64 type) that is not less than X.

CEILING

CEILING(X)

Description

Synonym of CEIL(X)

FLOOR

FLOOR(X)

Description

Returns the largest integral value (with FLOAT64 type) that is not greater than X.

Example rounding function behavior

Example behavior of Cloud Spanner SQL rounding functions:

Input "X" ROUND(X) TRUNC(X) CEIL(X) FLOOR(X)
2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
2.3 2.0 2.0 3.0 2.0
2.8 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0
2.5 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0
-2.3 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -3.0
-2.8 -3.0 -2.0 -2.0 -3.0
-2.5 -3.0 -2.0 -2.0 -3.0
0 0 0 0 0
+/-inf +/-inf +/-inf +/-inf +/-inf
NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN

COS

COS(X)

Description

Computes cosine of X. Never fails.

COSH

COSH(X)

Description

Computes the hyperbolic cosine of X. Generates an error if an overflow occurs.

ACOS

ACOS(X)

Description

Computes the principal value of the arc cosine of X. The return value is in the range [0,]. Generates an error if X is a finite value outside of range [-1, 1].

ACOSH

ACOSH(X)

Description

Computes the inverse hyperbolic cosine of X. Generates an error if X is a finite value less than 1.

SIN

SIN(X)

Description

Computes the sine of X. Never fails.

SINH

SINH(X)

Description

Computes the hyperbolic sine of X. Generates an error if an overflow occurs.

ASIN

ASIN(X)

Description

Computes the principal value of the arc sine of X. The return value is in the range [-π/2,π/2]. Generates an error if X is a finite value outside of range [-1, 1].

ASINH

ASINH(X)

Description

Computes the inverse hyperbolic sine of X. Does not fail.

TAN

TAN(X)

Description

Computes tangent of X. Generates an error if an overflow occurs.

TANH

TANH(X)

Description

Computes hyperbolic tangent of X. Does not fail.

ATAN

ATAN(X)

Description

Computes the principal value of the arc tangent of X. The return value is in the range [-π/2,π/2]. Does not fail.

ATANH

ATANH(X)

Description

Computes the inverse hyperbolic tangent of X. Generates an error if the absolute value of X is greater or equal 1.

ATAN2

ATAN2(Y, X)

Description

Calculates the principal value of the arc tangent of Y/X using the signs of the two arguments to determine the quadrant. The return value is in the range [-π,π]. The behavior of this function is further illustrated in the table below.

Special cases for ATAN2()

Y X ATAN2(Y, X)
NaN Any value NaN
Any value NaN NaN
0 0 0, π or -π depending on the sign of X and Y
Finite value -inf π or -π depending on the sign of Y
Finite value +inf 0
+/-inf Finite value π/2 or π/2 depending on the sign of Y
+/-inf -inf ¾π or -¾π depending on the sign of Y
+/-inf +inf π/4 or -π/4 depending on the sign of Y

Special cases for trigonometric and hyperbolic rounding functions

X COS(X) COSH(X) ACOS(X) ACOSH(X) SIN(X) SINH(X) ASIN(X) ASINH(X) TAN(X) TANH(X) ATAN(X) ATANH(X)
+/-inf NaN =+inf NaN =+inf NaN =+inf NaN =+inf NaN =+1.0 π/2 NaN
-inf NaN =+inf NaN NaN NaN -inf NaN -inf NaN -1.0 -π/2 NaN
NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN

Hash functions

FARM_FINGERPRINT

FARM_FINGERPRINT(value)

Description

Computes the fingerprint of the STRING or BYTES input using the Fingerprint64 function from the open-source FarmHash library. The output of this function for a particular input will never change.

Return type

INT64

Examples

SELECT
  *,
  FARM_FINGERPRINT(CONCAT(CAST(x AS STRING), y, CAST(z AS STRING)))
    AS row_fingerprint
FROM (
  SELECT 1 AS x, "foo" AS y, true AS z UNION ALL
  SELECT 2 AS x, "apple" AS y, false AS z UNION ALL
  SELECT 3 AS x, "" AS y, true AS z
);

+---+-------+-------+----------------------+
| x | y     | z     | row_fingerprint      |
+---+-------+-------+----------------------+
| 1 | foo   | true  | -1541654101129638711 |
| 2 | apple | false | 2794438866806483259  |
| 3 |       | true  | -4880158226897771312 |
+---+-------+-------+----------------------+

SHA1

SHA1(input)

Description

Computes the hash of the input using the SHA-1 algorithm. The input can either be STRING or BYTES. The string version treats the input as an array of bytes.

This function returns 20 bytes.

Return type

BYTES

Example

SELECT SHA1("Hello World") as sha1;

+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| sha1                                                      |
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| \nMU\xa8\xd7x\xe5\x02/\xabp\x19w\xc5\xd8@\xbb\xc4\x86\xd0 |
+-----------------------------------------------------------+

SHA256

SHA256(input)

Description

Computes the hash of the input using the SHA-256 algorithm. The input can either be STRING or BYTES. The string version treats the input as an array of bytes.

This function returns 32 bytes.

Return type

BYTES

Example

SELECT SHA256("Hello World") as sha256;

SHA512

SHA512(input)

Description

Computes the hash of the input using the SHA-512 algorithm. The input can either be STRING or BYTES. The string version treats the input as an array of bytes.

This function returns 64 bytes.

Return type

BYTES

Example

SELECT SHA512("Hello World") as sha512;

String functions

These string functions work on two different values: STRING and BYTES data types. STRING values must be well-formed UTF-8.

Functions that return position values, such as STRPOS, encode those positions as INT64. The value 1 refers to the first character (or byte), 2 refers to the second, and so on. The value 0 indicates an invalid index. When working on STRING types, the returned positions refer to character positions.

All string comparisons are done byte-by-byte, without regard to Unicode canonical equivalence.

BYTE_LENGTH

BYTE_LENGTH(value)

Description

Returns the length of the value in bytes, regardless of whether the type of the value is STRING or BYTES.

Return type

INT64

Examples

Table example:

+----------------+--------+
| characters     | bytes  |
+----------------+--------+
| абвгд          | абвгд  |
+----------------+--------+

SELECT
  characters,
  BYTE_LENGTH(characters) AS string_example,
  bytes,
  BYTE_LENGTH(bytes) AS bytes_example
FROM example;

+------------+----------------+-------+---------------+
| characters | string_example | bytes | bytes_example |
+------------+----------------+-------+---------------+
| абвгд      | 10             | абвгд | 10            |
+------------+----------------+-------+---------------+

CHAR_LENGTH

CHAR_LENGTH(value)

Description

Returns the length of the STRING in characters.

Return type

INT64

Examples

Table example:

+----------------+
| characters     |
+----------------+
| абвгд          |
+----------------+

SELECT
  characters,
  CHAR_LENGTH(characters) AS char_length_example
FROM example;

+------------+---------------------+
| characters | char_length_example |
+------------+---------------------+
| абвгд      |                   5 |
+------------+---------------------+

CHARACTER_LENGTH

CHARACTER_LENGTH(value)

Description

Synonym for CHAR_LENGTH.

Return type

INT64

Examples

Table example:

+----------------+
| characters     |
+----------------+
| абвгд          |
+----------------+

SELECT
  characters,
  CHARACTER_LENGTH(characters) AS char_length_example
FROM example;

+------------+---------------------+
| characters | char_length_example |
+------------+---------------------+
| абвгд      |                   5 |
+------------+---------------------+

CODE_POINTS_TO_BYTES

CODE_POINTS_TO_BYTES(ascii_values)

Description

Takes an array of extended ASCII code points (ARRAY of INT64) and returns BYTES.

To convert from BYTES to an array of code points, see TO_CODE_POINTS.

Return type

BYTES

Examples

The following is a basic example using CODE_POINTS_TO_BYTES.

SELECT CODE_POINTS_TO_BYTES([65, 98, 67, 100]) AS bytes;

+-------+
| bytes |
+-------+
| AbCd  |
+-------+

The following example uses a rotate-by-13 places (ROT13) algorithm to encode a string.

SELECT CODE_POINTS_TO_BYTES(ARRAY(
  (SELECT
      CASE
        WHEN chr BETWEEN b'a' AND b'z'
          THEN TO_CODE_POINTS(b'a')[offset(0)] +
            MOD(code + 13 - TO_CODE_POINTS(b'a')[offset(0)],26)
        WHEN chr BETWEEN b'A' AND b'Z'
          THEN TO_CODE_POINTS(b'A')[offset(0)] +
            MOD(code + 13 - TO_CODE_POINTS(b'A')[offset(0)],26)
        ELSE code
      END
   FROM
     (SELECT code, CODE_POINTS_TO_BYTES(ARRAY[code]) AS chr
      FROM UNNEST(TO_CODE_POINTS(input)) AS code WITH OFFSET
      ORDER BY OFFSET)
   ))) AS encoded_string
FROM UNNEST(ARRAY['Test String!']) AS input;

+----------------+
| encoded_string |
+----------------+
| Grfg Fgevat!   |
+----------------+

CODE_POINTS_TO_STRING

CODE_POINTS_TO_STRING(value)

Description

Takes an array of Unicode code points (ARRAY of INT64) and returns a STRING.

To convert from a string to an array of code points, see TO_CODE_POINTS.

Return type

STRING

Example

The following is a basic example using CODE_POINTS_TO_STRING.

SELECT CODE_POINTS_TO_STRING([65, 255, 513, 1024]) AS string;

+--------+
| string |
+--------+
| AÿȁЀ   |
+--------+

The following example computes the frequency of letters in a set of words.

SELECT
  CODE_POINTS_TO_STRING([code_point]) AS letter,
  COUNT(*) AS letter_count
FROM UNNEST(['foo', 'bar', 'baz', 'giraffe', 'llama']) AS word,
     UNNEST(TO_CODE_POINTS(word)) AS code_point
GROUP BY 1
ORDER BY 2 DESC;

+--------+--------------+
| letter | letter_count |
+--------+--------------+
| a      | 5            |
| f      | 3            |
| r      | 2            |
| b      | 2            |
| l      | 2            |
| o      | 2            |
| g      | 1            |
| z      | 1            |
| e      | 1            |
| m      | 1            |
| i      | 1            |
+--------+--------------+

CONCAT

CONCAT(value1[, ...])

Description

Concatenates one or more values into a single result.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

Table Employees:

+-------------+-----------+
| first_name  | last_name |
+-------------+-----------+
| John        | Doe       |
| Jane        | Smith     |
| Joe         | Jackson   |
+-------------+-----------+

SELECT
  CONCAT(first_name, " ", last_name)
  AS full_name
FROM Employees;

+---------------------+
| full_name           |
+---------------------+
| John Doe            |
| Jane Smith          |
| Joe Jackson         |
+---------------------+

ENDS_WITH

ENDS_WITH(value1, value2)

Description

Takes two values. Returns TRUE if the second value is a suffix of the first.

Return type

BOOL

Examples

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| apple          |
| banana         |
| orange         |
+----------------+

SELECT
  ENDS_WITH(item, "e") as example
FROM items;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
|    True |
|   False |
|    True |
+---------+

FORMAT

Cloud Spanner SQL supports a FORMAT() function for formatting strings. This function is similar to the C printf function. It produces a STRING from a format string that contains zero or more format specifiers, along with a variable length list of additional arguments that matches the format specifiers. Here are some examples:

Description Statement Result
Simple integer format("%d", 10) 10
Integer with left blank padding format("|%10d|", 11) |           11|
Integer with left zero padding format("+%010d+", 12) +0000000012+
STRING format("-%s-", 'abcd efg') -abcd efg-
FLOAT64 format("%f %E", 1.1, 2.2) 1.100000 2.200000E+00
DATE format("%t", date "2015-09-01") 2015-09-01
TIMESTAMP format("%t", timestamp "2015-09-01 12:34:56 America/Los_Angeles") 2015‑09‑01 19:34:56+00

The FORMAT() function does not provide fully customizable formatting for all types and values, nor formatting that is sensitive to locale.

If custom formatting is necessary for a type, you must first format it using type-specific format functions, such as FORMAT_DATE() or FORMAT_TIMESTAMP(). For example:

FORMAT("date: %s!", FORMAT_DATE("%B %d, %Y", date '2015-01-02'));

Returns

date: January 02, 2015!

Syntax

The FORMAT() syntax takes a format string and variable length list of arguments and produces a STRING result:

FORMAT(<format_string>, ...)

The <format_string> expression can contain zero or more format specifiers. Each format specifier is introduced by the % symbol, and must map to one or more of the remaining arguments. For the most part, this is a one-to-one mapping, except when the * specifier is present. For example, %.*i maps to two arguments—a length argument and a signed integer argument. If the number of arguments related to the format specifiers is not the same as the number of arguments, an error occurs.

Supported format specifiers

The FORMAT() function format specifier follows this prototype:

%[flags][width][.precision]specifier

The supported format specifiers are identified in the following table. Extensions from printf() are identified in italics.

Specifier Description Examples Types
d or i Decimal integer 392 INT64
o Octal 610
INT64*
x Hexadecimal integer 7fa
INT64*
X Hexadecimal integer (uppercase) 7FA
INT64*
f Decimal floating point, lowercase 392.65
inf
NaN

FLOAT64
F Decimal floating point, uppercase 392.65
inf
NAN

FLOAT64
e Scientific notation (mantissa/exponent), lowercase 3.9265e+2
inf
NaN

FLOAT64
E Scientific notation (mantissa/exponent), uppercase 3.9265E+2
inf
NAN

FLOAT64
g Use the shortest representation, %e or %f 392.65
FLOAT64
G Use the shortest representation, %E or %F 392.65
FLOAT64
s String of characters sample STRING
t Returns a printable string representing the value. Often looks similar to casting the argument to STRING. See %t section below. sample
2014‑01‑01
<any>
T Produces a string that is a valid Cloud Spanner SQL constant with a similar type to the value's type (maybe wider, or maybe string). See %T section below. 'sample'
b'bytes sample'
1234
2.3
date '2014‑01‑01'
<any>
% '%%' produces a single '%' % n/a

*The specifiers o, x, and X raise an error if negative values are used.

The format specifier can optionally contain the sub-specifiers identified above in the specifier prototype.

These sub-specifiers must comply with the following specifications.

Flags
Flags Description
- Left-justify within the given field width; Right justification is the default (see width sub-specifier)
+ Forces to precede the result with a plus or minus sign (+ or -) even for positive numbers. By default, only negative numbers are preceded with a - sign
<space> If no sign is going to be written, a blank space is inserted before the value
# Used with o, x or X specifiers. Precedes the value with 0, 0x or 0X respectively for values different than zero
0 Left-pads the number with zeroes (0) instead of spaces when padding is specified (see width sub-specifier)
'

Formats integers using the appropriating grouping character. For example:

  • FORMAT("%'d", 12345678) returns 12,345,678
  • FORMAT("%'x", 12345678) returns bc:614e
  • FORMAT("%'o", 55555) returns 15,4403
  • This flag is only relevant for decimal, hex, and octal values.

Flags may be specified in any order. Duplicate flags are not an error. When flags are not relevant for some element type, they are ignored.

Width
Width Description
<number> Minimum number of characters to be printed. If the value to be printed is shorter than this number, the result is padded with blank spaces. The value is not truncated even if the result is larger
* The width is not specified in the format string, but as an additional integer value argument preceding the argument that has to be formatted
Precision
Precision Description
.<number> For integer specifiers (d, i, o, u, x, X): precision specifies the minimum number of digits to be written. If the value to be written is shorter than this number, the result is padded with trailing zeros. The value is not truncated even if the result is longer. A precision of 0 means that no character is written for the value 0. For a, A, e, E, f and F specifiers: this is the number of digits to be printed after the decimal point (by default, this is 6)
.* The precision is not specified in the format string, but as an additional integer value argument preceding the argument that has to be formatted

%t and %T behavior

The %t and %T format specifiers are defined for all types. The width, precision, and flags act as they do for %s: the width is the minimum width and the STRING will be padded to that size, and precision is the maximum width of content to show and the STRING will be truncated to that size, prior to padding to width.

%t is always meant to be a readable form of the value.

%T is always a valid SQL literal of a similar type, such as a wider numeric type. The literal will not include casts or a type name, except for the special case of non-finite floating point values.

The STRING is formatted as follows:

Type %t %T
NULL of any type NULL NULL
INT64
123 123
FLOAT64 123.0 (always with .0)
123e+10
inf
-inf
NaN
123.0 (always with .0)
123e+10
CAST("inf" AS <type>)
CAST("-inf" AS <type>)
CAST("nan" AS <type>)
STRING unquoted string value quoted string literal
BYTES unquoted escaped bytes
e.g. abc\x01\x02
quoted bytes literal
e.g. b"abc\x01\x02"
DATE 2011-02-03 DATE "2011-02-03"
TIMESTAMP 2011-02-03 04:05:06+00 TIMESTAMP "2011-02-03 04:05:06+00"
ARRAY [value, value, ...]
where values are formatted with %t
[value, value, ...]
where values are formatted with %T

Error conditions

If a format specifier is invalid, or is not compatible with the related argument type, or the wrong number or arguments are provided, then an error is produced. For example, the following <format_string> expressions are invalid:

FORMAT('%s', 1)
FORMAT('%')

NULL argument handling

A NULL format string results in a NULL output STRING. Any other arguments are ignored in this case.

The function generally produces a NULL value if a NULL argument is present. For example, FORMAT('%i', <NULL expression>) produces a NULL STRING as output.

However, there are some exceptions: if the format specifier is %t or %T (both of which produce STRINGs that effectively match CAST and literal value semantics), a NULL value produces 'NULL' (without the quotes) in the result STRING. For example, the function:

FORMAT('00-%t-00', <NULL expression>);

Returns

00-NULL-00

Additional semantic rules

FLOAT64 values can be +/-inf or NaN. When an argument has one of those values, the result of the format specifiers %f, %F, %e, %E, %g, %G, and %t are inf, -inf, or nan (or the same in uppercase) as appropriate. This is consistent with how Cloud Spanner SQL casts these values to STRING. For %T, Cloud Spanner SQL returns quoted strings for FLOAT64 values that don't have non-string literal representations.

FROM_BASE64

FROM_BASE64(string_expr)

Description

Converts the base64-encoded input string_expr into BYTES format. To convert BYTES to a base64-encoded STRING, use TO_BASE64.

Return type

BYTES

Example

SELECT FROM_BASE64('3q2+7w==') AS byte_data;

+------------------+
| byte_data        |
+------------------+
| \xde\xad\xbe\xef |
+------------------+

FROM_HEX

FROM_HEX(string)

Description

Converts a hexadecimal-encoded STRING into BYTES format. Returns an error if the input STRING contains characters outside the range (0..9, A..F, a..f). The lettercase of the characters does not matter. To convert BYTES to a hexadecimal-encoded STRING, use TO_HEX.

Return type

BYTES

Example

SELECT hex_str, FROM_HEX(hex_str) AS bytes_str
FROM UNNEST(['00010203aaeeefff',
             '0AF',
             '666f6f626172']) as hex_str;

+------------------+----------------------------------+
| hex_str          | bytes_str                        |
+------------------+----------------------------------+
| 0AF              | \x00\xaf                         |
| 00010203aaeeefff | \x00\x01\x02\x03\xaa\xee\xef\xff |
| 666f6f626172     | foobar                           |
+------------------+----------------------------------+

LENGTH

LENGTH(value)

Description

Returns the length of the value. The returned value is in characters for STRING arguments and in bytes for the BYTES argument.

Return type

INT64

Examples

Table example:

+----------------+
| characters     |
+----------------+
| абвгд          |
+----------------+

SELECT
  characters,
  LENGTH(characters) AS string_example,
  LENGTH(CAST(characters AS BYTES)) AS bytes_example
FROM example;

+------------+----------------+---------------+
| characters | string_example | bytes_example |
+------------+----------------+---------------+
| абвгд      |              5 |            10 |
+------------+----------------+---------------+

LPAD

LPAD(original_value, return_length[, pattern])

Description

Returns a value that consists of original_value prepended with pattern. The return_length is an INT64 that specifies the length of the returned value. If original_value is BYTES, return_length is the number of bytes. If original_value is STRING, return_length is the number of characters.

The default value of pattern is a blank space.

Both original_value and pattern must be the same data type.

If return_length is less than or equal to the original_value length, this function returns the original_value value, truncated to the value of return_length. For example, LPAD("hello world", 7); returns "hello w".

If original_value, return_length, or pattern is NULL, this function returns NULL.

This function returns an error if:

  • return_length is negative
  • pattern is empty

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

SELECT t, len, FORMAT("%T", LPAD(t, len)) AS LPAD FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT('abc' AS t, 5 AS len),
  ('abc', 2),
  ('例子', 4)
]);
t len LPAD
abc 5 "  abc"
abc 2 "ab"
例子 4 "  例子"
SELECT t, len, pattern, FORMAT("%T", LPAD(t, len, pattern)) AS LPAD FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT('abc' AS t, 8 AS len, 'def' AS pattern),
  ('abc', 5, '-'),
  ('例子', 5, '中文')
]);
t len pattern LPAD
abc 8 def "defdeabc"
abc 5 - "--abc"
例子 5 中文 "中文中例子"
SELECT FORMAT("%T", t) AS t, len, FORMAT("%T", LPAD(t, len)) AS LPAD FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT(b'abc' AS t, 5 AS len),
  (b'abc', 2),
  (b'\xab\xcd\xef', 4)
]);
t len LPAD
b"abc" 5 b"  abc"
b"abc" 2 b"ab"
b"\xab\xcd\xef" 4 b" \xab\xcd\xef"
SELECT
  FORMAT("%T", t) AS t,
  len,
  FORMAT("%T", pattern) AS pattern,
  FORMAT("%T", LPAD(t, len, pattern)) AS LPAD
FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT(b'abc' AS t, 8 AS len, b'def' AS pattern),
  (b'abc', 5, b'-'),
  (b'\xab\xcd\xef', 5, b'\x00')
]);
t len pattern LPAD
b"abc" 8 b"def" b"defdeabc"
b"abc" 5 b"-" b"--abc"
b"\xab\xcd\xef" 5 b"\x00" b"\x00\x00\xab\xcd\xef"

LOWER

LOWER(value)

Description

For STRING arguments, returns the original string with all alphabetic characters in lowercase. Mapping between lowercase and uppercase is done according to the Unicode Character Database without taking into account language-specific mappings.

For BYTES arguments, the argument is treated as ASCII text, with all bytes greater than 127 left intact.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| FOO            |
| BAR            |
| BAZ            |
+----------------+

SELECT
  LOWER(item) AS example
FROM items;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
| foo     |
| bar     |
| baz     |
+---------+

LTRIM

LTRIM(value1[, value2])

Description

Identical to TRIM, but only removes leading characters.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
|    apple       |
|    banana      |
|    orange      |
+----------------+

SELECT
  CONCAT("#", LTRIM(item), "#") as example
FROM items;

+-------------+
| example     |
+-------------+
| #apple   #  |
| #banana   # |
| #orange   # |
+-------------+

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| ***apple***    |
| ***banana***   |
| ***orange***   |
+----------------+

SELECT
  LTRIM(item, "*") as example
FROM items;

+-----------+
| example   |
+-----------+
| apple***  |
| banana*** |
| orange*** |
+-----------+

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| xxxapplexxx    |
| yyybananayyy   |
| zzzorangezzz   |
| xyzpearzyz     |
+----------------+

SELECT
  LTRIM(item, "xyz") as example
FROM items;

+-----------+
| example   |
+-----------+
| applexxx  |
| bananayyy |
| orangezzz |
| pearxyz   |
+-----------+

REGEXP_CONTAINS

REGEXP_CONTAINS(value, regex)

Description

Returns TRUE if value is a partial match for the regular expression, regex. You can search for a full match by using ^ (beginning of text) and $ (end of text).

If the regex argument is invalid, the function returns an error.

Note: Cloud Spanner SQL provides regular expression support using the re2 library; see that documentation for its regular expression syntax.

Return type

BOOL

Examples

SELECT
  email,
  REGEXP_CONTAINS(email, r"@[a-zA-Z0-9-]+\.[a-zA-Z0-9-.]+") AS is_valid
FROM
  (SELECT
    ["foo@example.com", "bar@example.org", "www.example.net"]
    AS addresses),
  UNNEST(addresses) AS email;

+-----------------+----------+
| email           | is_valid |
+-----------------+----------+
| foo@example.com | true     |
| bar@example.org | true     |
| www.example.net | false    |
+-----------------+----------+

# Performs a full match, using ^ and $.
SELECT
  email,
  REGEXP_CONTAINS(email, r"^[a-zA-Z0-9_.+-]+@[a-zA-Z0-9-]+\.[a-zA-Z0-9-.]+$")
    AS valid_email_address
FROM
  (SELECT
    ["foo@example.com", "bar@example.org", "www.example.net"]
    AS addresses),
  UNNEST(addresses) AS email;

+-----------------+---------------------+
| email           | valid_email_address |
+-----------------+---------------------+
| foo@example.com | true                |
| bar@example.org | true                |
| www.example.net | false               |
+-----------------+---------------------+

REGEXP_EXTRACT

REGEXP_EXTRACT(value, regex)

Description

Returns the first substring in value that matches the regular expression, regex. Returns NULL if there is no match.

If the regular expression contains a capturing group, the function returns the substring that is matched by that capturing group. If the expression does not contain a capturing group, the function returns the entire matching substring.

Returns an error if:

  • The regular expression is invalid
  • The regular expression has more than one capturing group

Note: Cloud Spanner SQL provides regular expression support using the re2 library; see that documentation for its regular expression syntax.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

Table email_addresses:

+-------------------------+
| email                   |
+-------------------------+
| foo@example.com         |
| bar@example.com         |
| baz@example.com         |
+-------------------------+

SELECT
  REGEXP_EXTRACT(email, r"^[a-zA-Z0-9_.+-]+")
  AS user_name
FROM email_addresses;

+-----------+
| user_name |
+-----------+
| foo       |
| bar       |
| baz       |
+-----------+

Table email_addresses:

+-------------------------+
| email                   |
+-------------------------+
| foo@example.com         |
| bar@example.com         |
| baz@example.com         |
+-------------------------+

SELECT
  REGEXP_EXTRACT(email, r"^[a-zA-Z0-9_.+-]+@[a-zA-Z0-9-]+\.([a-zA-Z0-9-.]+$)")
  AS top_level_domain
FROM email_addresses;

+------------------+
| top_level_domain |
+------------------+
| com              |
| org              |
| net              |
+------------------+

REGEXP_EXTRACT_ALL

REGEXP_EXTRACT_ALL(value, regex)

Description

Returns an array of all substrings of value that match the regular expression, regex.

The REGEXP_EXTRACT_ALL function only returns non-overlapping matches. For example, using this function to extract ana from banana returns only one substring, not two.

Note: Cloud Spanner SQL provides regular expression support using the re2 library; see that documentation for its regular expression syntax.

Return type

An ARRAY of either STRINGs or BYTES

Examples

Table code_markdown:

+------------------------------------+
| code                               |
+------------------------------------+
| Try `function(x)` or `function(y)` |
+------------------------------------+

SELECT
  REGEXP_EXTRACT_ALL(code, "`(.+?)`") AS example
FROM code_markdown;

+----------------------------+
| example                    |
+----------------------------+
| [function(x), function(y)] |
+----------------------------+

REGEXP_REPLACE

REGEXP_REPLACE(value, regex, replacement)

Description

Returns a STRING where all substrings of value that match regular expression regex are replaced with replacement.

You can use backslashed-escaped digits (\1 to \9) within the replacement argument to insert text matching the corresponding parenthesized group in the regex pattern. Use \0 to refer to the entire matching text.

Note: To add a backslash in your regular expression, you must first escape it. For example, SELECT REGEXP_REPLACE("abc", "b(.)", "X\\1"); returns aXc.

The REGEXP_REPLACE function only replaces non-overlapping matches. For example, replacing ana within banana results in only one replacement, not two.

If the regex argument is not a valid regular expression, this function returns an error.

Note: Cloud Spanner SQL provides regular expression support using the re2 library; see that documentation for its regular expression syntax.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

Table markdown:

+-------------------------+
| heading                 |
+-------------------------+
| # Heading               |
| # Another heading       |
+-------------------------+

SELECT
  REGEXP_REPLACE(heading, r"^# ([a-zA-Z0-9\s]+$)", "<h1>\\1</h1>")
  AS html
FROM markdown;

+--------------------------+
| html                     |
+--------------------------+
| <h1>Heading</h1>         |
| <h1>Another heading</h1> |
+--------------------------+

REPLACE

REPLACE(original_value, from_value, to_value)

Description

Replaces all occurrences of from_value with to_value in original_value. If from_value is empty, no replacement is made.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

+--------------------+
| dessert            |
+--------------------+
| apple pie          |
| blackberry pie     |
| cherry pie         |
+--------------------+

SELECT
  REPLACE (dessert, "pie", "cobbler") as example
FROM desserts;

+--------------------+
| example            |
+--------------------+
| apple cobbler      |
| blackberry cobbler |
| cherry cobbler     |
+--------------------+

REPEAT

REPEAT(original_value, repetitions)

Description

Returns a value that consists of original_value, repeated. The repetitions parameter specifies the number of times to repeat original_value. Returns NULL if either original_value or repetitions are NULL.

This function return an error if the repetitions value is negative.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

SELECT t, n, REPEAT(t, n) AS REPEAT FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT('abc' AS t, 3 AS n),
  ('例子', 2),
  ('abc', null),
  (null, 3)
]);
t n REPEAT
abc 3 abcabcabc
例子 2 例子例子
abc NULL NULL
NULL 3 NULL

REVERSE

REVERSE(value)

Description

Returns the reverse of the input STRING or BYTES.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

SELECT
  sample_string,
  REVERSE(sample_string) AS reverse_string,
  sample_bytes,
  REVERSE(sample_bytes) AS reverse_bytes
FROM (
  SELECT "foo" AS sample_string, b"bar" AS sample_bytes UNION ALL
  SELECT "абвгд" AS sample_string, b"123" AS sample_bytes) as example;

+---------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+
| sample_string | reverse_string | sample_bytes | reverse_bytes |
+---------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+
| foo           | oof            | bar          | rab           |
| абвгд         | дгвба          | 123          | 321           |
+---------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+

RPAD

RPAD(original_value, return_length[, pattern])

Description

Returns a value that consists of original_value appended with pattern. The return_length is an INT64 that specifies the length of the returned value. If original_value is BYTES, return_length is the number of bytes. If original_value is STRING, return_length is the number of characters.

The default value of pattern is a blank space.

Both original_value and pattern must be the same data type.

If return_length is less than or equal to the original_value length, this function returns the original_value value, truncated to the value of return_length. For example, RPAD("hello world", 7); returns "hello w".

If original_value, return_length, or pattern is NULL, this function returns NULL.

This function returns an error if:

  • return_length is negative
  • pattern is empty

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

SELECT t, len, FORMAT("%T", RPAD(t, len)) AS RPAD FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT('abc' AS t, 5 AS len),
  ('abc', 2),
  ('例子', 4)
]);
t len RPAD
abc 5 "abc  "
abc 2 "ab"
例子 4 "例子  "
SELECT t, len, pattern, FORMAT("%T", RPAD(t, len, pattern)) AS RPAD FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT('abc' AS t, 8 AS len, 'def' AS pattern),
  ('abc', 5, '-'),
  ('例子', 5, '中文')
]);
t len pattern RPAD
abc 8 def "abcdefde"
abc 5 - "abc--"
例子 5 中文 "例子中文中"
SELECT FORMAT("%T", t) AS t, len, FORMAT("%T", RPAD(t, len)) AS RPAD FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT(b'abc' AS t, 5 AS len),
  (b'abc', 2),
  (b'\xab\xcd\xef', 4)
]);
t len RPAD
b"abc" 5 b"abc  "
b"abc" 2 b"ab"
b"\xab\xcd\xef" 4 b"\xab\xcd\xef "
SELECT
  FORMAT("%T", t) AS t,
  len,
  FORMAT("%T", pattern) AS pattern,
  FORMAT("%T", RPAD(t, len, pattern)) AS RPAD
FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT(b'abc' AS t, 8 AS len, b'def' AS pattern),
  (b'abc', 5, b'-'),
  (b'\xab\xcd\xef', 5, b'\x00')
]);
t len pattern RPAD
b"abc" 8 b"def" b"abcdefde"
b"abc" 5 b"-" b"abc--"
b"\xab\xcd\xef" 5 b"\x00" b"\xab\xcd\xef\x00\x00"

RTRIM

RTRIM(value1[, value2])

Description

Identical to TRIM, but only removes trailing characters.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| ***apple***    |
| ***banana***   |
| ***orange***   |
+----------------+

SELECT
  RTRIM(item, "*") as example
FROM items;

+-----------+
| example   |
+-----------+
| ***apple  |
| ***banana |
| ***orange |
+-----------+

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| applexxx       |
| bananayyy      |
| orangezzz      |
| pearxyz        |
+----------------+

SELECT
  RTRIM(item, "xyz") as example
FROM items;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
| apple   |
| banana  |
| orange  |
| pear    |
+---------+

SAFE_CONVERT_BYTES_TO_STRING

SAFE_CONVERT_BYTES_TO_STRING(value)

Description

Converts a sequence of bytes to a string. Any invalid UTF-8 characters are replaced with the Unicode replacement character, U+FFFD.

Return type

STRING

Examples

The following statement returns the Unicode replacement character, �.

SELECT SAFE_CONVERT_BYTES_TO_STRING(b'\xc2') as safe_convert;

SPLIT

SPLIT(value[, delimiter])

Description

Splits value using the delimiter argument.

For STRING, the default delimiter is the comma ,.

For BYTES, you must specify a delimiter.

Splitting on an empty delimiter produces an array of UTF-8 characters for STRING values, and an array of BYTES for BYTES values.

Splitting an empty STRING returns an ARRAY with a single empty STRING.

Return type

ARRAY of type STRING or ARRAY of type BYTES

Examples

SELECT SPLIT(letter_group, " ") as example
FROM (
  SELECT "a b c d" as letter_group
  UNION ALL SELECT "e f g h" as letter_group
  UNION ALL SELECT "i j k l" as letter_group) AS letters;

+----------------------+
| example              |
+----------------------+
| [a, b, c, d]         |
| [e, f, g, h]         |
| [i, j, k, l]         |
+----------------------+

STARTS_WITH

STARTS_WITH(value1, value2)

Description

Takes two values. Returns TRUE if the second value is a prefix of the first.

Return type

BOOL

Examples

SELECT
  STARTS_WITH(item, "b") as example
FROM (
  SELECT "foo" as item
  UNION ALL SELECT "bar" as item
  UNION ALL SELECT "baz" as item) AS items;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
|   False |
|    True |
|    True |
+---------+

STRPOS

STRPOS(string, substring)

Description

Returns the 1-based index of the first occurrence of substring inside string. Returns 0 if substring is not found.

Return type

INT64

Examples

Table email_addresses:

+-------------------------+
| email_address           |
+-------------------------+
| foo@example.com         |
| foobar@example.com      |
| foobarbaz@example.com   |
| quxexample.com          |
+-------------------------+

SELECT
  STRPOS(email_address, "@") AS example
FROM email_addresses;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
|       4 |
|       7 |
|      10 |
|       0 |
+---------+

SUBSTR

SUBSTR(value, position[, length])

Description

Returns a substring of the supplied value. The position argument is an integer specifying the starting position of the substring, with position = 1 indicating the first character or byte. The length argument is the maximum number of characters for STRING arguments, or bytes for BYTES arguments.

If position is negative, the function counts from the end of value, with -1 indicating the last character.

If position is a position off the left end of the STRING (position = 0 or position < -LENGTH(value)), the function starts from position = 1. If length exceeds the length of value, returns fewer than length characters.

If length is less than 0, the function returns an error.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| apple          |
| banana         |
| orange         |
+----------------+

SELECT
  SUBSTR(item, 2) as example
FROM items;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
| pple    |
| anana   |
| range   |
+---------+

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| apple          |
| banana         |
| orange         |
+----------------+

SELECT
  SUBSTR(item, 2, 2) as example
FROM items;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
| pp      |
| an      |
| ra      |
+---------+

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| apple          |
| banana         |
| orange         |
+----------------+

SELECT
  SUBSTR(item, -2) as example
FROM items;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
| le      |
| na      |
| ge      |
+---------+

TO_BASE64

TO_BASE64(bytes_expr)

Description

Converts a sequence of BYTES into a base64-encoded STRING. To convert a base64-encoded STRING into BYTES, use FROM_BASE64.

Return type

STRING

Example

SELECT TO_BASE64(b'\xde\xad\xbe\xef') AS base64_string;

+---------------+
| base64_string |
+---------------+
| 3q2+7w==      |
+---------------+

TO_CODE_POINTS

TO_CODE_POINTS(value)

Description

Takes a value and returns an array of INT64.

  • If value is a STRING, each element in the returned array represents a code point. Each code point falls within the range of [0, 0xD7FF] and [0xE000, 0x10FFFF].
  • If value is BYTES, each element in the array is an extended ASCII character value in the range of [0, 255].

To convert from an array of code points to a STRING or BYTES, see CODE_POINTS_TO_STRING or CODE_POINTS_TO_BYTES.

Return type

ARRAY of INT64

Examples

The following example gets the code points for each element in an array of words.

SELECT word, TO_CODE_POINTS(word) AS code_points
FROM UNNEST(['foo', 'bar', 'baz', 'giraffe', 'llama']) AS word;

+---------+------------------------------------+
| word    | code_points                        |
+---------+------------------------------------+
| foo     | [102, 111, 111]                    |
| bar     | [98, 97, 114]                      |
| baz     | [98, 97, 122]                      |
| giraffe | [103, 105, 114, 97, 102, 102, 101] |
| llama   | [108, 108, 97, 109, 97]            |
+---------+------------------------------------+

The following example converts integer representations of BYTES to their corresponding ASCII character values.

SELECT word, TO_CODE_POINTS(word) AS bytes_value_as_integer
FROM UNNEST([b'\x00\x01\x10\xff', b'\x66\x6f\x6f']) AS word;

+------------------+------------------------+
| word             | bytes_value_as_integer |
+------------------+------------------------+
| \x00\x01\x10\xff | [0, 1, 16, 255]        |
| foo              | [102, 111, 111]        |
+------------------+------------------------+

The following example demonstrates the difference between a BYTES result and a STRING result.

SELECT TO_CODE_POINTS(b'Ā') AS b_result, TO_CODE_POINTS('Ā') AS s_result;

+------------+----------+
| b_result   | s_result |
+------------+----------+
| [196, 128] | [256]    |
+------------+----------+

Notice that the character, Ā, is represented as a two-byte Unicode sequence. As a result, the BYTES version of TO_CODE_POINTS returns an array with two elements, while the STRING version returns an array with a single element.

TO_HEX

TO_HEX(bytes)

Description

Converts a sequence of BYTES into a hexadecimal STRING. Converts each byte in the STRING as two hexadecimal characters in the range (0..9, a..f). To convert a hexadecimal-encoded STRING to BYTES, use FROM_HEX.

Return type

STRING

Example

SELECT byte_str, TO_HEX(byte_str) AS hex_str
FROM UNNEST([b'\x00\x01\x02\x03\xAA\xEE\xEF\xFF',
             b'foobar']) AS byte_str;

+----------------------------------+------------------+
| byte_string                      | hex_string       |
+----------------------------------+------------------+
| foobar                           | 666f6f626172     |
| \x00\x01\x02\x03\xaa\xee\xef\xff | 00010203aaeeefff |
+----------------------------------+------------------+

TRIM

TRIM(value1[, value2])

Description

Removes all leading and trailing characters that match value2. If value2 is not specified, all leading and trailing whitespace characters (as defined by the Unicode standard) are removed. If the first argument is of type BYTES, the second argument is required.

If value2 contains more than one character or byte, the function removes all leading or trailing characters or bytes contained in value2.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
|    apple       |
|    banana      |
|    orange      |
+----------------+

SELECT
  CONCAT("#", TRIM(item), "#") as example
FROM items;

+----------+
| example  |
+----------+
| #apple#  |
| #banana# |
| #orange# |
+----------+

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| ***apple***    |
| ***banana***   |
| ***orange***   |
+----------------+

SELECT
  TRIM(item, "*") as example
FROM items;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
| apple   |
| banana  |
| orange  |
+---------+

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| xxxapplexxx    |
| yyybananayyy   |
| zzzorangezzz   |
| xyzpearxyz     |
+----------------+

SELECT
  TRIM(item, "xyz") as example
FROM items;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
| apple   |
| banana  |
| orange  |
| pear    |
+---------+

UPPER

UPPER(value)

Description

For STRING arguments, returns the original string with all alphabetic characters in uppercase. Mapping between uppercase and lowercase is done according to the Unicode Character Database without taking into account language-specific mappings.

For BYTES arguments, the argument is treated as ASCII text, with all bytes greater than 127 left intact.

Return type

STRING or BYTES

Examples

Table items:

+----------------+
| item           |
+----------------+
| foo            |
| bar            |
| baz            |
+----------------+

SELECT
  UPPER(item) AS example
FROM items;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
| FOO     |
| BAR     |
| BAZ     |
+---------+

JSON functions

Cloud Spanner SQL supports functions that help you retrieve data stored in JSON-formatted strings and functions that help you transform data into JSON-formatted strings.

JSON_QUERY or JSON_VALUE

JSON_QUERY(json_string_expr, json_path_string_literal), which returns JSON values as STRINGs.

JSON_VALUE(json_string_expr, json_path_string_literal), which returns scalar JSON values as STRINGs.

Description

The json_string_expr parameter must be a JSON-formatted string. For example:

{"class" : {"students" : [{"name" : "Jane"}]}}

The json_path_string_literal parameter identifies the value or values you want to obtain from the JSON-formatted string. You construct this parameter using the JSONPath format. As part of this format, this parameter must start with a $ symbol, which refers to the outermost level of the JSON-formatted string. You can identify child values using dot or surrounded by double quotes. If the JSON object is an array, you can use brackets to specify the array index.

JSONPath Description
$ Root object or element
. Child operator
[] Subscript operator

Both functions return NULL if the json_path_string_literal parameter does not match a value in json_string_expr. If the selected value for JSON_VALUE is not scalar, such as an object or an array, the function returns NULL.

If the JSONPath is invalid, these functions raise an error.

In cases where a JSON key uses invalid JSONPath characters, you can escape those characters using double quotes. For example:

SELECT JSON_VALUE('{"a.b": {"c": "world"}}', '$."a.b".c') as hello;

+-------+
| hello |
+-------+
| world |
+-------+

Examples

SELECT JSON_QUERY(json_text, '$') AS json_text_string
FROM UNNEST([
  '{"class" : {"students" : [{"name" : "Jane"}]}}',
  '{"class" : {"students" : []}}',
  '{"class" : {"students" : [{"name" : "John"}, {"name": "Jamie"}]}}'
  ]) AS json_text;

+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| json_text_string                                          |
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| {"class":{"students":[{"name":"Jane"}]}}                  |
| {"class":{"students":[]}}                                 |
| {"class":{"students":[{"name":"John"},{"name":"Jamie"}]}} |
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
SELECT JSON_QUERY(json_text, '$.class.students[0]') AS first_student
FROM UNNEST([
  '{"class" : {"students" : [{"name" : "Jane"}]}}',
  '{"class" : {"students" : []}}',
  '{"class" : {"students" : [{"name" : "John"}, {"name": "Jamie"}]}}'
  ]) AS json_text;

+-----------------+
| first_student   |
+-----------------+
| {"name":"Jane"} |
| NULL            |
| {"name":"John"} |
+-----------------+
SELECT JSON_QUERY(json_text, '$.class.students[1].name') AS second_student_name
FROM UNNEST([
  '{"class" : {"students" : [{"name" : "Jane"}]}}',
  '{"class" : {"students" : []}}',
  '{"class" : {"students" : [{"name" : "John"}, {"name": "Jamie"}]}}'
  ]) AS json_text;

+-------------------+
| second_student    |
+-------------------+
| NULL              |
| NULL              |
| {"first":"Jamie"} |
+-------------------+
SELECT JSON_QUERY(json_text, '$.class."students"') AS student_names
FROM UNNEST([
  '{"class" : {"students" : [{"name" : "Jane"}]}}',
  '{"class" : {"students" : []}}',
  '{"class" : {"students" : [{"name" : "John"}, {"name": "Jamie"}]}}'
  ]) AS json_text;

+------------------------------------+
| student_names                      |
+------------------------------------+
| [{"name":"Jane"}]                  |
| []                                 |
| [{"name":"John"},{"name":"Jamie"}] |
+------------------------------------+
SELECT JSON_QUERY('{ "name" : "Jakob", "age" : "6" }', '$.name') as json_name,
  JSON_VALUE('{ "name" : "Jakob", "age" : "6" }', '$.name') as scalar_name,
  JSON_QUERY('{ "name" : "Jakob", "age" : "6" }', '$.age') as json_age,
  JSON_VALUE('{ "name" : "Jakob", "age" : "6" }', '$.age') as scalar;

+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+
| json_name | scalar_name | json_age | scalar |
+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+
| "Jakob"   | Jakob       | "6"      | 6      |
+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+

Array functions

ARRAY

ARRAY(subquery)

Description

The ARRAY function returns an ARRAY with one element for each row in a subquery.

If subquery produces a standard SQL table, the table must have exactly one column. Each element in the output ARRAY is the value of the single column of a row in the table.

If subquery produces a value table, then each element in the output ARRAY is the entire corresponding row of the value table.

Constraints

  • Subqueries are unordered, so the elements of the output ARRAY are not guaranteed to preserve any order in the source table for the subquery. However, if the subquery includes an ORDER BY clause, the ARRAY function will return an ARRAY that honors that clause.
  • If the subquery returns more than one column, the ARRAY function returns an error.
  • If the subquery returns an ARRAY typed column or ARRAY typed rows, the ARRAY function returns an error: Cloud Spanner SQL does not support ARRAYs with elements of type ARRAY.
  • If the subquery returns zero rows, the ARRAY function returns an empty ARRAY. It never returns a NULL ARRAY.

Return type

ARRAY

Examples

SELECT ARRAY
  (SELECT 1 UNION ALL
   SELECT 2 UNION ALL
   SELECT 3) AS new_array;

+-----------+
| new_array |
+-----------+
| [1, 2, 3] |
+-----------+

To construct an ARRAY from a subquery that contains multiple columns, change the subquery to use SELECT AS STRUCT. Now the ARRAY function will return an ARRAY of STRUCTs. The ARRAY will contain one STRUCT for each row in the subquery, and each of these STRUCTs will contain a field for each column in that row.

SELECT
  ARRAY
    (SELECT AS STRUCT 1, 2, 3
     UNION ALL SELECT AS STRUCT 4, 5, 6) AS new_array;

+------------------------+
| new_array              |
+------------------------+
| [{1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 6}] |
+------------------------+

Similarly, to construct an ARRAY from a subquery that contains one or more ARRAYs, change the subquery to use SELECT AS STRUCT.

SELECT ARRAY
  (SELECT AS STRUCT [1, 2, 3] UNION ALL
   SELECT AS STRUCT [4, 5, 6]) AS new_array;

+----------------------------+
| new_array                  |
+----------------------------+
| [{[1, 2, 3]}, {[4, 5, 6]}] |
+----------------------------+

ARRAY_CONCAT

ARRAY_CONCAT(array_expression_1 [, array_expression_n])

Description

Concatenates one or more arrays with the same element type into a single array.

Return type

ARRAY

Examples

SELECT ARRAY_CONCAT([1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]) as count_to_six;

+--------------------------------------------------+
| count_to_six                                     |
+--------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]                               |
+--------------------------------------------------+

ARRAY_LENGTH

ARRAY_LENGTH(array_expression)

Description

Returns the size of the array. Returns 0 for an empty array. Returns NULL if the array_expression is NULL.

Return type

INT64

Examples

SELECT list, ARRAY_LENGTH(list) AS size
FROM (
  SELECT ["apples", "bananas", NULL, "grapes"] as list
  UNION ALL SELECT ["coffee", "tea", "milk" ] as list
  UNION ALL SELECT ["cake", "pie"] as list) AS items
ORDER BY size DESC;

+---------------------------------+------+
| list                            | size |
+---------------------------------+------+
| [apples, bananas, NULL, grapes] | 4    |
| [coffee, tea, milk]             | 3    |
| [cake, pie]                     | 2    |
+---------------------------------+------+

ARRAY_TO_STRING

ARRAY_TO_STRING(array_expression, delimiter[, null_text])

Description

Returns a concatenation of the elements in array_expression as a STRING. The value for array_expression can either be an array of STRING or BYTES data types.

If the null_text parameter is used, the function replaces any NULL values in the array with the value of null_text.

If the null_text parameter is not used, the function omits the NULL value and its preceding delimiter.

Examples

SELECT ARRAY_TO_STRING(list, '--') AS text
FROM (
  SELECT ["apples", "bananas", "pears", "grapes"] as list
  UNION ALL SELECT ["coffee", "tea", "milk" ] as list
  UNION ALL SELECT ["cake", "pie", NULL] as list) AS items;

+--------------------------------+
| text                           |
+--------------------------------+
| apples--bananas--pears--grapes |
| coffee--tea--milk              |
| cake--pie                      |
+--------------------------------+

SELECT ARRAY_TO_STRING(list, '--', 'MISSING') AS text
FROM (
  SELECT ["apples", "bananas", "pears", "grapes"] as list
  UNION ALL SELECT ["coffee", "tea", "milk" ] as list
  UNION ALL SELECT ["cake", "pie", NULL] as list) AS items;

+--------------------------------+
| text                           |
+--------------------------------+
| apples--bananas--pears--grapes |
| coffee--tea--milk              |
| cake--pie--MISSING             |
+--------------------------------+

GENERATE_ARRAY

GENERATE_ARRAY(start_expression, end_expression[, step_expression])

Description

Returns an array of values. The start_expression and end_expression parameters determine the inclusive start and end of the array.

The GENERATE_ARRAY function accepts the following data types as inputs:

  • INT64
  • FLOAT64

The step_expression parameter determines the increment used to generate array values. The default value for this parameter is 1.

This function returns an error if step_expression is set to 0, or if any input is NaN.

If any argument is NULL, the function will return a NULL array.

Return Data Type

ARRAY

Examples

The following returns an array of integers, with a default step of 1.

SELECT GENERATE_ARRAY(1, 5) AS example_array;

+-----------------+
| example_array   |
+-----------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] |
+-----------------+

The following returns an array using a user-specified step size.

SELECT GENERATE_ARRAY(0, 10, 3) AS example_array;

+---------------+
| example_array |
+---------------+
| [0, 3, 6, 9]  |
+---------------+

The following returns an array using a negative value, -3 for its step size.

SELECT GENERATE_ARRAY(10, 0, -3) AS example_array;

+---------------+
| example_array |
+---------------+
| [10, 7, 4, 1] |
+---------------+

The following returns an array using the same value for the start_expression and end_expression.

SELECT GENERATE_ARRAY(4, 4, 10) AS example_array;

+---------------+
| example_array |
+---------------+
| [4]           |
+---------------+

The following returns an empty array, because the start_expression is greater than the end_expression, and the step_expression value is positive.

SELECT GENERATE_ARRAY(10, 0, 3) AS example_array;

+---------------+
| example_array |
+---------------+
| []            |
+---------------+

The following returns a NULL array because end_expression is NULL.

SELECT GENERATE_ARRAY(5, NULL, 1) AS example_array;

+---------------+
| example_array |
+---------------+
| NULL          |
+---------------+

The following returns multiple arrays.

SELECT GENERATE_ARRAY(start, 5) AS example_array
FROM UNNEST([3, 4, 5]) AS start;

+---------------+
| example_array |
+---------------+
| [3, 4, 5]     |
| [4, 5]        |
| [5]           |
+---------------+

GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY

GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY(start_date, end_date[, INTERVAL INT64_expr date_part])

Description

Returns an array of dates. The start_date and end_date parameters determine the inclusive start and end of the array.

The GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY function accepts the following data types as inputs:

  • start_date must be a DATE
  • end_date must be a DATE
  • INT64_expr must be an INT64
  • date_part must be either DAY, WEEK, MONTH, QUARTER, or YEAR.

The INT64_expr parameter determines the increment used to generate dates. The default value for this parameter is 1 day.

This function returns an error if INT64_expr is set to 0.

Return Data Type

An ARRAY containing 0 or more DATE values.

Examples

The following returns an array of dates, with a default step of 1.

SELECT GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY('2016-10-05', '2016-10-08') AS example;

+--------------------------------------------------+
| example                                          |
+--------------------------------------------------+
| [2016-10-05, 2016-10-06, 2016-10-07, 2016-10-08] |
+--------------------------------------------------+

The following returns an array using a user-specified step size.

SELECT GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY(
 '2016-10-05', '2016-10-09', INTERVAL 2 DAY) AS example;

+--------------------------------------+
| example                              |
+--------------------------------------+
| [2016-10-05, 2016-10-07, 2016-10-09] |
+--------------------------------------+

The following returns an array using a negative value, -3 for its step size.

SELECT GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY('2016-10-05',
  '2016-10-01', INTERVAL -3 DAY) AS example;

+--------------------------+
| example                  |
+--------------------------+
| [2016-10-05, 2016-10-02] |
+--------------------------+

The following returns an array using the same value for the start_dateand end_date.

SELECT GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY('2016-10-05',
  '2016-10-05', INTERVAL 8 DAY) AS example;

+--------------+
| example      |
+--------------+
| [2016-10-05] |
+--------------+

The following returns an empty array, because the start_date is greater than the end_date, and the step value is positive.

SELECT GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY('2016-10-05',
  '2016-10-01', INTERVAL 1 DAY) AS example;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
| []      |
+---------+

The following returns a NULL array, because one of its inputs is NULL.

SELECT GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY('2016-10-05', NULL) AS example;

+---------+
| example |
+---------+
| NULL    |
+---------+

The following returns an array of dates, using MONTH as the date_part interval:

SELECT GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY('2016-01-01',
  '2016-12-31', INTERVAL 2 MONTH) AS example;

+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| example                                                                  |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| [2016-01-01, 2016-03-01, 2016-05-01, 2016-07-01, 2016-09-01, 2016-11-01] |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The following uses non-constant dates to generate an array.

WITH StartsAndEnds AS (
  SELECT DATE '2016-01-01' AS date_start, DATE '2016-01-31' AS date_end
  UNION ALL SELECT DATE "2016-04-01", DATE "2016-04-30"
  UNION ALL SELECT DATE "2016-07-01", DATE "2016-07-31"
  UNION ALL SELECT DATE "2016-10-01", DATE "2016-10-31"
)
SELECT GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY(date_start, date_end, INTERVAL 1 WEEK) AS date_range
FROM StartsAndEnds;

+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| date_range                                                   |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| [2016-01-01, 2016-01-08, 2016-01-15, 2016-01-22, 2016-01-29] |
| [2016-04-01, 2016-04-08, 2016-04-15, 2016-04-22, 2016-04-29] |
| [2016-07-01, 2016-07-08, 2016-07-15, 2016-07-22, 2016-07-29] |
| [2016-10-01, 2016-10-08, 2016-10-15, 2016-10-22, 2016-10-29] |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+

OFFSET and ORDINAL

array_expression[OFFSET(zero_based_offset)]
array_expression[ORDINAL(one_based_offset)]

Description

Accesses an ARRAY element by position and returns the element. OFFSET means that the numbering starts at zero, ORDINAL means that the numbering starts at one.

A given array can be interpreted as either 0-based or 1-based. When accessing an array element, you must preface the array position with OFFSET or ORDINAL, respectively; there is no default behavior.

Both OFFSET and ORDINAL generate an error if the index is out of range.

Return type

Varies depending on the elements in the ARRAY.

Examples

SELECT list, list[OFFSET(1)] as offset_1, list[ORDINAL(1)] as ordinal_1
FROM (
  SELECT ["apples", "bananas", "pears", "grapes"] as list
  UNION ALL SELECT ["coffee", "tea", "milk" ] as list
  UNION ALL SELECT ["cake", "pie"] as list) AS items;

+----------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
| list                             | offset_1  | ordinal_1 |
+----------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
| [apples, bananas, pears, grapes] | bananas   | apples    |
| [coffee, tea, milk]              | tea       | coffee    |
| [cake, pie]                      | pie       | cake      |
+----------------------------------+-----------+-----------+

Date functions

Cloud Spanner SQL supports the following DATE functions.

CURRENT_DATE

CURRENT_DATE([time_zone])

Description

Returns the current date as of the specified or default timezone.

This function supports an optional time_zone parameter. This parameter is a string representing the timezone to use. If no timezone is specified, the default timezone, America/Los_Angeles, is used. See Timezone definitions for information on how to specify a time zone.

If the time_zone parameter evaluates to NULL, this function returns NULL.

Return Data Type

DATE

Example

SELECT CURRENT_DATE() as the_date;

+--------------+
| the_date     |
+--------------+
| 2016-12-25   |
+--------------+

EXTRACT

EXTRACT(part FROM date_expression)

Description

Returns the value corresponding to the specified date part. The part must be one of:

  • DAYOFWEEK: Returns values in the range [1,7] with Sunday as the first day of the week.
  • DAY
  • DAYOFYEAR
  • WEEK: Returns the week number of the date in the range [0, 53]. Weeks begin with Sunday, and dates prior to the first Sunday of the year are in week 0.

  • ISOWEEK: Returns the ISO 8601 week number of the date_expression. ISOWEEKs begin on Monday. Return values are in the range [1, 53]. The first ISOWEEK of each ISO year begins on the Monday before the first Thursday of the Gregorian calendar year.

  • MONTH
  • QUARTER: Returns values in the range [1,4].
  • YEAR
  • ISOYEAR: Returns the ISO 8601 week-numbering year, which is the Gregorian calendar year containing the Thursday of the week to which date_expression belongs.

Return Data Type

INT64

Examples

In the following example, EXTRACT returns a value corresponding to the DAY time part.

SELECT EXTRACT(DAY FROM DATE '2013-12-25') as the_day;

+---------+
| the_day |
+---------+
| 25      |
+---------+

In the following example, EXTRACT returns values corresponding to different time parts from a column of dates near the end of the year.

SELECT
  date,
  EXTRACT(ISOYEAR FROM date) AS isoyear,
  EXTRACT(ISOWEEK FROM date) AS isoweek,
  EXTRACT(YEAR FROM date) AS year,
  EXTRACT(WEEK FROM date) AS week
FROM UNNEST(GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY('2015-12-23', '2016-01-09')) AS date
ORDER BY date;
+------------+---------+---------+------+------+
| date       | isoyear | isoweek | year | week |
+------------+---------+---------+------+------+
| 2015-12-23 | 2015    | 52      | 2015 | 51   |
| 2015-12-24 | 2015    | 52      | 2015 | 51   |
| 2015-12-25 | 2015    | 52      | 2015 | 51   |
| 2015-12-26 | 2015    | 52      | 2015 | 51   |
| 2015-12-27 | 2015    | 52      | 2015 | 52   |
| 2015-12-28 | 2015    | 53      | 2015 | 52   |
| 2015-12-29 | 2015    | 53      | 2015 | 52   |
| 2015-12-30 | 2015    | 53      | 2015 | 52   |
| 2015-12-31 | 2015    | 53      | 2015 | 52   |
| 2016-01-01 | 2015    | 53      | 2016 | 0    |
| 2016-01-02 | 2015    | 53      | 2016 | 0    |
| 2016-01-03 | 2015    | 53      | 2016 | 1    |
| 2016-01-04 | 2016    | 1       | 2016 | 1    |
| 2016-01-05 | 2016    | 1       | 2016 | 1    |
| 2016-01-06 | 2016    | 1       | 2016 | 1    |
| 2016-01-07 | 2016    | 1       | 2016 | 1    |
| 2016-01-08 | 2016    | 1       | 2016 | 1    |
| 2016-01-09 | 2016    | 1       | 2016 | 1    |
+------------+---------+---------+------+------+

DATE

1. DATE(year, month, day)
2. DATE(timestamp_expression[, timezone])

Description

  1. Constructs a DATE from INT64 values representing the year, month, and day.
  2. Converts a timestamp_expression to a DATE data type. It supports an optional parameter to specify a timezone. If no timezone is specified, the default timezone, America/Los_Angeles, is used.

Return Data Type

DATE

Example

SELECT
  DATE(2016, 12, 25) as date_ymd,
  DATE(TIMESTAMP "2016-12-25 05:30:00+07", "America/Los_Angeles") as date_tstz;

+------------+------------+
| date_ymd   | date_tstz  |
+------------+------------+
| 2016-12-25 | 2016-12-24 |
+------------+------------+

DATE_ADD

DATE_ADD(date_expression, INTERVAL INT64_expr date_part)

Description

Adds a specified time interval to a DATE.

DATE_ADD supports the following date_part values:

  • DAY
  • WEEK. Equivalent to 7 DAYs.
  • MONTH
  • QUARTER
  • YEAR

Special handling is required for MONTH, QUARTER, and YEAR parts when the date is at (or near) the last day of the month. If the resulting month has fewer days than the original date's day, then the result day is the last day of the new month.

Return Data Type

DATE

Example

SELECT DATE_ADD(DATE "2008-12-25", INTERVAL 5 DAY) as five_days_later;

+--------------------+
| five_days_later    |
+--------------------+
| 2008-12-30         |
+--------------------+

DATE_SUB

DATE_SUB(date_expression, INTERVAL INT64_expr date_part)

Description

Subtracts a specified time interval from a DATE.

DATE_SUB supports the following date_part values:

  • DAY
  • WEEK. Equivalent to 7 DAYs.
  • MONTH
  • QUARTER
  • YEAR

Special handling is required for MONTH, QUARTER, and YEAR parts when the date is at (or near) the last day of the month. If the resulting month has fewer days than the original date's day, then the result day is the last day of the new month.

Return Data Type

DATE

Example

SELECT DATE_SUB(DATE "2008-12-25", INTERVAL 5 DAY) as five_days_ago;

+---------------+
| five_days_ago |
+---------------+
| 2008-12-20    |
+---------------+

DATE_DIFF

DATE_DIFF(date_expression, date_expression, date_part)

Description

Returns the number of date_part boundaries between the two date_expressions. If the first date occurs before the second date, then the result is non-positive.

DATE_DIFF supports the following date_part values:

  • DAY
  • WEEK This date part begins on Sunday.
  • MONTH
  • QUARTER
  • YEAR

Return Data Type

INT64

Example

SELECT DATE_DIFF(DATE '2010-07-07', DATE '2008-12-25', DAY) as days_diff;

+-----------+
| days_diff |
+-----------+
| 559       |
+-----------+
SELECT
  DATE_DIFF(DATE '2017-10-15', DATE '2017-10-14', DAY) as days_diff,
  DATE_DIFF(DATE '2017-10-15', DATE '2017-10-14', WEEK) as weeks_diff;

+-----------+------------+
| days_diff | weeks_diff |
+-----------+------------+
| 1         | 1          |
+-----------+------------+

The example above shows the result of DATE_DIFF for two days in succession. DATE_DIFF with the date part WEEK returns 1 because DATE_DIFF counts the number of date part boundaries in this range of dates. Each WEEK begins on Sunday, so there is one date part boundary between Saturday, 2017-10-14 and Sunday, 2017-10-15.

DATE_TRUNC

DATE_TRUNC(date_expression, date_part)

Description

Truncates the date to the specified granularity.

DATE_TRUNC supports the following values for date_part:

  • DAY
  • WEEK
  • MONTH
  • QUARTER
  • YEAR

Return Data Type

DATE

Examples

SELECT DATE_TRUNC(DATE '2008-12-25', MONTH) as month;

+------------+
| month      |
+------------+
| 2008-12-01 |
+------------+

DATE_FROM_UNIX_DATE

DATE_FROM_UNIX_DATE(INT64_expression)

Description

Interprets INT64_expression as the number of days since 1970-01-01.

Return Data Type

DATE

Example

SELECT DATE_FROM_UNIX_DATE(14238) as date_from_epoch;

+-----------------+
| date_from_epoch |
+-----------------+
| 2008-12-25      |
+-----------------+

FORMAT_DATE

FORMAT_DATE(format_string, date_expr)

Description

Formats the date_expr according to the specified format_string.

See Supported Format Elements For DATE for a list of format elements that this function supports.

Return Data Type

STRING

Example

SELECT FORMAT_DATE("%x", DATE "2008-12-25") as US_format;

+------------+
| US_format  |
+------------+
| 12/25/08   |
+------------+

PARSE_DATE

PARSE_DATE(format_string, date_string)

Description

Uses a format_string and a string representation of a date to return a DATE object.

When using PARSE_DATE, keep the following in mind:

  • Unspecified fields. Any unspecified field is initialized from 1970-01-01.
  • Case insensitive names. Names, such as Monday, February, and so on, are case insensitive.
  • Whitespace. One or more consecutive white spaces in the format string matches zero or more consecutive white spaces in the date string. In addition, leading and trailing white spaces in the date string are always allowed -- even if they are not in the format string.
  • Format precedence. When two (or more) format elements have overlapping information (for example both %F and %Y affect the year), the last one generally overrides any earlier ones.

See Supported Format Elements For DATE for a list of format elements that this function supports.

Return Data Type

DATE

Example

SELECT PARSE_DATE("%x", "12/25/08") as parsed;

+------------+
| parsed     |
+------------+
| 2008-12-25 |
+------------+

UNIX_DATE

UNIX_DATE(date_expression)

Description

Returns the number of days since 1970-01-01.

Return Data Type

INT64

Example

SELECT UNIX_DATE(DATE "2008-12-25") as days_from_epoch;

+-----------------+
| days_from_epoch |
+-----------------+
| 14238           |
+-----------------+

Supported Format Elements for DATE

Unless otherwise noted, DATE functions that use format strings support the following elements:

Format element Description
%A The full weekday name.
%a The abbreviated weekday name.
%B The full month name.
%b or %h The abbreviated month name.
%C The century (a year divided by 100 and truncated to an integer) as a decimal number (00-99).
%D The date in the format %m/%d/%y.
%d The day of the month as a decimal number (01-31).
%e The day of month as a decimal number (1-31); single digits are preceded by a space.
%F The date in the format %Y-%m-%d.
%G The ISO 8601 year with century as a decimal number.
%g The ISO 8601 year without century as a decimal number (00-99).
%j The day of the year as a decimal number (001-366).
%m The month as a decimal number (01-12).
%n A newline character.
%t A tab character.
%U The week number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number (00-53).
%u The weekday (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number (1-7).
%V The week number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number (01-53). If the week containing January 1 has four or more days in the new year, then it is week 1; otherwise it is week 53 of the previous year, and the next week is week 1.
%W The week number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number (00-53).
%w The weekday (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number (0-6).
%x The date representation in MM/DD/YY format.
%Y The year with century as a decimal number.
%y The year without century as a decimal number (00-99), with an optional leading zero. Can be mixed with %C. If %C is not specified, years 00-68 are 2000s, while years 69-99 are 1900s.
%E4Y Four-character years (0001 ... 9999). Note that %Y produces as many characters as it takes to fully render the year.

Timestamp functions

Cloud Spanner SQL supports the following TIMESTAMP functions.

NOTE: These functions return a runtime error if overflow occurs; result values are bounded by the defined date and timestamp min/max values.

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP()

Description

Parentheses are optional. This function handles leap seconds by smearing them across a window of 20 hours around the inserted leap second. CURRENT_TIMESTAMP() produces a TIMESTAMP value that is continuous, non-ambiguous, has exactly 60 seconds per minute and does not repeat values over the leap second.

Supported Input Types

Not applicable

Result Data Type

TIMESTAMP

Example

SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP() as now;

+----------------------------------+
| now                              |
+----------------------------------+
| 2016-05-16 18:12:47.145482639+00 |
+----------------------------------+

EXTRACT

EXTRACT(part FROM timestamp_expression [AT TIME ZONE tz_spec])

Description

Returns an INT64 value that corresponds to the specified part from a supplied timestamp_expression.

Allowed part values are:

  • NANOSECOND
  • MICROSECOND
  • MILLISECOND
  • SECOND
  • MINUTE
  • HOUR
  • DAYOFWEEK
  • DAY
  • DAYOFYEAR
  • WEEK: Returns the week number of the date in the range [0, 53]. Weeks begin with Sunday, and dates prior to the first Sunday of the year are in week 0.

  • ISOWEEK: Returns the ISO 8601 week number of the datetime_expression. ISOWEEKs begin on Monday. Return values are in the range [1, 53]. The first ISOWEEK of each ISO year begins on the Monday before the first Thursday of the Gregorian calendar year.

  • MONTH
  • QUARTER
  • YEAR
  • ISOYEAR: Returns the ISO 8601 week-numbering year, which is the Gregorian calendar year containing the Thursday of the week to which date_expression belongs.
  • DATE

Returned values truncate lower order time periods. For example, when extracting seconds, EXTRACT truncates the millisecond and microsecond values.

See Timezone definitions for information on how to specify a time zone.

Return Data Type

Generally INT64 . Returns DATE if part is DATE.

In the following example, EXTRACT returns values corresponding to different time parts from a column of timestamps.

SELECT
  timestamp,
  EXTRACT(ISOYEAR FROM timestamp) AS isoyear,
  EXTRACT(ISOWEEK FROM timestamp) AS isoweek,
  EXTRACT(YEAR FROM timestamp) AS year,
  EXTRACT(WEEK FROM timestamp) AS week
FROM (
    SELECT TIMESTAMP '2005-01-03 12:34:56' AS timestamp UNION ALL
    SELECT TIMESTAMP '2007-12-31' UNION ALL
    SELECT TIMESTAMP '2009-01-01' UNION ALL
    SELECT TIMESTAMP '2009-12-31' UNION ALL
    SELECT TIMESTAMP '2017-01-02' UNION ALL
    SELECT TIMESTAMP '2017-05-26'
  ) AS Timestamps
ORDER BY timestamp;
+------------------------+---------+---------+------+------+
| timestamp              | isoyear | isoweek | year | week |
+------------------------+---------+---------+------+------+
| 2005-01-03 12:34:56+00 | 2005    | 1       | 2005 | 1    |
| 2007-12-31 00:00:00+00 | 2008    | 1       | 2007 | 52   |
| 2009-01-01 00:00:00+00 | 2009    | 1       | 2009 | 0    |
| 2009-12-31 00:00:00+00 | 2009    | 53      | 2009 | 52   |
| 2017-01-02 00:00:00+00 | 2017    | 1       | 2017 | 1    |
| 2017-05-26 00:00:00+00 | 2017    | 21      | 2017 | 21   |
+------------------------+---------+---------+------+------+

STRING

STRING(timestamp_expression[, timezone])

Description

Converts a timestamp_expression to a STRING data type. Supports an optional parameter to specify a timezone. See Timezone definitions for information on how to specify a time zone.

Return Data Type

STRING

TIMESTAMP

1. TIMESTAMP(string_expression[, timezone])
2. TIMESTAMP(date_expression[, timezone])

Description

  1. Converts a STRING expression to a TIMESTAMP data type.

  2. Converts a DATE object to a TIMESTAMP data type.

This function supports an optional parameter to specify a timezone. If no timezone is specified, the default timezone, America/Los_Angeles, is used.

Return Data Type

TIMESTAMP

Example

SELECT
  CAST(TIMESTAMP("2008-12-25 15:30:00", "America/Los_Angeles") AS STRING) AS timestamp_str,
  CAST(TIMESTAMP(DATE "2008-12-25", "America/Los_Angeles") AS STRING) AS timestamp_date;

+------------------------+------------------------+
| timestamp_str          | timestamp_date         |
+------------------------+------------------------+
| 2008-12-25 15:30:00-08 | 2008-12-25 00:00:00-08 |
+------------------------+------------------------+

TIMESTAMP_ADD

TIMESTAMP_ADD(timestamp_expression, INTERVAL int64_expression date_part)

Description

Adds int64_expression units of date_part to the timestamp, independent of any time zone.

TIMESTAMP_ADD supports the following values for date_part:

  • NANOSECOND
  • MICROSECOND
  • MILLISECOND
  • SECOND
  • MINUTE
  • HOUR. Equivalent to 60 MINUTEs.

Return Data Types

TIMESTAMP

Example

SELECT
  TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC" as original,
  TIMESTAMP_ADD(TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC", INTERVAL 10 MINUTE) AS later;

+------------------------+------------------------+
| original               | later                  |
+------------------------+------------------------+
| 2008-12-25 15:30:00+00 | 2008-12-25 15:40:00+00 |
+------------------------+------------------------+

TIMESTAMP_SUB

TIMESTAMP_SUB(timestamp_expression, INTERVAL int64_expression date_part)

Description

Subtracts int64_expression units of date_part from the timestamp, independent of any time zone.

TIMESTAMP_SUB supports the following values for date_part:

  • NANOSECOND
  • MICROSECOND
  • MILLISECOND
  • SECOND
  • MINUTE
  • HOUR. Equivalent to 60 MINUTEs.

Return Data Type

TIMESTAMP

Example

SELECT
  TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC" as original,
  TIMESTAMP_SUB(TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC", INTERVAL 10 MINUTE) AS earlier;

+------------------------+------------------------+
| original               | earlier                |
+------------------------+------------------------+
| 2008-12-25 15:30:00+00 | 2008-12-25 15:20:00+00 |
+------------------------+------------------------+

TIMESTAMP_DIFF

TIMESTAMP_DIFF(timestamp_expression, timestamp_expression, date_part)

Description

Returns the number of whole specified date_part intervals between two timestamps. Throws an error if the computation overflows the result type, such as if the difference in nanoseconds between the two timestamps would overflow an INT64 value.

TIMESTAMP_DIFF supports the following values for date_part:

  • NANOSECOND
  • MICROSECOND
  • MILLISECOND
  • SECOND
  • MINUTE
  • HOUR. Equivalent to 60 MINUTEs.

Return Data Type

INT64

Example

SELECT
  TIMESTAMP "2010-07-07 10:20:00 UTC" as first_timestamp,
  TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC" as second_timestamp,
  TIMESTAMP_DIFF(TIMESTAMP "2010-07-07 10:20:00 UTC",
    TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC", HOUR) AS hours;

+------------------------+------------------------+-------+
| first_timestamp        | second_timestamp       | hours |
+------------------------+------------------------+-------+
| 2010-07-07 10:20:00+00 | 2008-12-25 15:30:00+00 | 13410 |
+------------------------+------------------------+-------+

TIMESTAMP_TRUNC

TIMESTAMP_TRUNC(timestamp_expression, date_part[, time_zone])

Description

Truncates a timestamp to the granularity of date_part.

TIMESTAMP_TRUNC supports the following values for date_part:

  • NANOSECOND
  • MICROSECOND
  • MILLISECOND
  • SECOND
  • MINUTE
  • HOUR
  • DAY
  • WEEK
  • MONTH
  • QUARTER
  • YEAR

TIMESTAMP_TRUNC function supports an optional time_zone parameter. This parameter applies to the following date_parts:

  • MINUTE
  • HOUR
  • DAY
  • WEEK
  • MONTH
  • QUARTER
  • YEAR

Use this parameter if you want to use a time zone other than the default timezone, America/Los_Angeles, as part of the truncate operation.

Return Data Type

TIMESTAMP

Examples

SELECT
  TIMESTAMP_TRUNC(TIMESTAMP '2008-12-25 15:30:00', DAY, 'UTC') as utc,
  TIMESTAMP_TRUNC(TIMESTAMP '2008-12-25 15:30:00', DAY, 'America/Los_Angeles') as la;

+------------------------+------------------------+
| utc                    | la                     |
+------------------------+------------------------+
| 2008-12-25 00:00:00+00 | 2008-12-25 08:00:00+00 |
+------------------------+------------------------+

FORMAT_TIMESTAMP

FORMAT_TIMESTAMP(format_string, timestamp[, time_zone])

Description

Formats a timestamp according to the specified format_string.

See Supported Format Elements For TIMESTAMP for a list of format elements that this function supports.

Return Data Type

STRING

Example

SELECT FORMAT_TIMESTAMP("%c", TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00", "America/Los_Angeles")
  AS formatted;

+--------------------------+
| formatted                |
+--------------------------+
| Thu Dec 25 07:30:00 2008 |
+--------------------------+

PARSE_TIMESTAMP

PARSE_TIMESTAMP(format_string, string[, time_zone])

Description

Uses a format_string and a string representation of a timestamp to return a TIMESTAMP object.

When using PARSE_TIMESTAMP, keep the following in mind:

  • Unspecified fields. Any unspecified field is initialized from 1970-01-01 00:00:00.0. This initialization value uses the time zone specified by the function's time zone argument, if present. If not, the initialization value uses the default time zone, America/Los_Angeles. For instance, if the year is unspecified then it defaults to 1970, and so on.
  • Case insensitive names. Names, such as Monday, February, and so on, are case insensitive.
  • Whitespace. One or more consecutive white spaces in the format string matches zero or more consecutive white spaces in the timestamp string. In addition, leading and trailing white spaces in the timestamp string are always allowed -- even if they are not in the format string.
  • Format precedence. When two (or more) format elements have overlapping information (for example both %F and %Y affect the year), the last one generally overrides any earlier ones, with some exceptions (see the descriptions of %s, %C, and %y).

See Supported Format Elements For TIMESTAMP for a list of format elements that this function supports.

Return Data Type

TIMESTAMP

Example

SELECT PARSE_TIMESTAMP("%c", "Thu Dec 25 07:30:00 2008", "America/Los_Angeles") as parsed;

+-------------------------+
| parsed                  |
+-------------------------+
| 2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC |
+-------------------------+

TIMESTAMP_SECONDS

TIMESTAMP_SECONDS(int64_expression)

Description

Interprets int64_expression as the number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.

Return Data Type

TIMESTAMP

Example

SELECT TIMESTAMP_SECONDS(1230219000) as timestamp;

+-------------------------+
| timestamp               |
+-------------------------+
| 2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC |
+-------------------------+

TIMESTAMP_MILLIS

TIMESTAMP_MILLIS(int64_expression)

Description

Interprets int64_expression as the number of milliseconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.

Return Data Type

TIMESTAMP

Example

SELECT TIMESTAMP_MILLIS(1230219000000) as timestamp;

+-------------------------+
| timestamp               |
+-------------------------+
| 2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC |
+-------------------------+

TIMESTAMP_MICROS

TIMESTAMP_MICROS(int64_expression)

Description

Interprets int64_expression as the number of microseconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.

Return Data Type

TIMESTAMP

Example

SELECT TIMESTAMP_MICROS(1230219000000000) as timestamp;

+-------------------------+
| timestamp               |
+-------------------------+
| 2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC |
+-------------------------+

UNIX_SECONDS

UNIX_SECONDS(timestamp_expression)

Description

Returns the number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC. Truncates higher levels of precision.

Return Data Type

INT64

Example

SELECT UNIX_SECONDS(TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00") as seconds;

+------------+
| seconds    |
+------------+
| 1230219000 |
+------------+

UNIX_MILLIS

UNIX_MILLIS(timestamp_expression)

Description

Returns the number of milliseconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC. Truncates higher levels of precision.

Return Data Type

INT64

Example

SELECT UNIX_MILLIS(TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00 UTC") as millis;

+---------------+
| millis        |
+---------------+
| 1230219000000 |
+---------------+

UNIX_MICROS

UNIX_MICROS(timestamp_expression)

Description

Returns the number of microseconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC. Truncates higher levels of precision.

Return Data Type

INT64

Example

SELECT UNIX_MICROS(TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00") as micros;

+------------------+
| micros           |
+------------------+
| 1230219000000000 |
+------------------+

Supported format elements for TIMESTAMP

Unless otherwise noted, TIMESTAMP functions that use format strings support the following elements:

Format element Description
%A The full weekday name.
%a The abbreviated weekday name.
%B The full month name.
%b or %h The abbreviated month name.
%C The century (a year divided by 100 and truncated to an integer) as a decimal number (00-99).
%c The date and time representation.
%D The date in the format %m/%d/%y.
%d The day of the month as a decimal number (01-31).
%e The day of month as a decimal number (1-31); single digits are preceded by a space.
%F The date in the format %Y-%m-%d.
%G The ISO 8601 year with century as a decimal number.
%g The ISO 8601 year without century as a decimal number (00-99).
%H The hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number (00-23).
%I The hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number (01-12).
%j The day of the year as a decimal number (001-366).
%k The hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number (0-23); single digits are preceded by a space.
%l The hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number (1-12); single digits are preceded by a space.
%M The minute as a decimal number (00-59).
%m The month as a decimal number (01-12).
%n A newline character.
%P Either am or pm.
%p Either AM or PM.
%R The time in the format %H:%M.
%r The 12-hour clock time using AM/PM notation.
%S The second as a decimal number (00-60).
%s The number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC. Always overrides all other format elements, independent of where %s appears in the string. If multiple %s elements appear, then the last one takes precedence.
%T The time in the format %H:%M:%S.
%t A tab character.
%U The week number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number (00-53).
%u The weekday (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number (1-7).
%V The week number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number (01-53). If the week containing January 1 has four or more days in the new year, then it is week 1; otherwise it is week 53 of the previous year, and the next week is week 1.
%W The week number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number (00-53).
%w The weekday (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number (0-6).
%X The time representation in HH:MM:SS format.
%x The date representation in MM/DD/YY format.
%Y The year with century as a decimal number.
%y The year without century as a decimal number (00-99), with an optional leading zero. Can be mixed with %C. If %C is not specified, years 00-68 are 2000s, while years 69-99 are 1900s.
%Z The time zone name.
%z The offset from the Prime Meridian in the format +HHMM or -HHMM as appropriate, with positive values representing locations east of Greenwich.
%% A single % character.
%Ez RFC 3339-compatible numeric time zone (+HH:MM or -HH:MM).
%E#S Seconds with # digits of fractional precision.
%E*S Seconds with full fractional precision (a literal '*').
%E4Y Four-character years (0001 ... 9999). Note that %Y produces as many characters as it takes to fully render the year.

Timezone definitions

Certain date and timestamp functions allow you to override the default time zone and specify a different one. You can specify a timezone by supplying its UTC offset using the following format:

(+|-)H[H][:M[M]]

For example:

-08:00

Operators

Operators are represented by special characters or keywords; they do not use function call syntax. An operator manipulates any number of data inputs, also called operands, and returns a result.

Common conventions:

  • Unless otherwise specified, all operators return NULL when one of the operands is NULL.
  • All operators will throw an error if the computation result overflows.
  • For all floating point operations, +/-inf and NaN may only be returned if one of the operands is +/-inf or NaN. In other cases, an error is returned.

The following table lists all Cloud Spanner SQL operators from highest to lowest precedence, i.e. the order in which they will be evaluated within a statement.

Order of Precedence Operator Input Data Types Name Operator Arity
1 . STRUCT
Member field access operator Binary
  [ ] ARRAY Array position. Must be used with OFFSET or ORDINAL—see ARRAY Functions. Binary
2 - All numeric types Unary minus Unary
  ~ Integer or BYTES Bitwise not Unary
3 * All numeric types Multiplication Binary
  / All numeric types Division Binary
4 + All numeric types Addition Binary
  - All numeric types Subtraction Binary
5 << Integer or BYTES Bitwise left-shift Binary
  >> Integer or BYTES Bitwise right-shift Binary
6 & Integer or BYTES Bitwise and Binary
7 ^ Integer or BYTES Bitwise xor Binary
8 | Integer or BYTES Bitwise or Binary
9 (Comparison Operators) = Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list. Equal Binary
  < Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list. Less than Binary
  > Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list. Greater than Binary
  <= Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list. Less than or equal to Binary
  >= Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list. Greater than or equal to Binary
  !=, <> Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list. Not equal Binary
  [NOT] LIKE STRING and byte Value does [not] match the pattern specified Binary
  [NOT] BETWEEN Any comparable types. See Data Types for list. Value is [not] within the range specified Binary
  [NOT] IN Any comparable types. See Data Types for list. Value is [not] in the set of values specified Binary
  IS [NOT] NULL All Value is [not] NULL Unary
  IS [NOT] TRUE BOOL Value is [not] TRUE. Unary
  IS [NOT] FALSE BOOL Value is [not] FALSE. Unary
10 NOT BOOL Logical NOT Unary
11 AND BOOL Logical AND Binary
12 OR BOOL Logical OR Binary

Operators with the same precedence are left associative. This means that those operators are grouped together starting from the left and moving right. For example, the expression:

x AND y AND z

is interpreted as

( ( x AND y ) AND z )

The expression:

x * y / z

is interpreted as:

( ( x * y ) / z )

All comparison operators have the same priority and are grouped using left associativity. However, comparison operators are not associative. As a result, it is recommended that you use parentheses to improve readability and ensure expressions are resolved as desired. For example:

(x < y) IS FALSE

is recommended over:

x < y IS FALSE

Element access operators

Operator Syntax Input Data Types Result Data Type Description
. expression.fieldname1... STRUCT
Type T stored in fieldname1 Dot operator. Can be used to access nested fields, e.g.expression.fieldname1.fieldname2...
[ ] array_expression [position_keyword (int_expression ) ] See ARRAY Functions. Type T stored in ARRAY position_keyword is either OFFSET or ORDINAL. See ARRAY Functions for the two functions that use this operator.

Arithmetic operators

All arithmetic operators accept input of numeric type T, and the result type has type T unless otherwise indicated in the description below:

Name Syntax
Addition X + Y
Subtraction X - Y
Multiplication X * Y
Division X / Y
Unary Minus - X

NOTE: Divide by zero operations return an error. To return a different result, consider the IEEE_DIVIDE or SAFE_DIVIDE functions.

Result types for Addition and Multiplication:

 INT64FLOAT64
INT64INT64FLOAT64
FLOAT64FLOAT64FLOAT64

Result types for Subtraction:

 INT64FLOAT64
INT64INT64FLOAT64
FLOAT64FLOAT64FLOAT64

Result types for Division:

 INT64FLOAT64
INT64FLOAT64FLOAT64
FLOAT64FLOAT64FLOAT64

Result types for Unary Minus:

Input Data Type Result Data Type
INT64 INT64
FLOAT64 FLOAT64

Bitwise operators

All bitwise operators return the same type and the same length as the first operand.

Name Syntax Input Data Type Description
Bitwise not ~ X Integer or BYTES Performs logical negation on each bit, forming the ones' complement of the given binary value.
Bitwise or X | Y X: Integer or BYTES
Y: Same type as X
Takes two bit patterns of equal length and performs the logical inclusive OR operation on each pair of the corresponding bits. This operator throws an error if X and Y are BYTES of different lengths.
Bitwise xor X ^ Y X: Integer or BYTES
Y: Same type as X
Takes two bit patterns of equal length and performs the logical exclusive OR operation on each pair of the corresponding bits. This operator throws an error if X and Y are BYTES of different lengths.
Bitwise and X & Y X: Integer or BYTES
Y: Same type as X
Takes two bit patterns of equal length and performs the logical AND operation on each pair of the corresponding bits. This operator throws an error if X and Y are BYTES of different lengths.
Left shift X << Y X: Integer or BYTES
Y: INT64
Shifts the first operand X to the left. This operator returns 0 or a byte sequence of b'\x00' if the second operand Y is greater than or equal to the bit length of the first operand X (for example, 64 if X has the type INT64). This operator throws an error if Y is negative.
Right shift X >> Y X: Integer or BYTES
Y: INT64
Shifts the first operand X to the right. This operator does not do sign bit extension with a signed type (i.e. it fills vacant bits on the left with 0). This operator returns 0 or a byte sequence of b'\x00' if the second operand Y is greater than or equal to the bit length of the first operand X (for example, 64 if X has the type INT64). This operator throws an error if Y is negative.

Logical operators

All logical operators allow only BOOL input.

Name Syntax Description
Logical NOT NOT X Returns FALSE if input is TRUE. Returns TRUE if input is FALSE. Returns NULL otherwise.
Logical AND X AND Y Returns FALSE if at least one input is FALSE. Returns TRUE if both X and Y are TRUE. Returns NULL otherwise.
Logical OR X OR Y Returns FALSE if both X and Y are FALSE. Returns TRUE if at least one input is TRUE. Returns NULL otherwise.

Comparison operators

Comparisons always return BOOL. Comparisons generally require both operands to be of the same type. If operands are of different types, and if Cloud Spanner SQL can convert the values of those types to a common type without loss of precision, Cloud Spanner SQL will generally coerce them to that common type for the comparison; Cloud Spanner SQL will generally coerce literals to the type of non-literals, where present. Comparable data types are defined in Data Types.

STRUCTs support only 4 comparison operators: equal (=), not equal (!= and <>), and IN.

The following rules apply when comparing these data types:

  • FLOAT64 : All comparisons with NaN return FALSE, except for != and <>, which return TRUE.
  • BOOL: FALSE is less than TRUE.
  • STRING: Strings are compared codepoint-by-codepoint, which means that canonically equivalent strings are only guaranteed to compare as equal if they have been normalized first.
  • NULL: The convention holds here: any operation with a NULL input returns NULL.
Name Syntax Description
Less Than X < Y Returns TRUE if X is less than Y.
Less Than or Equal To X <= Y Returns TRUE if X is less than or equal to Y.
Greater Than X > Y Returns TRUE if X is greater than Y.
Greater Than or Equal To X >= Y Returns TRUE if X is greater than or equal to Y.
Equal X = Y Returns TRUE if X is equal to Y.
Not Equal X != Y
X <> Y
Returns TRUE if X is not equal to Y.
BETWEEN X [NOT] BETWEEN Y AND Z Returns TRUE if X is [not] within the range specified. The result of "X BETWEEN Y AND Z" is equivalent to "Y <= X AND X <= Z" but X is evaluated only once in the former.
LIKE X [NOT] LIKE Y Checks if the STRING in the first operand X matches a pattern specified by the second operand Y. Expressions can contain these characters:
  • A percent sign "%" matches any number of characters or bytes
  • An underscore "_" matches a single character or byte
  • You can escape "\", "_", or "%" using two backslashes. For example, "\\%". If you are using raw strings, only a single backslash is required. For example, r"\%".
IN Multiple - see below Returns FALSE if the right operand is empty. Returns NULL if the left operand is NULL. Returns TRUE or NULL, never FALSE, if the right operand contains NULL. Arguments on either side of IN are general expressions. Neither operand is required to be a literal, although using a literal on the right is most common. X is evaluated only once.

When testing values that have a STRUCT data type for equality, it's possible that one or more fields are NULL. In such cases:

  • If all non-NULL field values are equal, the comparison returns NULL.
  • If any non-NULL field values are not equal, the comparison returns false.

The following table demonstrates how STRUCT data types are compared when they have fields that are NULL valued.

Struct1 Struct2 Struct1 = Struct2
STRUCT(1, NULL) STRUCT(1, NULL) NULL
STRUCT(1, NULL) STRUCT(2, NULL) FALSE
STRUCT(1,2) STRUCT(1, NULL) NULL

IN operators

The IN operator supports the following syntaxes:

x [NOT] IN (y, z, ... ) # Requires at least one element
x [NOT] IN (<subquery>)
x [NOT] IN UNNEST(<array expression>) # analysis error if the expression
                                      # does not return an ARRAY type.

Arguments on either side of the IN operator are general expressions. It is common to use literals on the right side expression; however, this is not required.

The semantics of:

x IN (y, z, ...)

are defined as equivalent to:

(x = y) OR (x = z) OR ...

and the subquery and array forms are defined similarly.

x NOT IN ...

is equivalent to:

NOT(x IN ...)

The UNNEST form treats an array scan like UNNEST in the FROM clause:

x [NOT] IN UNNEST(<array expression>)

This form is often used with ARRAY parameters. For example:

x IN UNNEST(@array_parameter)

Note: A NULL ARRAY will be treated equivalently to an empty ARRAY.

See the Arrays topic for more information on how to use this syntax.

When using the IN operator, the following semantics apply:

  • IN with an empty right side expression is always FALSE
  • IN with a NULL left side expression and a non-empty right side expression is always NULL
  • IN with a NULL in the IN-list can only return TRUE or NULL, never FALSE
  • NULL IN (NULL) returns NULL
  • IN UNNEST(<NULL array>) returns FALSE (not NULL)

IN can be used with multi-part keys by using the struct constructor syntax. For example:

(Key1, Key2) IN ( (12,34), (56,78) )
(Key1, Key2) IN ( SELECT (table.a, table.b) FROM table )

See the Struct Type section of the Data Types topic for more information on this syntax.

IS operators

IS operators return TRUE or FALSE for the condition they are testing. They never return NULL, even for NULL inputs, unlike the IS_INF and IS_NAN functions defined in Mathematical Functions. If NOT is present, the output BOOL value is inverted.

Function Syntax Input Data Type Result Data Type Description
X IS [NOT] NULL
Any value type BOOL Returns TRUE if the operand X evaluates to NULL, and returns FALSE otherwise.
X IS [NOT] TRUE
BOOL BOOL Returns TRUE if the BOOL operand evaluates to TRUE. Returns FALSE otherwise.
X IS [NOT] FALSE
BOOL BOOL Returns TRUE if the BOOL operand evaluates to FALSE. Returns FALSE otherwise.

Conditional expressions

Conditional expressions impose constraints on the evaluation order of their inputs. In essence, they are evaluated left to right, with short-circuiting, and only evaluate the output value that was chosen. In contrast, all inputs to regular functions are evaluated before calling the function. Short-circuiting in conditional expressions can be exploited for error handling or performance tuning.

Syntax Input Data Types Result Data Type Description
CASE expr
  WHEN value THEN result
  [WHEN ...]
  [ELSE else_result]
  END
expr and value: Any type result and else_result: Supertype of input types. Compares expr to value of each successive WHEN clause and returns the first result where this comparison returns true. The remaining WHEN clauses and else_result are not evaluated. If the expr = value comparison returns false or NULL for all WHEN clauses, returns else_result if present; if not present, returns NULL. expr and value expressions must be implicitly coercible to a common supertype; equality comparisons are done on coerced values. result and else_result expressions must be coercible to a common supertype.
CASE
  WHEN cond1 THEN result
  [WHEN cond2...]
  [ELSE else_result]
  END
cond: BOOL result and else_result: Supertype of input types. Evaluates condition cond of each successive WHEN clause and returns the first result where the condition is true; any remaining WHEN clauses and else_result are not evaluated. If all conditions are false or NULL, returns else_result if present; if not present, returns NULL. result and else_result expressions must be implicitly coercible to a common supertype.
COALESCE(expr1, ..., exprN) Any type Supertype of input types Returns the value of the first non-null expression. The remaining expressions are not evaluated. All input expressions must be implicitly coercible to a common supertype.
IF(cond, true_result, else_result) cond: BOOL true_result and else_result: Any type. If cond is true, returns true_result, else returns else_result. else_result is not evaluated if cond is true. true_result is not evaluated if cond is false or NULL. true_result and else_result must be coercible to a common supertype.
IFNULL(expr, null_result) Any type Any type or supertype of input types. If expr is NULL, return null_result. Otherwise, return expr. If expr is not NULL, null_result is not evaluated. expr and null_result must be implicitly coercible to a common supertype. Synonym for COALESCE(expr, null_result).
NULLIF(expression, expression_to_match) Any type T or subtype of T Any type T or subtype of T Returns NULL if expression = expression_to_match is true, otherwise returns expression. expression and expression_to_match must be implicitly coercible to a common supertype; equality comparison is done on coerced values.

NULLIF does not support STRUCT types.

Expression subqueries

There are four types of expression subqueries, i.e. subqueries that are used as expressions. Expression subqueries return NULL or a single value, as opposed to a column or table, and must be surrounded by parentheses. For a fuller discussion of subqueries, see Subqueries.

Type of Subquery Result Data Type Description
Scalar Any type T A subquery in parentheses inside an expression (e.g. in the SELECT list or WHERE clause) is interpreted as a scalar subquery. The SELECT list in a scalar subquery must have exactly one field. If the subquery returns exactly one row, that single value is the scalar subquery result. If the subquery returns zero rows, the scalar subquery value is NULL. If the subquery returns more than one row, the query fails with a runtime error. When the subquery is written with SELECT AS STRUCT , it can include multiple columns, and the returned value is the constructed STRUCT. Selecting multiple columns without using SELECT AS is an error.
ARRAY ARRAY Can use SELECT AS STRUCT to build arrays of structs, and conversely, selecting multiple columns without using SELECT AS is an error. Returns an empty ARRAY if the subquery returns zero rows. Never returns a NULL ARRAY.
IN BOOL Occurs in an expression following the IN operator. The subquery must produce a single column whose type is equality-compatible with the expression on the left side of the IN operator. Returns FALSE if the subquery returns zero rows. x IN () is equivalent to x IN (value, value, ...) See the IN operator in Comparison Operators for full semantics.
EXISTS BOOL Returns TRUE if the subquery produced one or more rows. Returns FALSE if the subquery produces zero rows. Never returns NULL. Unlike all other expression subqueries, there are no rules about the column list. Any number of columns may be selected and it will not affect the query result.

Examples

The following examples of expression subqueries assume that t.int_array has type ARRAY<INT64>.

Type Subquery Result Data Type Notes
Scalar (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM t.int_array) INT64  
(SELECT DISTINCT i FROM t.int_array i) INT64, possibly runtime error  
(SELECT i FROM t.int_array i WHERE i=5) INT64, possibly runtime error  
(SELECT ARRAY_AGG(i) FROM t.int_array i) ARRAY Uses the ARRAY_AGG aggregation function to return an ARRAY.
(SELECT 'xxx' a) STRING  
(SELECT 'xxx' a, 123 b) Error Returns an error because there is more than one column
(SELECT AS STRUCT 'xxx' a, 123 b) STRUCT  
(SELECT AS STRUCT 'xxx' a) STRUCT  
ARRAY ARRAY(SELECT COUNT(*) FROM t.int_array) ARRAY of size 1  
ARRAY(SELECT x FROM t) ARRAY  
ARRAY(SELECT 5 a, COUNT(*) b FROM t.int_array) Error Returns an error because there is more than one column
ARRAY(SELECT AS STRUCT 5 a, COUNT(*) b FROM t.int_array) ARRAY  
ARRAY(SELECT AS STRUCT i FROM t.int_array i) ARRAY Makes an ARRAY of one-field STRUCTs
ARRAY(SELECT AS STRUCT 1 x, 2, 3 x) ARRAY Returns an ARRAY of STRUCTs with anonymous or duplicate fields.
ARRAY(SELECT AS TypeName SUM(x) a, SUM(y) b, SUM(z) c from t) array<TypeName> Selecting into a named type. Assume TypeName is a STRUCT type with fields a,b,c.
STRUCT (SELECT AS STRUCT 1 x, 2, 3 x) STRUCT Constructs a STRUCT with anonymous or duplicate fields.
EXISTS EXISTS(SELECT x,y,z FROM table WHERE y=z) BOOL  
NOT EXISTS(SELECT x,y,z FROM table WHERE y=z) BOOL  
IN x IN (SELECT y FROM table WHERE z) BOOL  
x NOT IN (SELECT y FROM table WHERE z) BOOL  
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