Method: projects.instances.databases.sessions.executeSql

Executes an SQL query, returning all rows in a single reply. This method cannot be used to return a result set larger than 10 MiB; if the query yields more data than that, the query fails with a FAILED_PRECONDITION error.

Queries inside read-write transactions might return ABORTED. If this occurs, the application should restart the transaction from the beginning. See Transaction for more details.

Larger result sets can be fetched in streaming fashion by calling sessions.executeStreamingSql instead.

HTTP request


The URL uses Google API HTTP annotation syntax.

Path parameters



Required. The session in which the SQL query should be performed.

Authorization requires the following Google IAM permission on the specified resource session:


Request body

The request body contains data with the following structure:

JSON representation
  "transaction": {
  "sql": string,
  "params": {
  "paramTypes": {
    string: {
  "resumeToken": string,
  "queryMode": enum(QueryMode),
  "partitionToken": string,


The transaction to use. If none is provided, the default is a temporary read-only transaction with strong concurrency.



Required. The SQL query string.


object (Struct format)

The SQL query string can contain parameter placeholders. A parameter placeholder consists of '@' followed by the parameter name. Parameter names consist of any combination of letters, numbers, and underscores.

Parameters can appear anywhere that a literal value is expected. The same parameter name can be used more than once, for example: "WHERE id > @msg_id AND id < @msg_id + 100"

It is an error to execute an SQL query with unbound parameters.

Parameter values are specified using params, which is a JSON object whose keys are parameter names, and whose values are the corresponding parameter values.


map (key: string, value: object(Type))

It is not always possible for Cloud Spanner to infer the right SQL type from a JSON value. For example, values of type BYTES and values of type STRING both appear in params as JSON strings.

In these cases, paramTypes can be used to specify the exact SQL type for some or all of the SQL query parameters. See the definition of Type for more information about SQL types.

An object containing a list of "key": value pairs. Example: { "name": "wrench", "mass": "1.3kg", "count": "3" }.


string (bytes format)

If this request is resuming a previously interrupted SQL query execution, resumeToken should be copied from the last PartialResultSet yielded before the interruption. Doing this enables the new SQL query execution to resume where the last one left off. The rest of the request parameters must exactly match the request that yielded this token.

A base64-encoded string.



Used to control the amount of debugging information returned in ResultSetStats. If partitionToken is set, queryMode can only be set to QueryMode.NORMAL.


string (bytes format)

If present, results will be restricted to the specified partition previously created using sessions.partitionQuery(). There must be an exact match for the values of fields common to this message and the PartitionQueryRequest message used to create this partitionToken.

A base64-encoded string.

Response body

If successful, the response body contains an instance of ResultSet.

Authorization Scopes

Requires one of the following OAuth scopes:


For more information, see the Auth Guide.

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