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Migrate in-cluster to managed, on a new cluster

This tutorial shows you how to migrate an application from a Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) cluster using in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh to a new cluster using managed Anthos Service Mesh — Google's fully managed, Istio-compliant service mesh.

In this tutorial, you:

  1. Create a new Google Kubernetes Engine cluster, and install in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh and the Anthos Service Mesh ingress gateway on the cluster. This cluster will act as your existing cluster that you want to migrate away from.
  2. Deploy the Online Boutique sample application onto the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh.
  3. Create another Google Kubernetes Engine cluster, in the same Google Cloud project.
  4. Provision managed Anthos Service Mesh on the second cluster and deploy the Anthos Service Mesh ingress gateway.
  5. Deploy Online Boutique onto the cluster with managed Anthos Service Mesh to replicate the deployment from the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh.
  6. Shift 50% of user traffic from the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh to the cluster with managed Anthos Service Mesh, by using Istio's traffic splitting capabilities on the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh.
  7. Complete the migration from in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh to managed Anthos Service Mesh by pointing the domain name system (DNS) entry of the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh to the cluster with managed Anthos Service Mesh.

User traffic is split 50-50 between a cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh and a cluster withmanaged Anthos Service Mesh. Each cluster contains its own deployment of Online Boutique.

Canary deployment

"Canary deployment" is a technique used in software development to test a new version of some software before releasing that new version to all users. It involves incrementally increasing the percentage of traffic sent to the new version. In this tutorial, you will set up a new cluster with managed Anthos Service Mesh and incrementally shift user traffic to it. You will start by directing 0% of user traffic to the new cluster, then 50%, and, finally, 100%. In production, you should use smaller and more increments. If at any point you notice that the new cluster is incapable of handling a percentage of traffic, you can rollback by reducing the percentage to 0%.

Canary control plane versus canary cluster

There are two commonly used strategies for migrations from in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh to managed Anthos Service Mesh:

  • Canary control plane migration: In this strategy, you provision managed Anthos Service Mesh on the same cluster in which you currently have in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh installed.
  • Canary cluster migration: In this strategy, you create a new cluster and then provision managed Anthos Service Mesh on it.

In this tutorial, you will walk through the canary cluster migration strategy.

Costs

This tutorial uses the following billable components of Google Cloud:

When you finish this tutorial, you can avoid ongoing costs by deleting the resources you created. For more information, see Clean up.

Before you begin

  1. Sign in to your Google Cloud account. If you're new to Google Cloud, create an account to evaluate how our products perform in real-world scenarios. New customers also get $300 in free credits to run, test, and deploy workloads.
  2. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Cloud project. Learn how to check if billing is enabled on a project.

  4. Enable the required APIs.

    Enable the APIs

  5. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  6. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Cloud project. Learn how to check if billing is enabled on a project.

  7. Enable the required APIs.

    Enable the APIs

Launch Cloud Shell

In this tutorial you will use Cloud Shell, which is a shell environment hosted on Google Cloud that lets you manage your Google Cloud resources.

Cloud Shell comes preinstalled with the Google Cloud CLI, kubectl, and istioctl command-line tools. The gcloud CLI provides the primary CLI for Google Cloud.

Open a Cloud Shell session from the upper-right corner of this page, click and then click Acknowledge. A Cloud Shell session opens inside a frame lower on the page. Complete the following commands in that Cloud Shell session.

Download sample code

Clone the git repositories containing the Kubernetes and Istio resources you will use:

  git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/anthos-service-mesh-samples.git
  git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/microservices-demo.git

Set up the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh

Create the cluster and install in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh

In the section, you create your cluster that uses in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh. In practice, this would be the cluster(s) that you are already using.

  1. Replace PROJECT_ID with your project ID and create a new cluster:

    gcloud container clusters create cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --project=PROJECT_ID \
      --zone=us-central1-a \
      --machine-type=e2-standard-4 --num-nodes=2 \
      --workload-pool=PROJECT_ID.svc.id.goog
    
  2. Rename the cluster context so that the cluster is easier to work with:

    kubectl config rename-context \
      gke_PROJECT_ID_us-central1-a_cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      cluster-with-in-cluster-asm
    
  3. Check that the cluster context has been renamed:

    kubectl config get-contexts --output="name"
    
  4. Download the version that installs Anthos Service Mesh 1.15.4 to the current working directory:

    curl https://storage.googleapis.com/csm-artifacts/asm/asmcli_1.15 > asmcli
    

    You will be asked to type "y" and then press Enter.

    The output is similar to:

    % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                  Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
    100  167k  100  167k    0     0   701k      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--  701k
    
  5. Make the asmcli script executable:

    chmod +x asmcli
    
  6. Install in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh using asmcli:

    ./asmcli install \
      --project_id PROJECT_ID \
      --cluster_name cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --cluster_location us-central1-a \
      --output_dir . \
      --enable_all \
      --ca mesh_ca
    

    It can take several minutes for the asmcli tool to finish. The tool outputs informational messages so you can follow its progress.

    Upon success, the output is similar to:

    ...
    asmcli: Successfully installed ASM.
    

Deploy Anthos Service Mesh's ingress gateway

  1. You will deploy the Anthos Service Mesh's ingress gateway into a separate namespace called asm-ingress. Create the namespace:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      create namespace asm-ingress
    
  2. Use the istio.io/rev=asm-1154-2 label to add the asm-ingress namespace to the service mesh and enable automatic sidecar proxy injection.

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      label --overwrite namespace asm-ingress istio.io/rev=asm-1154-2
    

    The output is similar to:

    namespace/asm-ingress labeled
    
  3. Deploy the Anthos Service Mesh ingress gateway:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --namespace=asm-ingress \
      apply -f anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/shared/asm-ingress-gateway/asm-gateway-deployment-svc.yaml
    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --namespace=asm-ingress \
      apply -f anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/shared/asm-ingress-gateway/gateway.yaml
    

    The output is similar to:

    serviceaccount/asm-ingressgateway created
    service/asm-ingressgateway created
    deployment.apps/asm-ingressgateway created
    gateway.networking.istio.io/asm-ingressgateway created
    

Deploy Online Boutique

  1. You will deploy Online Boutique into a separate namespace called onlineboutique. Create the namespace:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      create namespace onlineboutique
    
  2. Use the istio.io/rev=asm-1154-2 label to add the onlineboutique namespace to the service mesh and enable automatic sidecar proxy injection.

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      label --overwrite namespace onlineboutique istio.io/rev=asm-1154-2
    

    The output is similar to:

    namespace/onlineboutique labeled
    
  3. Deploy Online Boutique's 12 services, including the load generator that imitates user traffic:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --namespace=onlineboutique \
      apply -f anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/shared/online-boutique/kubernetes-manifests.yaml
    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --namespace=onlineboutique \
      apply -f anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/shared/online-boutique/virtual-service.yaml
    
  4. Get the public IP address of the Anthos Service Mesh ingress gateway:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --namespace asm-ingress \
      get service --output jsonpath='{.items[0].status.loadBalancer.ingress[0].ip}'
    
  5. Copy the public IP address of the ingress gateway, and access it through your web browser. You will see the Online Boutique sample app.

Set up the new cluster with managed Anthos Service Mesh

Create the cluster and provision managed Anthos Service Mesh

In this section, you create the cluster that you will migrate to. You will provision managed Anthos Service Mesh, and deploy Online Boutique in order to replicate the deployments from the cluster that uses in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh.

  1. Store your Project number into an environment variable:

    export PROJECT_NUMBER=$(gcloud projects \
      describe PROJECT_ID --format='get(projectNumber)')
    
  2. Create a new cluster:

    gcloud container clusters create cluster-with-managed-asm \
      --project=PROJECT_ID --zone=us-central1-a \
      --machine-type=e2-standard-4 --num-nodes=2 \
      --workload-pool PROJECT_ID.svc.id.goog \
      --labels mesh_id=proj-${PROJECT_NUMBER}
    
  3. Rename the cluster context so that the cluster is easier to work with:

    kubectl config rename-context \
      gke_PROJECT_ID_us-central1-a_cluster-with-managed-asm \
      cluster-with-managed-asm
    
  4. Check that the cluster context has been renamed:

    kubectl config get-contexts --output="name"
    
  5. Enable Anthos Service Mesh on your project's Fleet. A Fleet is a logical grouping of Kubernetes clusters and other resources that can be managed together.

    gcloud container fleet mesh enable --project PROJECT_ID
    

    The output is similar to:

    Waiting for Feature Service Mesh to be created...done.
    
  6. Register the cluster to the project's Fleet:

    gcloud container fleet memberships register cluster-with-managed-asm-membership \
      --gke-cluster=us-central1-a/cluster-with-managed-asm \
      --enable-workload-identity \
      --project PROJECT_ID
    

    The output is similar to:

    Waiting for membership to be created...done.
    Created a new membership [projects/your-project-id/locations/global/memberships/cluster-with-gke-membership] for the cluster [cluster-with-gke-membership]
    Generating the Connect Agent manifest...
    Deploying the Connect Agent on cluster [cluster-with-gke-membership] in namespace [gke-connect]...
    Deployed the Connect Agent on cluster [cluster-with-gke-membership] in namespace [gke-connect].
    Finished registering the cluster [cluster-with-gke-membership] with the Fleet.
    
  7. Enable managed Anthos Service Mesh on the cluster:

    gcloud container fleet mesh update \
      --management automatic \
      --memberships cluster-with-managed-asm-membership \
      --project PROJECT_ID
    

    The output is similar to:

    Waiting for Feature Service Mesh to be updated...done.
    
  8. Verify that managed Anthos Service Mesh has been provisioned for the cluster and is ready to be used:

    gcloud container fleet mesh describe --project PROJECT_ID
    

    It can take about 10 minutes for Anthos Service Mesh to provision and be ready to use on the cluster. If you see controlPlaneManagement.state: DISABLED or controlPlaneManagement.state: PROVISIONING, you will need to re-run the previous command every few minutes until you see controlPlaneManagement.state: ACTIVE.

    The output is similar to:

    createTime: '2022-07-06T01:05:39.110120474Z'
    membershipSpecs:
      projects/123456789123/locations/global/memberships/cluster-with-managed-asm-membership:
        mesh:
          management: MANAGEMENT_AUTOMATIC
    membershipStates:
      projects/123456789123/locations/global/memberships/cluster-with-managed-asm-membership:
        servicemesh:
          controlPlaneManagement:
            details:
            - code: REVISION_READY
              details: 'Ready: asm-managed'
            state: ACTIVE
          dataPlaneManagement:
            details:
            - code: OK
              details: Service is running.
            state: ACTIVE
        state:
          code: OK
          description: 'Revision(s) ready for use: asm-managed.'
          updateTime: '2022-07-06T01:19:24.243993678Z'
    name: projects/your-project-id/locations/global/features/servicemesh
    resourceState:
      state: ACTIVE
    spec: {}
    state:
      state: {}
    updateTime: '2022-07-06T01:19:27.475885687Z'
    

Deploy Anthos Service Mesh's ingress gateway

  1. You will deploy the Anthos Service Mesh's ingress gateway into a separate namespace called asm-ingress. Create the namespace:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-managed-asm \
      create namespace asm-ingress
    
  2. Use the istio.io/rev=asm-managed label to add the asm-ingress namespace to the service mesh and enable automatic sidecar proxy injection.

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-managed-asm \
      label namespace asm-ingress 'istio.io/rev=asm-managed'
    
  3. Deploy the Anthos Service Mesh ingress gateway:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-managed-asm \
      --namespace=asm-ingress \
      apply -f anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/shared/asm-ingress-gateway/asm-gateway-deployment-svc.yaml
    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-managed-asm \
      --namespace=asm-ingress \
      apply -f anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/shared/asm-ingress-gateway/gateway.yaml
    

    The output is similar to:

    namespace/asm-ingress configured
    serviceaccount/asm-ingressgateway configured
    service/asm-ingressgateway configured
    deployment.apps/asm-ingressgateway configured
    gateway.networking.istio.io/asm-ingressgateway configured
    

Deploy Online Boutique

  1. You will deploy Online Boutique into a separate namespace called onlineboutique. Create the namespace:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-managed-asm \
      create namespace onlineboutique
    
  2. Use the istio.io/rev=asm-managed label to add the onlineboutique namespace to the service mesh and enable automatic sidecar proxy injection.

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-managed-asm \
      label namespace onlineboutique 'istio.io/rev=asm-managed'
    
  3. Deploy Online Boutique's 12 services, including the load generator that imitates user traffic:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-managed-asm \
      --namespace=onlineboutique \
      apply -f anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/shared/online-boutique/kubernetes-manifests.yaml
    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-managed-asm \
      --namespace=onlineboutique \
      apply -f anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/shared/online-boutique/virtual-service.yaml
    
  4. Get the public IP address of the Anthos Service Mesh ingress gateway:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-managed-asm \
      --namespace asm-ingress \
      get service --output jsonpath='{.items[0].status.loadBalancer.ingress[0].ip}'
    
  5. Copy the public IP address of the asm-ingressgateway Service, and access it through your web browser. You will see the Online Boutique sample app. You will use the public IP address in the next section, so copy it into an environment variable:

    export INGRESS_IP_OF_CLUSTER_WITH_MANAGED_ASM=$( \
      kubectl \
        --context cluster-with-managed-asm \
        --namespace asm-ingress \
        get service --output jsonpath='{.items[0].status.loadBalancer.ingress[0].ip}' \
      )
    

Test the cluster with Anthos Service Mesh using a canary deployment

In this section, you configure the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh such that 50% of the user traffic to Online Boutique is shifted to the instance of Online Boutique on the cluster with managed Anthos Service Mesh. To achieve this, you deploy two Istio resources to the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh:

  • a ServiceEntry to tell in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh about the managed Anthos Service Mesh cluster's Online Boutique endpoint
  • a VirtualService to tell the in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh ingress gateway to split the traffic 50-50.
  1. Set the IP address of the managed Anthos Service Mesh cluster's ingress gateway inside the ServiceEntry resource:

    sed -i "s/1.2.3.4/${INGRESS_IP_OF_CLUSTER_WITH_MANAGED_ASM}/" anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/migrate-to-managed-asm/service-entry.yaml
    
  2. Deploy the ServiceEntry to the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --namespace onlineboutique \
      apply -f anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/migrate-to-managed-asm/service-entry.yaml
    
  3. Deploy the VirtualService to the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --namespace onlineboutique \
      apply -f anthos-service-mesh-samples/docs/migrate-to-managed-asm/virtual-service-in-cluster-asm.yaml
    
  4. Visit the IP address of the ingress gateway of the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh, in your web browser:

    kubectl \
      --context cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --namespace asm-ingress \
      get service
    

    Refresh the Online Boutique homepage multiple times, and check the footer of the page each time. Notice that 50% of the requests are handled by a Pod on the cluster with managed Anthos Service Mesh.

Migrate to the cluster with managed Anthos Service Mesh

This section assumes that you own a domain name and have access to its DNS (Domain Name Server) settings.

  1. Add an A record to the DNS settings to point the domain name (such as example.com) to the IP address of the ingress gateway running on the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh.

  2. Access Online Boutique by visiting the domain name in your web browser.

  3. Minimize DNS record time-to-live (TTL) to ensure you can quickly revert the DNS entry if you need to rollback.

  4. Set the A record of your domain name to the public IP address of the ingress gateway of the cluster with managed Anthos Service Mesh.

  5. When the migration is successful, delete the cluster with in-cluster Anthos Service Mesh:

    gcloud container clusters delete cluster-with-in-cluster-asm \
      --zone=us-central1-a \
      --project=PROJECT_ID
    

Clean up

To avoid incurring charges to your Google Cloud account for the resources used in this tutorial, either delete the project that contains the resources, or keep the project and delete the individual resources.

Delete project

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Manage resources page.

    Go to Manage resources

  2. In the project list, select the project that you want to delete, and then click Delete.
  3. In the dialog, type the project ID, and then click Shut down to delete the project.

Delete the resources

Delete the cluster with managed Anthos Service Mesh:

  gcloud container clusters delete cluster-with-managed-asm \
    --zone=us-central1-a \
    --project=PROJECT_ID

What's next