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Integrating IAP with Anthos Service Mesh

This tutorial describes how to integrate Identity-Aware Proxy (IAP) with Anthos Service Mesh. The IAP integration with Anthos Service Mesh enables you to safely access services based on Google's BeyondCorp principles. IAP verifies user identity and context of the request to determine if a user should be allowed to access an application or resource. The IAP integration with Anthos Service Mesh provides you with the following benefits:

  • Complete context-aware access control to the workloads running on Anthos Service Mesh. You can set fine-grained access policies based on attributes of the originating request, such as user identity, the IP address, and device type. You can combine your access policies with restrictions based on the hostname and path of a request URL.

  • Enable support for context-aware claims in Anthos Service Mesh authorization.

  • Scalable, secure, and highly available access to your application through a Google Cloud load balancer. High performance load balancing provides built-in protection of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks and support for global anycast IP addressing.

Objectives

  • Get set up:
    1. Set up your Cloud project to grant the permissions and enable the Google APIs required by IAP.
    2. Reserve an external static IP address and configure a domain name to use the IP address, which the load balancer needs.
    3. Set up a new Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) cluster with the options required to integrate IAP with Anthos Service Mesh.
    4. Install Anthos Service Mesh with the options required for the integration.
    5. Deploy a sample application.
    6. Deploy the load balancer.
  • Enable IAP.

  • Enable RCToken support on the service mesh.

Costs

This tutorial uses the following billable components of Google Cloud:

To generate a cost estimate based on your projected usage, use the pricing calculator. New Google Cloud users might be eligible for a free trial.

When you finish this tutorial, you can avoid continued billing by deleting the resources you created. For more information, see Cleaning up.

Before you begin

Requirements

  • You must have an Anthos trial license or subscription. See the Anthos Pricing guide for details.

  • Your GKE cluster must meet the following requirements:

    • At least four nodes.
    • The minimum machine type is e2-standard-4, which has four vCPUs.
    • Use a release channel rather than a static version of GKE
  • To be included in the service mesh, service ports must be named, and the name must include the port's protocol in the following syntax: name: protocol[-suffix] where the square brackets indicate an optional suffix that must start with a dash. For more information, Naming service ports.

  • If you are installing Anthos Service Mesh on a private cluster, you must add a firewall rule to open port 15017 if you want to use automatic sidecar injection. If you don't add the firewall rule and automatic sidecar injection is enabled, you get an error when you deploy workloads. For details on adding a firewall rule, see Adding firewall rules for specific use cases.

  • If you have created a service perimeter in your organization, you might need to add the Mesh CA service to the perimeter. See Adding Mesh CA to a service perimeter for more information.

Setting up your environment

For installations on Google Kubernetes Engine, you can follow the installation guides using Cloud Shell, an in-browser command line interface to your Google Cloud resources, or your own computer running Linux or macOS.

Option A: Use Cloud Shell

Cloud Shell provisions a g1-small Compute Engine virtual machine (VM) running a Debian-based Linux operating system. The advantages to using Cloud Shell are:

  • Cloud Shell includes the gcloud, kubectl and helm command-line tools that you need.

  • Your Cloud Shell $HOME directory has 5GB persistent storage space.

  • You have your choice of text editors:

    • Code editor, which you access by clicking at the top of the Cloud Shell window.

    • Emacs, Vim, or Nano, which you access from the command line in Cloud Shell.

To use Cloud Shell:

  1. Go to the Cloud Console.
  2. Select your Cloud project.
  3. Click the Activate Cloud Shell button at the top of the Cloud Console window.

    Google Cloud Platform console

    A Cloud Shell session opens inside a new frame at the bottom of the Cloud Console and displays a command-line prompt.

    Cloud Shell session

  4. Update the components:

    gcloud components update
    

    The command responds with output similar to the following:

    ERROR: (gcloud.components.update)
    You cannot perform this action because the Cloud SDK component manager
    is disabled for this installation. You can run the following command
    to achieve the same result for this installation:
    
    sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get --only-upgrade install ...
  5. Copy the long command and paste it to update the components.

  6. Install kubectl:

    sudo apt-get install kubectl
    
  7. Install kpt:

    sudo apt-get install google-cloud-sdk-kpt
    

Option B: Use command-line tools locally

On your local machine, install and initialize the Cloud SDK (the gcloud command-line tool).

If you already have the Cloud SDK installed:

  1. Authenticate with the Cloud SDK:

    gcloud auth login
    
  2. Update the components:

    gcloud components update
    
  3. Install kubectl:

    gcloud components install kubectl
    
  4. Install kpt:

    gcloud components install kpt
    

Setting up your project

  1. Get the project ID of the project that the cluster will be created in:

    gcloud

    gcloud projects list

    Console

    1. In the Cloud Console, go to the Dashboard page:

      Go to the Dashboard page

    2. Click the Select from drop-down list at the top of the page. In the Select from window that appears, select your project.

      The project ID is displayed on the project Dashboard Project info card.

  2. Create an environment variable for the project ID:
    export PROJECT_ID=YOUR_PROJECT_ID
    
  3. Set the default project ID for the gcloud command-line tool:
    gcloud config set project ${PROJECT_ID}
  4. Create an environment variable for the project number:
    export PROJECT_NUMBER=$(gcloud projects describe ${PROJECT_ID} --format="value(projectNumber)")

  5. Set the required Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles. If you are a Project Owner, you have all the necessary permissions to complete the installation and register your cluster with your environ. If you aren't a Project Owner, you need someone who is to grant you the following specific IAM roles. In the following command, change GCP_EMAIL_ADDRESS to the account that you use to log in to Google Cloud.
    gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding ${PROJECT_ID} \
         --member user:GCP_EMAIL_ADDRESS \
         --role=roles/editor \
         --role=roles/compute.admin \
         --role=roles/container.admin \
         --role=roles/resourcemanager.projectIamAdmin \
         --role=roles/iam.serviceAccountAdmin \
         --role=roles/iam.serviceAccountKeyAdmin \
         --role=roles/gkehub.admin

    To learn more about how to grant IAM roles, refer to Granting, changing, and revoking access to resources. For a description of these roles, see Permissions required to install Anthos Service Mesh

  6. Enable the following APIs:
    gcloud services enable \
        container.googleapis.com \
        compute.googleapis.com \
        monitoring.googleapis.com \
        logging.googleapis.com \
        cloudtrace.googleapis.com \
        meshca.googleapis.com \
        meshtelemetry.googleapis.com \
        meshconfig.googleapis.com \
        iamcredentials.googleapis.com \
        anthos.googleapis.com \
        gkeconnect.googleapis.com \
        gkehub.googleapis.com \
        cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com \
        iap.googleapis.com
    

    Enabling the APIs can take a minute or more to complete. When the APIs are enabled, you see output similar to the following:

    Operation "operations/acf.601db672-88e6-4f98-8ceb-aa3b5725533c" finished
    successfully.
    

Reserve a static IP address and configure DNS

To integrate Identity-Aware Proxy with Anthos Service Mesh, you have to set up a Google Cloud HTTP(S) load balancer, which requires a domain name that points to a static IP address. You can reserve a static external IP address, which assigns the address to your project indefinitely until you explicitly release it.

  1. Reserve a static external IP address:

    gcloud compute addresses create example-static-ip --global
    
  2. Get the static IP address:

    gcloud compute addresses describe example-static-ip --global
    
  3. In your domain name registrar, configure a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) with the static IP address. Typically, you add an A record to your DNS settings. The configuration steps and terminology for adding an A record for a FQDN vary depending on your domain name registrar.

  4. Set the domain name in an environment variable:

    export DOMAIN_NAME=YOUR_DOMAIN_NAME

    It can take 24 to 48 hours for the DNS setting to propagate. You can continue setting up everything in this tutorial, but you won't be able to test the setup until the DNS settings propagate.

Setting up a new GKE cluster

To set up a new cluster:

  1. Select a zone, a machine type, and a GKE release channel for the new cluster. The minimum machine type required by Anthos Service Mesh is n1-standard-4. You can use any release channel option.

    • To get a list of the available GCP zones:

      gcloud compute zones list
      
    • To get a list of machine types:

      gcloud compute machine-types list | more
      
  2. Create the following environment variables:

    • Set the cluster name:

      export CLUSTER_NAME=YOUR_CLUSTER_NAME

      The cluster name must contain only lowercase alphanumerics and '-', must start with a letter and end with an alphanumeric, and must be no longer than 40 characters.

    • Set the CLUSTER_LOCATION to your cluster zone:

      export CLUSTER_LOCATION=YOUR_ZONE
    • Set the workload pool:

      export WORKLOAD_POOL=${PROJECT_ID}.svc.id.goog
    • Set the mesh ID:

      export MESH_ID="proj-${PROJECT_NUMBER}"
  3. Create the cluster with the options required by Anthos Service Mesh. The following command creates a cluster containing 4 nodes of machine type n1-standard-4, which has 4 vCPUs. This is the minimum machine type and number of nodes required for Anthos Service Mesh. You can specify another machine type as long as it has at least 4 vCPUs, and you can increase the number of nodes as needed for your system requirements.

    gcloud beta container clusters create ${CLUSTER_NAME} \
        --project=${PROJECT_ID} \
        --zone=${CLUSTER_LOCATION} \
        --machine-type=n1-standard-4 \
        --num-nodes=4 \
        --workload-pool=${WORKLOAD_POOL} \
        --enable-stackdriver-kubernetes \
        --subnetwork=default \
        --labels mesh_id=${MESH_ID} \
        --addons=HttpLoadBalancing \
        --release-channel=regular
    

    The clusters create command includes:

    • workload-pool=${WORKLOAD_POOL}: Enables Workload Identity, which is the recommended way to safely access Google Cloud services from GKE applications.

    • enable-stackdriver-kubernetes: Enables Cloud Monitoring and Cloud Logging on GKE.

    • subnetwork=default: Creates a default subnetwork.

    • labels mesh_id=${MESH_ID}: Sets the mesh_id label on the cluster, which is required for metrics to get displayed on the Anthos Service Mesh dashboard in the Cloud Console.

    • The HttpLoadBalancing add-on, which enables an HTTP (L7) load balancing controller for the cluster.

    • release-channel regular: Enrolls the cluster in the regular release channel, though you can choose stable if you require greater stability or rapid if you want to try out new (unsupported) GKE features.

Setting credentials and permissions

  1. Initialize your project to ready it for installation. Among other things, this command creates a service account to let Istio components, such as the sidecar proxy, securely access your project's data and resources:
    curl --request POST \
      --header "Authorization: Bearer $(gcloud auth print-access-token)" \
      --data '' \
      https://meshconfig.googleapis.com/v1alpha1/projects/${PROJECT_ID}:initialize

    The command responds with empty curly braces: {}

    If you install a new version of Anthos Service Mesh on this cluster in the future, you don't need to re-run the command, but running the command again doesn't affect your installation.

  2. Get authentication credentials to interact with the cluster:
    gcloud container clusters get-credentials ${CLUSTER_NAME}
  3. Grant cluster admin permissions to the current user. You need these permissions to create the necessary role based access control (RBAC) rules for Anthos Service Mesh:
    kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-admin-binding \
      --clusterrole=cluster-admin \
      --user="$(gcloud config get-value core/account)"

    If you see the "cluster-admin-binding" already exists error, you can safely ignore it and continue with the existing cluster-admin-binding.

Registering your cluster

You must register your cluster with the project's environ to gain access to the unified user interface in the Cloud Console. An environ provides a unified way to view and manage the clusters and their workloads, including clusters outside Google Cloud.

Create a Google Cloud service account and key file

A JSON file containing service account credentials is required to register a cluster. To follow the principle of least privilege, we recommend that you create a distinct service account for each cluster that you register.

To create a service account and key file:

  1. Select a name for the service account and create an environment variable for it:

    export SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME=SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME
    
  2. Create the service account:

    gcloud iam service-accounts create ${SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME}
  3. List all of a project's service accounts to confirm the service account was created:

    gcloud iam service-accounts list
  4. Bind the gkehub.connect IAM role to the service account:

    gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding ${PROJECT_ID} \
       --member="serviceAccount:${SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME}@${PROJECT_ID}.iam.gserviceaccount.com" \
       --role="roles/gkehub.connect"
  5. Create an environment variable for the local filepath where you want to save the JSON file. We recommend that you name the file using the service account name and your project ID, such as: /tmp/creds/${SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME}-${PROJECT_ID}.json

    export SERVICE_ACCOUNT_KEY_PATH=LOCAL_KEY_PATH
  6. Download the service account's private key JSON file:

    gcloud iam service-accounts keys create ${SERVICE_ACCOUNT_KEY_PATH} \
       --iam-account=${SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME}@${PROJECT_ID}.iam.gserviceaccount.com

Register the cluster

In the following command, replace MEMBERSHIP_NAME with a name that uniquely represents the cluster being registered on the Hub.

gcloud container hub memberships register MEMBERSHIP_NAME \
    --gke-cluster=${CLUSTER_LOCATION}/${CLUSTER_NAME} \
    --service-account-key-file=${SERVICE_ACCOUNT_KEY_PATH}

The command responds with output similar to the following:

kubeconfig entry generated for CLUSTER_NAME.
Waiting for membership to be created...done.
Created a new membership [projects/PROJECT_ID/locations/global/memberships/MEMBERSHIP_NAME] for the cluster [MEMBERSHIP_NAME]
Generating the Connect Agent manifest...
Deploying the Connect Agent on cluster [MEMBERSHIP_NAME] in namespace [gke-connect]...
Deployed the Connect Agent on cluster [MEMBERSHIP_NAME] in namespace [gke-connect].
Finished registering the cluster [MEMBERSHIP_NAME] with the Hub.

This service account key is stored as a secret named creds-gcp in the gke-connect namespace.

For more information about cluster registration, see Registering a cluster in the Connect documentation.

Downloading the installation file

Before continuing, verify that the ASM Mesh Data Plane Service Account is a member of the project:

gcloud projects get-iam-policy ${PROJECT_ID} | grep -B 1 'roles/meshdataplane.serviceAgent'

If the previous command doesn't output anything, go back to the Set credentials and permissions section and run the curl command.

    Linux

  1. Download the Anthos Service Mesh installation file to your current working directory:
    curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/gke-release/asm/istio-1.5.10-asm.2-linux.tar.gz
  2. Download the signature file and use openssl to verify the signature:
    curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/gke-release/asm/istio-1.5.10-asm.2-linux.tar.gz.1.sig
    openssl dgst -verify - -signature istio-1.5.10-asm.2-linux.tar.gz.1.sig istio-1.5.10-asm.2-linux.tar.gz <<'EOF'
    -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
    MFkwEwYHKoZIzj0CAQYIKoZIzj0DAQcDQgAEWZrGCUaJJr1H8a36sG4UUoXvlXvZ
    wQfk16sxprI2gOJ2vFFggdq3ixF2h4qNBt0kI7ciDhgpwS8t+/960IsIgw==
    -----END PUBLIC KEY-----
    EOF

    The expected output is: Verified OK

  3. Extract the contents of the file to any location on your file system. For example, to extract the contents to the current working directory:
    tar xzf istio-1.5.10-asm.2-linux.tar.gz

    The command creates an installation directory in your current working directory named istio-1.5.10-asm.2 that contains:

    • Sample applications in samples
    • The following tools in the bin directory:
      • istioctl: You use istioctl to install Anthos Service Mesh.
      • asmctl: You use asmctl to help validate your security configuration after installing Anthos Service Mesh. (Currently, asmctl isn't supported on GKE on-prem.)

  4. Mac OS

  5. Download the Anthos Service Mesh installation file to your current working directory:
    curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/gke-release/asm/istio-1.5.10-asm.2-osx.tar.gz
  6. Download the signature file and use openssl to verify the signature:
    curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/gke-release/asm/istio-1.5.10-asm.2-osx.tar.gz.1.sig
    openssl dgst -sha256 -verify /dev/stdin -signature istio-1.5.10-asm.2-osx.tar.gz.1.sig istio-1.5.10-asm.2-osx.tar.gz <<'EOF'
    -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
    MFkwEwYHKoZIzj0CAQYIKoZIzj0DAQcDQgAEWZrGCUaJJr1H8a36sG4UUoXvlXvZ
    wQfk16sxprI2gOJ2vFFggdq3ixF2h4qNBt0kI7ciDhgpwS8t+/960IsIgw==
    -----END PUBLIC KEY-----
    EOF

    The expected output is: Verified OK

  7. Extract the contents of the file to any location on your file system. For example, to extract the contents to the current working directory:
    tar xzf istio-1.5.10-asm.2-osx.tar.gz

    The command creates an installation directory in your current working directory named istio-1.5.10-asm.2 that contains:

    • Sample applications in samples
    • The following tools in the bin directory:
      • istioctl: You use istioctl to install Anthos Service Mesh.
      • asmctl: You use asmctl to help validate your security configuration after installing Anthos Service Mesh. (Currently, asmctl isn't supported on GKE on-prem.)

  8. Windows

  9. Download the Anthos Service Mesh installation file to your current working directory:
    curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/gke-release/asm/istio-1.5.10-asm.2-win.zip
  10. Download the signature file and use openssl to verify the signature:
    curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/gke-release/asm/istio-1.5.10-asm.2-win.zip.1.sig
    openssl dgst -verify - -signature istio-1.5.10-asm.2-win.zip.1.sig istio-1.5.10-asm.2-win.zip <<'EOF'
    -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
    MFkwEwYHKoZIzj0CAQYIKoZIzj0DAQcDQgAEWZrGCUaJJr1H8a36sG4UUoXvlXvZ
    wQfk16sxprI2gOJ2vFFggdq3ixF2h4qNBt0kI7ciDhgpwS8t+/960IsIgw==
    -----END PUBLIC KEY-----
    EOF

    The expected output is: Verified OK

  11. Extract the contents of the file to any location on your file system. For example, to extract the contents to the current working directory:
    tar xzf istio-1.5.10-asm.2-win.zip

    The command creates an installation directory in your current working directory named istio-1.5.10-asm.2 that contains:

    • Sample applications in samples
    • The following tools in the bin directory:
      • istioctl: You use istioctl to install Anthos Service Mesh.
      • asmctl: You use asmctl to help validate your security configuration after installing Anthos Service Mesh. (Currently, asmctl isn't supported on GKE on-prem.)

  12. Ensure that you're in the Anthos Service Mesh installation's root directory.
    cd istio-1.5.10-asm.2
  13. For convenience, add the tools in the /bin directory to your PATH:
    export PATH=$PWD/bin:$PATH

Preparing resource configuration files

When you run the istioctl apply command to install Anthos Service Mesh, you specify -f istio-operator.yaml on the command line. This file contains information about your project and cluster that is needed to enable the Mesh telemetry and Mesh security features. You need to download the istio-operator.yaml and other resource configuration files and set the project and cluster information.

To prepare the resource configuration files:

  1. If you haven't already, install kpt:

    gcloud components install kpt
    
  2. Optionally, create a new directory for the Anthos Service Mesh package resource configuration files. If you plan to set up more than one cluster, you might want to use the cluster name as the directory name.

  3. Change to the directory where you want to download the Anthos Service Mesh package.

  4. Download the Anthos Service Mesh package to the current working directory:

    kpt pkg get \
    https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/anthos-service-mesh-packages.git/asm@release-1.5-asm .
    

  5. Set the cluster name:

      kpt cfg set asm gcloud.container.cluster ${CLUSTER_NAME}

  6. Optionally, customize the resource configuration files by using the kpt setters. By default, these setters use the defaults for gcloud config. If you set the gcloud config defaults, or if you want to change the values, run the following setters:

    • Set the project ID:

      kpt cfg set asm gcloud.core.project ${PROJECT_ID}
    • Set the default zone or region:

      kpt cfg set asm gcloud.compute.location ${CLUSTER_LOCATION}
  7. Optionally, you can check in the resource configuration files to your own source control system, such as Cloud Source Repositories, so that you can track changes to the files.

Installing Anthos Service Mesh

Install Anthos Service Mesh and set the options needed to integrate Anthos Service Mesh with IAP.

PERMISSIVE mTLS

istioctl manifest apply --set profile=asm \
  -f asm/cluster/istio-operator.yaml \
  --set values.gateways.istio-ingressgateway.type=NodePort

STRICT mTLS

istioctl manifest apply --set profile=asm \
  -f asm/cluster/istio-operator.yaml \
  --set values.gateways.istio-ingressgateway.type=NodePort \
  --set values.global.mtls.enabled=true

You specify NodePort for the istio-ingressgateway, which configures {[mesh_name]} to open a specific port on the service mesh. This allows you to set up a load balancer, which routes traffic sent to your domain name to this port. The other options enable Anthos Service Mesh certificate authority (Mesh CA).

Validating the installation

We recommend that you use the asmctl analysis tool to validate the basic configuration of your project, cluster, and workloads. If an asmctl test fails, asmctl recommends solutions, if possible. The asmctl validate command runs basic tests that check:

  1. That the APIs required by Anthos Service Mesh are enabled on the project.
  2. That the Istio-Ingressgateway is properly configured to call Mesh CA.
  3. The general health of Istiod and Istio-Ingressgateway.

If you run the asmctl validate command with the optional --with-testing-workloads flag, in addition to the basic tests, asmctl runs security tests that check:

  1. Mutual TLS (mTLS) communication is configured properly.
  2. Mesh CA can issue certificates.

To run the security tests, asmctl deploys workloads on your cluster in a test namespace, runs the mTLS communication tests, outputs the results, and deletes the test namespace.

To run asmctl:

  1. Ensure that gcloud application-default credentials are set:

     gcloud auth application-default login
    
  2. If you haven't already, get authentication credentials to interact with the cluster:

     gcloud container clusters get-credentials ${CLUSTER_NAME}
    
  3. To run both the basic and security tests (assuming istio-1.5.10-asm.2/bin) is in yourPATH):

    asmctl validate --with-testing-workloads
    

    On success, the command responds with output similar to the following:

    [asmctl version 0.3.0]
    Using Kubernetes context: example-project_us-central1-example-cluster
    To change the context, use the --context flag
    Validating enabled APIs
    OK
    Validating ingressgateway configuration
    OK
    Validating istio system
    OK
    Validating sample traffic
    Launching example services...
    Sent traffic to example service http code: 200
    verified mTLS configuration
    OK
    Validating issued certs
    OK
    

Deploying a sample application

Before you enable IAP, you need an application running on your GKE cluster so you can verify that all requests have an identity. This guide uses the Bookinfo sample to demonstrate how to setup the HTTP(S) load balancer and enable IAP.

Start the application services

  1. Change directory to the root of the Anthos Service Mesh installation.

  2. Label the default namespace to use automatic sidecar injection:

    kubectl label namespace default istio-injection=enabled
    
  3. Deploy the application:

    kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/platform/kube/bookinfo.yaml
    
  4. Confirm all bookinfo services are running:

    kubectl get services
    

    The expected output is similar to:

    NAME                       CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)              AGE
    details                    10.0.0.31            9080/TCP             6m
    kubernetes                 10.0.0.1             443/TCP              7d
    productpage                10.0.0.120           9080/TCP             6m
    ratings                    10.0.0.15            9080/TCP             6m
    reviews                    10.0.0.170           9080/TCP             6m
  5. Confirm all Pods are running:

    kubectl get pods
    

    The expected output is similar to:

    NAME                                        READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    details-v1-1520924117-48z17                 2/2       Running   0          6m
    productpage-v1-560495357-jk1lz              2/2       Running   0          6m
    ratings-v1-734492171-rnr5l                  2/2       Running   0          6m
    reviews-v1-874083890-f0qf0                  2/2       Running   0          6m
    reviews-v2-1343845940-b34q5                 2/2       Running   0          6m
    reviews-v3-1813607990-8ch52                 2/2       Running   0          6m
  6. Confirm that the Bookinfo application is running:

    kubectl exec -it $(kubectl get pod -l app=ratings -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') -c ratings -- curl productpage:9080/productpage | grep -o "<title>.*</title>"
    

    Expected output:

    <title>Simple Bookstore App</title>
  7. Define the ingress gateway and virtual service for the application:

    kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/bookinfo-gateway.yaml
    
  8. Confirm that the gateway was created:

    kubectl get gateway
    

    The expected output is similar to:

    NAME                AGE
    bookinfo-gateway    32s

External requests

Bookinfo's Gateway resource (defined in samples/bookinfo/networking/bookinfo-gateway.yaml) uses the preconfigured istio-ingressgateway. Recall that when you deployed Anthos Service Mesh, you specified NodePort for the istio-ingressgateway, which opens a specific port on the service mesh. Until you set up the load balancer, the Bookinfo application isn't accessible outside of your GKE cluster (such as from a browser). Although the nodes in your cluster have external IP addresses, requests coming from outside your cluster are blocked by Google Cloud firewall rules. With IAP, the correct way to expose this application to the public internet is by using a load balancer. Don't expose the node addresses using firewall rules, which would bypass IAP.

To route requests to Bookinfo, you set up an HTTP(S) load balancer in your Cloud project. Because the load balancer is in your project, it is inside of the firewall and can access the nodes in your cluster. After you configure the load balancer with the static IP address and your domain name, you can send requests to the domain name, and the load balancer forwards the requests to the nodes in the cluster.

Deploying the load balancer

You can use an Ingress resource to create an HTTP(S) load balancer with automatically configured SSL certificates. Google-managed SSL certificates are provisioned, renewed, and managed for your domain.

  1. Create a ManagedCertificate resource. This resource specifies the domain for the SSL certificate. The spec.domains list must contain only one domain. Wildcard domains aren't supported.

    cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
    apiVersion: networking.gke.io/v1beta1
    kind: ManagedCertificate
    metadata:
      name: example-certificate
      namespace: istio-system
    spec:
      domains:
        - ${DOMAIN_NAME}
    EOF
  2. Create the load balancer by defining the Ingress resource.

    • Set the networking.gke.io/managed-certificates annotation to the name of the certificate you created in the previous step, example-certificate.

    • Set the kubernetes.io/ingress.global-static-ip-name annotation to the name of the static IP address you reserved, example-static-ip.

    • Set the serviceName to istio-ingressgateway, which is used in the Gateway resource for the Bookinfo sample.

    cat <<EOF | kubectl create -f -
    apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
    kind: Ingress
    metadata:
      name: example-ingress
      namespace: istio-system
      annotations:
        kubernetes.io/ingress.global-static-ip-name: example-static-ip
        networking.gke.io/managed-certificates: example-certificate
    spec:
      backend:
        serviceName: istio-ingressgateway
        servicePort: 80
    EOF
  3. In the Cloud Console, go to the Kubernetes Engine > Services & Ingress page.

    Go to the Services & Ingress page

    You should see the "Creating ingress" message in the Status column. Wait for GKE to fully provision the Ingress before continuing. Refresh the page every few minutes to get the most up-to-date status on the Ingress. After the Ingress is provisioned, you might see the "Ok" status, or the error "All backend services are in UNHEALTHY state." One of the resources that GKE provisions is a default health check. If you see the error message, that indicates that the Ingress is provisioned and that the default health check ran. When you see either the "Ok" status or the error, continue with the next section to configure the health checks for the load balancer.

Configure health checks for the load balancer.

To configure the health checks, you need to obtain the ID of the default health check created by the Ingress and then update the health check to use istio-ingress's health check path and port.

  1. Get new user credentials to use for Application Default Credentials:

      gcloud auth application-default login

  2. Obtain the ID of the default health check created by the Ingress:

    1. Set the following environment variables:

      • Backend Service: Bridges various Instance Groups on a given Service NodePort.

        BACKEND_SERVICE=$(gcloud compute url-maps list | grep example-ingress | awk '{print $2}' | cut -d'/' -f 2)

      • Health check: This is the default health check that is created automatically when the Ingress is deployed.

        HC=$(gcloud compute backend-services describe ${BACKEND_SERVICE} --global | grep healthChecks | cut -d'/' -f 10 | tail -n 1)

      • Health check ingress port: This is the health check port of istio-ingress.

        export HC_INGRESS_PORT=$(kubectl -n istio-system get service istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath='{.spec.ports[?(@.name=="status-port")].nodePort}')

      • Health check ingress path: This is the health check path of istio-ingress.

        export HC_INGRESS_PATH=$(kubectl -n istio-system get deployments istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.containers[?(@.name=="istio-proxy")].readinessProbe.httpGet.path}')

      • Health check API: This is the API that you call to configure the health check.
        export HC_API=https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/${PROJECT_ID}/global/healthChecks/${HC}

    2. Get the default health check into a JSON file by calling the healthChecks API:

      curl --request GET  --header "Authorization: Bearer $(gcloud auth application-default print-access-token)" ${HC_API} > health_check.json
  3. Update the health check to use istio-ingress's health check path and port:

    1. Update the health_check.json file as follows:

      • Set httpHealthCheck.port to the value of ${HC_INGRESS_PORT}.
      • Set httpHealthCheck.requestPath to the value of ${HC_INGRESS_PATH}.
      • Add the following attribute and set it to an empty string: httpHealthCheck.portSpecification=""

      The easiest way to do this is to use jq, which comes preinstalled on Cloud Shell:

      jq ".httpHealthCheck.port=${HC_INGRESS_PORT} | .httpHealthCheck.requestPath=\"${HC_INGRESS_PATH}\" | .httpHealthCheck.portSpecification=\"\"" health_check.json > updated_health_check.json

      If you run cat on the resulting updated_health_check.json file, it looks similar to the following:

      {
      "id": "5062913090021441698",
      "creationTimestamp": "2019-11-12T10:47:41.934-08:00",
      "name": "${HC}",
      "description": "Default kubernetes L7 Loadbalancing health check.",
      "checkIntervalSec": 60,
      "timeoutSec": 60,
      "unhealthyThreshold": 10,
      "healthyThreshold": 1,
      "type": "HTTP",
      "httpHealthCheck": {
        "port": 32394,
        "requestPath": "/healthz/ready",
        "proxyHeader": "NONE",
        "portSpecification": ""
      },
      "selfLink": "https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/${PROJECT_ID}/global/healthChecks/${HC}",
      "kind": "compute#healthCheck"
      }
      

      If you edited the JSON file manually instead of using the jq command, save the file as updated_health_check.json so that it matches the filename in the next command.

    2. Update the health check:

      curl --request PATCH --header "Authorization: Bearer $(gcloud auth application-default print-access-token)" --header "Content-Type: application/json" --data @updated_health_check.json ${HC_API}

    It takes several minutes for GKE to update the health check. In the Cloud Console, refresh the Kubernetes Engine > Services & Ingress page every minute or so until the status for the Ingress changes to "Ok."

  4. Test the load balancer. Point your browser to:

    http://YOUR_DOMAIN_NAME/productpage

    where YOUR_DOMAIN_NAME is the domain name that you configured with the external static IP address.

    You should see the Bookinfo application's productpage. If you refresh the page several times, you should see different versions of reviews, presented in a round robin style: red stars, black stars, no stars.

    You should also test https access to Bookinfo.

Enabling IAP

The following steps describe how to enable IAP.

  1. Check if you already have an existing brand by using the list command. You may only have one brand per project.

    gcloud alpha iap oauth-brands list
    

    The following is an example gcloud response, if the brand exists:

    name: projects/[PROJECT_NUMBER]/brands/[BRAND_ID]
    applicationTitle: [APPLICATION_TITLE]
    supportEmail: [SUPPORT_EMAIL]
    orgInternalOnly: true
    
  2. If no brand exists, use the create command:

    gcloud alpha iap oauth-brands create --application_title=APPLICATION_TITLE --support_email=SUPPORT_EMAIL
    

    The above fields are required when calling this API:

    • supportEmail: The support email displayed on the OAuth consent screen. This email address can either be a user's address or a Google Groups alias. While service accounts also have an email address, they are not actual valid email addresses, and cannot be used when creating a brand. However, a service account can be the owner of a Google Group. Either create a new Google Group or configure an existing group and set the desired service account as an owner of the group.

    • applicationTitle: The application name displayed on OAuth consent screen.

    The response contains the following fields:

    name: projects/[PROJECT_NUMBER]/brands/[BRAND_NAME]
    applicationTitle: [APPLICATION_TITLE]
    supportEmail: [SUPPORT_EMAIL]
    orgInternalOnly: true
    

Creating an IAP OAuth Client

  1. Use the create command to create a client. Use the brand name from previous step.

    gcloud alpha iap oauth-clients create projects/PROJECT-ID/brands/BRAND-ID --display_name=NAME
    

    The response contains the following fields:

    name: projects/[PROJECT_NUMBER]/brands/[BRAND_NAME]/identityAwareProxyClients/[CLIENT_ID]
    secret: [CLIENT_SECRET]
    displayName: [NAME]
    

Turning on IAP for your service

Use the following command to turn on IAP for your service. Replace CLIENT_ID and CLIENT_SECRET with your OAuth client ID and client secret from the client you created previously.

gcloud beta iap web enable \
    --oauth2-client-id=CLIENT_ID \
    --oauth2-client-secret=CLIENT_SECRET \
    --resource-type=backend-services \
    --service=${BACKEND_SERVICE}

Configure the IAP access list

Add a user to the access policy for IAP:

gcloud beta iap web add-iam-policy-binding \
    --member=user:EMAIL_ADDRESS \
    --role=roles/iap.httpsResourceAccessor \
    --resource-type=backend-services \
    --service=$BACKEND_SERVICE

where EMAIL_ADDRESS is the user's full email address such as alice@example.com.

Enable RCToken support on the service mesh

By default, IAP generates a JSON Web Token (JWT) that is scoped to the OAuth client. For Anthos Service Mesh, you can configure IAP to generate a RequestContextToken (RCToken), which is a JWT but with a configurable audience. RCToken lets you configure the audience of the JWT to an arbitrary string, which can be used in the Anthos Service Mesh policies for fine-grained authorization.

To configure the RCToken:

  1. Create an environment variable for your project number. This is the number that was automatically generated and assigned to your project when you created it. (This isn't the same as the project ID.)

    export PROJECT_NUMBER=YOUR_PROJECT_NUMBER
  2. Create an environment variable for the RCToken audience. This can be any string that you want.

    export RCTOKEN_AUD="your-rctoken-aud"
    
  3. Fetch the existing IAP settings

    gcloud beta iap settings get --format json \
    --project=${PROJECT_NUMBER} --resource-type=compute \
    --service=${BACKEND_SERVICE} > iapSettings.json
    
  4. Update IapSettings with the RCToken audience.

    cat iapSettings.json | jq --arg RCTOKEN_AUD_STR $RCTOKEN_AUD \
    '. + {applicationSettings: {csmSettings: {rctokenAud: $RCTOKEN_AUD_STR}}}' \
    > updatedIapSettings.json
    
    gcloud beta iap settings set updatedIapSettings.json --format json \
    --project=${PROJECT_NUMBER} --resource-type=compute --service=${BACKEND_SERVICE}
    
  5. Enable RCToken authentication on the Istio ingress gateway.

    cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
    apiVersion: "authentication.istio.io/v1alpha1"
    kind: "Policy"
    metadata:
      name: "ingressgateway"
      namespace: istio-system
    spec:
      targets:
      - name: "istio-ingressgateway"
      origins:
      - jwt:
          issuer: "https://cloud.google.com/iap"
          jwksUri: "https://www.gstatic.com/iap/verify/public_key-jwk"
          audiences:
          - "$RCTOKEN_AUD"
          jwt_headers:
          - "ingress-authorization"
          trigger_rules:
          - excluded_paths:
            - exact: /healthz/ready
      principalBinding: USE_ORIGIN
    EOF
  6. Make sure requests to the Bookinfo productpage are still successful:

    http://DOMAIN_NAME/productpage

To test the policy:

  1. Create an IapSettings request object, but set the rctokenAud to a different string:

    echo $(cat <<EOF
    {
       "name": "projects/${PROJECT_NUMBER}/iap_web/compute/services/${BACKEND_SERVICE}",
       "applicationSettings": {
         "csmSettings": {
           "rctokenAud": "some-other-arbitrary-string"
         }
       }
     }
    EOF
    ) > request.txt
  2. Call the IapSettings API to set the RCtoken audience.

    curl --request PATCH --header "Authorization: Bearer $(gcloud beta auth application-default print-access-token)" ${IAP_SETTINGS_API}
  3. Make a request to the Bookinfo productpage and it should fail:

    http://DOMAIN_NAME/productpage

Cleaning up

After completing this tutorial, remove the following resources to prevent unwanted charges incurring on your account:

  1. Delete the managed certificate:

    kubectl delete managedcertificates example-certificate
  2. Delete the Ingress, which deallocates the load balancing resources:

    kubectl -n istio-system delete ingress example-ingress

  3. Delete the static IP address:

    gcloud compute addresses delete example-static-ip --global

    If you do this, be sure to delete the IP address from your domain registrar.

  4. Delete the cluster, which deletes the resources that make up the cluster, such as the compute instances, disks and network resources:

    gcloud container clusters delete ${CLUSTER_NAME}