向主题发布消息

本文档介绍了如何发布消息。

发布者应用会创建消息,然后将其发送到主题。如订阅者概览所述,Pub/Sub 会为现有订阅者提供至少一次消息传送及尽力排序功能。

发布者应用的一般流程如下所示:

  1. 创建一条包含您的数据的消息。
  2. 向 Pub/Sub 服务器发送请求以将该消息发布到预期的主题。

消息格式

消息由包含消息数据和元数据的字段组成。在消息中至少指定以下内容之一:

如果您使用的是REST API,则消息数据必须采用 base64 编码。

Pub/Sub 服务将以下字段添加到消息中:

  • 主题专属的消息 ID
  • Pub/Sub 服务接收消息的时间的时间戳

发布消息

您可以使用 gcloud 命令行工具或 Pub/Sub API 发布消息。客户端库可以异步发布消息。

控制台

要发布消息,请执行以下操作

  1. 在 Cloud Console 中,转到 Pub/Sub 主题 页面。

    转到 Pub/Sub 主题页面

  2. 点击主题 ID。

  3. 主题详情页面中,点击发布消息

  4. 消息正文字段中,输入消息数据。

  5. 可选:添加消息属性。

    1. 点击添加消息属性

    2. 为属性输入键和值。

  6. 点击发布

gcloud

要发布消息,请使用 gcloud pubsub topics publish 命令:

gcloud pubsub topics publish TOPIC_ID \
  --message=MESSAGE_DATA \
  [--attribute=KEY="VALUE",...]

请替换以下内容:

  • TOPIC_ID:主题的 ID
  • MESSAGE_DATA:包含消息数据的 base64 编码字符串
  • KEY消息属性的键
  • VALUE:消息属性的键对应的值

REST

要发布消息,请发送如下所示的 POST 请求:

POST  https://pubsub.googleapis.com/v1/projects/PROJECT_ID/topics/TOPIC_ID:publish
Authorization: Bearer $(gcloud auth application-default print-access-token)

请替换以下内容:

  • PROJECT_ID:包含主题的项目的 ID
  • TOPIC_ID:主题的 ID

在请求正文中指定以下字段:

{
"messages": [
  {
    "attributes": {
      "KEY": "VALUE",
      ...
    },
    "data": MESSAGE_DATA,
  }
]
}

替换以下内容:

  • KEY消息属性的键
  • VALUE:消息属性的键对应的值
  • MESSAGE_DATA:包含消息数据的 base64 编码字符串

如果请求成功,则响应是一个包含消息 ID 的 JSON 对象。以下是包含消息 ID 的响应:

{
  "messageIds": [
    "19916711285"
  ]
}

C++

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C++ 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C++ API 参考文档

namespace pubsub = google::cloud::pubsub;
using google::cloud::future;
using google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](pubsub::Publisher publisher) {
  auto message_id = publisher.Publish(
      pubsub::MessageBuilder{}.SetData("Hello World!").Build());
  auto done = message_id.then([](future<StatusOr<std::string>> f) {
    auto id = f.get();
    if (!id) throw std::runtime_error(id.status().message());
    std::cout << "Hello World! published with id=" << *id << "\n";
  });
  // Block until the message is published
  done.get();
}

C#

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C# 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C# API 参考文档


using Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class PublishMessagesAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> PublishMessagesAsync(string projectId, string topicId, IEnumerable<string> messageTexts)
    {
        TopicName topicName = TopicName.FromProjectTopic(projectId, topicId);
        PublisherClient publisher = await PublisherClient.CreateAsync(topicName);

        int publishedMessageCount = 0;
        var publishTasks = messageTexts.Select(async text =>
        {
            try
            {
                string message = await publisher.PublishAsync(text);
                Console.WriteLine($"Published message {message}");
                Interlocked.Increment(ref publishedMessageCount);
            }
            catch (Exception exception)
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"An error ocurred when publishing message {text}: {exception.Message}");
            }
        });
        await Task.WhenAll(publishTasks);
        return publishedMessageCount;
    }
}

Go

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Go 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Go API 参考文档

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"strconv"
	"sync"
	"sync/atomic"

	"cloud.google.com/go/pubsub"
)

func publishThatScales(w io.Writer, projectID, topicID string, n int) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// topicID := "my-topic"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := pubsub.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("pubsub.NewClient: %v", err)
	}

	var wg sync.WaitGroup
	var totalErrors uint64
	t := client.Topic(topicID)

	for i := 0; i < n; i++ {
		result := t.Publish(ctx, &pubsub.Message{
			Data: []byte("Message " + strconv.Itoa(i)),
		})

		wg.Add(1)
		go func(i int, res *pubsub.PublishResult) {
			defer wg.Done()
			// The Get method blocks until a server-generated ID or
			// an error is returned for the published message.
			id, err := res.Get(ctx)
			if err != nil {
				// Error handling code can be added here.
				fmt.Fprintf(w, "Failed to publish: %v", err)
				atomic.AddUint64(&totalErrors, 1)
				return
			}
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Published message %d; msg ID: %v\n", i, id)
		}(i, result)
	}

	wg.Wait()

	if totalErrors > 0 {
		return fmt.Errorf("%d of %d messages did not publish successfully", totalErrors, n)
	}
	return nil
}

Java

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Java 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Java API 参考文档


import com.google.api.core.ApiFuture;
import com.google.api.core.ApiFutureCallback;
import com.google.api.core.ApiFutures;
import com.google.api.gax.rpc.ApiException;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Publisher;
import com.google.common.util.concurrent.MoreExecutors;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.TopicName;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class PublishWithErrorHandlerExample {

  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String topicId = "your-topic-id";

    publishWithErrorHandlerExample(projectId, topicId);
  }

  public static void publishWithErrorHandlerExample(String projectId, String topicId)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException {
    TopicName topicName = TopicName.of(projectId, topicId);
    Publisher publisher = null;

    try {
      // Create a publisher instance with default settings bound to the topic
      publisher = Publisher.newBuilder(topicName).build();

      List<String> messages = Arrays.asList("first message", "second message");

      for (final String message : messages) {
        ByteString data = ByteString.copyFromUtf8(message);
        PubsubMessage pubsubMessage = PubsubMessage.newBuilder().setData(data).build();

        // Once published, returns a server-assigned message id (unique within the topic)
        ApiFuture<String> future = publisher.publish(pubsubMessage);

        // Add an asynchronous callback to handle success / failure
        ApiFutures.addCallback(
            future,
            new ApiFutureCallback<String>() {

              @Override
              public void onFailure(Throwable throwable) {
                if (throwable instanceof ApiException) {
                  ApiException apiException = ((ApiException) throwable);
                  // details on the API exception
                  System.out.println(apiException.getStatusCode().getCode());
                  System.out.println(apiException.isRetryable());
                }
                System.out.println("Error publishing message : " + message);
              }

              @Override
              public void onSuccess(String messageId) {
                // Once published, returns server-assigned message ids (unique within the topic)
                System.out.println("Published message ID: " + messageId);
              }
            },
            MoreExecutors.directExecutor());
      }
    } finally {
      if (publisher != null) {
        // When finished with the publisher, shutdown to free up resources.
        publisher.shutdown();
        publisher.awaitTermination(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
      }
    }
  }
}

Node.js

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Node.js 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Node.js API 参考文档

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const topicName = 'YOUR_TOPIC_NAME';
// const data = JSON.stringify({foo: 'bar'});

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {PubSub} = require('@google-cloud/pubsub');

// Creates a client; cache this for further use
const pubSubClient = new PubSub();

async function publishMessage() {
  // Publishes the message as a string, e.g. "Hello, world!" or JSON.stringify(someObject)
  const dataBuffer = Buffer.from(data);

  try {
    const messageId = await pubSubClient.topic(topicName).publish(dataBuffer);
    console.log(`Message ${messageId} published.`);
  } catch (error) {
    console.error(`Received error while publishing: ${error.message}`);
    process.exitCode = 1;
  }
}

publishMessage();

PHP

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 PHP 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub PHP API 参考文档

use Google\Cloud\PubSub\PubSubClient;

/**
 * Publishes a message for a Pub/Sub topic.
 *
 * @param string $projectId  The Google project ID.
 * @param string $topicName  The Pub/Sub topic name.
 * @param string $message  The message to publish.
 */
function publish_message($projectId, $topicName, $message)
{
    $pubsub = new PubSubClient([
        'projectId' => $projectId,
    ]);
    $topic = $pubsub->topic($topicName);
    $topic->publish(['data' => $message]);
    print('Message published' . PHP_EOL);
}

Python

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Python 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Python API 参考文档

"""Publishes multiple messages to a Pub/Sub topic with an error handler."""
import time

from google.cloud import pubsub_v1

# TODO(developer)
# project_id = "your-project-id"
# topic_id = "your-topic-id"

publisher = pubsub_v1.PublisherClient()
topic_path = publisher.topic_path(project_id, topic_id)

futures = dict()

def get_callback(f, data):
    def callback(f):
        try:
            print(f.result())
            futures.pop(data)
        except:  # noqa
            print("Please handle {} for {}.".format(f.exception(), data))

    return callback

for i in range(10):
    data = str(i)
    futures.update({data: None})
    # When you publish a message, the client returns a future.
    future = publisher.publish(topic_path, data.encode("utf-8"))
    futures[data] = future
    # Publish failures shall be handled in the callback function.
    future.add_done_callback(get_callback(future, data))

# Wait for all the publish futures to resolve before exiting.
while futures:
    time.sleep(5)

print(f"Published messages with error handler to {topic_path}.")

Ruby

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Ruby 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Ruby API 参考文档

# topic_name = "Your Pubsub topic name"
require "google/cloud/pubsub"

pubsub = Google::Cloud::Pubsub.new

topic = pubsub.topic topic_name

begin
  topic.publish_async "This is a test message." do |result|
    raise "Failed to publish the message." unless result.succeeded?
    puts "Message published asynchronously."
  end

  # Stop the async_publisher to send all queued messages immediately.
  topic.async_publisher.stop.wait!
rescue StandardError => e
  puts "Received error while publishing: #{e.message}"
end

发布消息后,Pub/Sub 服务将消息 ID 返回给发布者。

使用属性

您可以在 Pub/Sub 消息中嵌入自定义属性作为元数据。属性可以是文本字符串或字节字符串。消息架构可通过以下方式表示:

{
  "data": string,
  "attributes": {
    string: string,
    ...
  },
  "messageId": string,
  "publishTime": string,
  "orderingKey": string
}

PubsubMessage JSON 架构作为 REST远程过程调用 (RPC) 文档的一部分发布。

gcloud

gcloud pubsub topics publish my-topic --message="hello" \
  --attribute="origin=gcloud-sample,username=gcp"

C++

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C++ 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C++ API 参考文档

namespace pubsub = google::cloud::pubsub;
using google::cloud::future;
using google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](pubsub::Publisher publisher) {
  std::vector<future<void>> done;
  for (int i = 0; i != 10; ++i) {
    auto message_id = publisher.Publish(
        pubsub::MessageBuilder{}
            .SetData("Hello World! [" + std::to_string(i) + "]")
            .SetAttribute("origin", "cpp-sample")
            .SetAttribute("username", "gcp")
            .Build());
    done.push_back(message_id.then([i](future<StatusOr<std::string>> f) {
      auto id = f.get();
      if (!id) throw std::runtime_error(id.status().message());
      std::cout << "Message " << i << " published with id=" << *id << "\n";
    }));
  }
  publisher.Flush();
  // Block until all the messages are published (optional)
  for (auto& f : done) f.get();
}

C#

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C# 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C# API 参考文档


using Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1;
using Google.Protobuf;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class PublishMessageWithCustomAttributesAsyncSample
{
    public async Task PublishMessageWithCustomAttributesAsync(string projectId, string topicId, string messageText)
    {
        TopicName topicName = TopicName.FromProjectTopic(projectId, topicId);
        PublisherClient publisher = await PublisherClient.CreateAsync(topicName);

        var pubsubMessage = new PubsubMessage
        {
            // The data is any arbitrary ByteString. Here, we're using text.
            Data = ByteString.CopyFromUtf8(messageText),
            // The attributes provide metadata in a string-to-string dictionary.
            Attributes =
            {
                { "year", "2020" },
                { "author", "unknown" }
            }
        };
        string message = await publisher.PublishAsync(pubsubMessage);
        Console.WriteLine($"Published message {message}");
    }
}

Go

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Go 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Go API 参考文档

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/pubsub"
)

func publishCustomAttributes(w io.Writer, projectID, topicID string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// topicID := "my-topic"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := pubsub.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("pubsub.NewClient: %v", err)
	}

	t := client.Topic(topicID)
	result := t.Publish(ctx, &pubsub.Message{
		Data: []byte("Hello world!"),
		Attributes: map[string]string{
			"origin":   "golang",
			"username": "gcp",
		},
	})
	// Block until the result is returned and a server-generated
	// ID is returned for the published message.
	id, err := result.Get(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("Get: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Published message with custom attributes; msg ID: %v\n", id)
	return nil
}

Java

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Java 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Java API 参考文档


import com.google.api.core.ApiFuture;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Publisher;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableMap;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.TopicName;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class PublishWithCustomAttributesExample {
  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String topicId = "your-topic-id";

    publishWithCustomAttributesExample(projectId, topicId);
  }

  public static void publishWithCustomAttributesExample(String projectId, String topicId)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException {
    TopicName topicName = TopicName.of(projectId, topicId);
    Publisher publisher = null;

    try {
      // Create a publisher instance with default settings bound to the topic
      publisher = Publisher.newBuilder(topicName).build();

      String message = "first message";
      ByteString data = ByteString.copyFromUtf8(message);
      PubsubMessage pubsubMessage =
          PubsubMessage.newBuilder()
              .setData(data)
              .putAllAttributes(ImmutableMap.of("year", "2020", "author", "unknown"))
              .build();

      // Once published, returns a server-assigned message id (unique within the topic)
      ApiFuture<String> messageIdFuture = publisher.publish(pubsubMessage);
      String messageId = messageIdFuture.get();
      System.out.println("Published a message with custom attributes: " + messageId);

    } finally {
      if (publisher != null) {
        // When finished with the publisher, shutdown to free up resources.
        publisher.shutdown();
        publisher.awaitTermination(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
      }
    }
  }
}

Node.js

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Node.js 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Node.js API 参考文档

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const topicName = 'YOUR_TOPIC_NAME';
// const data = JSON.stringify({foo: 'bar'});

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {PubSub} = require('@google-cloud/pubsub');

// Creates a client; cache this for further use
const pubSubClient = new PubSub();

async function publishMessageWithCustomAttributes() {
  // Publishes the message as a string, e.g. "Hello, world!" or JSON.stringify(someObject)
  const dataBuffer = Buffer.from(data);

  // Add two custom attributes, origin and username, to the message
  const customAttributes = {
    origin: 'nodejs-sample',
    username: 'gcp',
  };

  const messageId = await pubSubClient
    .topic(topicName)
    .publish(dataBuffer, customAttributes);
  console.log(`Message ${messageId} published.`);
}

publishMessageWithCustomAttributes().catch(console.error);

Python

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Python 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Python API 参考文档

from google.cloud import pubsub_v1

# TODO(developer)
# project_id = "your-project-id"
# topic_id = "your-topic-id"

publisher = pubsub_v1.PublisherClient()
topic_path = publisher.topic_path(project_id, topic_id)

for n in range(1, 10):
    data = "Message number {}".format(n)
    # Data must be a bytestring
    data = data.encode("utf-8")
    # Add two attributes, origin and username, to the message
    future = publisher.publish(
        topic_path, data, origin="python-sample", username="gcp"
    )
    print(future.result())

print(f"Published messages with custom attributes to {topic_path}.")

Ruby

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Ruby 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Ruby API 参考文档

# topic_name = "Your Pubsub topic name"
require "google/cloud/pubsub"

pubsub = Google::Cloud::Pubsub.new

topic = pubsub.topic topic_name
# Add two attributes, origin and username, to the message
topic.publish_async "This is a test message.",
                    origin:   "ruby-sample",
                    username: "gcp" do |result|
  raise "Failed to publish the message." unless result.succeeded?
  puts "Message with custom attributes published asynchronously."
end

# Stop the async_publisher to send all queued messages immediately.
topic.async_publisher.stop.wait!

使用排序键

如果消息具有相同的排序键,并且您要将消息发布到同一地区,则订阅者可以按顺序接收消息。发布带有排序键的消息可能会增加延迟时间。如需将消息发布到同一地区,请使用地区性端点

您可以使用 Cloud Console、gcloud 命令行工具或 Pub/Sub API 发布带有排序键的消息。

控制台

  1. 在 Cloud Console 中,转到 Pub/Sub 主题 页面。

    转到 Pub/Sub 主题页面

  2. 点击主题 ID。

  3. 主题详情页面中,点击发布消息

  4. 消息正文字段中,输入消息数据。

  5. 排序键字段中,输入排序键。

  6. 点击发布

gcloud

如需发布带有排序键的消息,请使用 gcloud pubsub topics publish 命令和 --ordering-key 标志:

gcloud pubsub topics publish TOPIC_ID \
  --message=MESSAGE_DATA \
  --ordering-key=ORDERING_KEY

请替换以下内容:

  • TOPIC_ID:主题的 ID
  • MESSAGE_DATA:包含消息数据的 base64 编码字符串
  • ORDERING_KEY:带有排序键的字符串

REST

如需发布带有排序键的消息,请发送如下所示的 POST 请求:

POST  https://pubsub.googleapis.com/v1/projects/PROJECT_ID/topics/TOPIC_ID:publish
Authorization: Bearer $(gcloud auth application-default print-access-token)

请替换以下内容:

  • PROJECT_ID:包含主题的项目的 ID
  • TOPIC_ID:主题的 ID

在请求正文中指定以下字段:

{
"messages": [
  {
    "attributes": {
      "KEY": "VALUE",
      ...
    },
    "data": MESSAGE_DATA,
    "ordering_key": ORDERING_KEY
  }
]
}

替换以下内容:

  • KEY消息属性的键
  • VALUE:消息属性的键对应的值
  • MESSAGE_DATA:包含消息数据的 base64 编码字符串
  • ORDERING_KEY:带有排序键的字符串

如果请求成功,则响应是一个包含消息 ID 的 JSON 对象。以下是包含消息 ID 的响应:

{
"messageIds": [
  "19916711285"
]
}

C++

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C++ 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C++ API 参考文档

namespace pubsub = google::cloud::pubsub;
using google::cloud::future;
using google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](pubsub::Publisher publisher) {
  struct SampleData {
    std::string ordering_key;
    std::string data;
  } data[] = {
      {"key1", "message1"}, {"key2", "message2"}, {"key1", "message3"},
      {"key1", "message4"}, {"key1", "message5"},
  };
  std::vector<future<void>> done;
  for (auto const& datum : data) {
    auto message_id =
        publisher.Publish(pubsub::MessageBuilder{}
                              .SetData("Hello World! [" + datum.data + "]")
                              .SetOrderingKey(datum.ordering_key)
                              .Build());
    std::string ack_id = datum.ordering_key + "#" + datum.data;
    done.push_back(message_id.then([ack_id](future<StatusOr<std::string>> f) {
      auto id = f.get();
      if (!id) throw std::runtime_error(id.status().message());
      std::cout << "Message " << ack_id << " published with id=" << *id
                << "\n";
    }));
  }
  publisher.Flush();
  // Block until all the messages are published (optional)
  for (auto& f : done) f.get();
}

C#

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C# 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C# API 参考文档


using Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class PublishOrderedMessagesAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> PublishOrderedMessagesAsync(string projectId, string topicId, IEnumerable<(string, string)> keysAndMessages)
    {
        TopicName topicName = TopicName.FromProjectTopic(projectId, topicId);

        var customSettings = new PublisherClient.Settings
        {
            EnableMessageOrdering = true
        };

        // Sending messages to the same region ensures they are received in order even when multiple publishers are used.
        var clientCreationSettings = new PublisherClient.ClientCreationSettings(serviceEndpoint: "us-east1-pubsub.googleapis.com:443");
        PublisherClient publisher = await PublisherClient.CreateAsync(topicName, clientCreationSettings, customSettings);

        int publishedMessageCount = 0;
        var publishTasks = keysAndMessages.Select(async keyAndMessage =>
        {
            try
            {
                string message = await publisher.PublishAsync(keyAndMessage.Item1, keyAndMessage.Item2);
                Console.WriteLine($"Published message {message}");
                Interlocked.Increment(ref publishedMessageCount);
            }
            catch (Exception exception)
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"An error occurred when publishing message {keyAndMessage.Item2}: {exception.Message}");
            }
        });
        await Task.WhenAll(publishTasks);
        return publishedMessageCount;
    }
}

Go

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Go 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Go API 参考文档

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"sync"
	"sync/atomic"

	"cloud.google.com/go/pubsub"
	"google.golang.org/api/option"
)

func publishWithOrderingKey(w io.Writer, projectID, topicID string) {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// topicID := "my-topic"
	ctx := context.Background()

	// Sending messages to the same region ensures they are received in order
	// even when multiple publishers are used.
	client, err := pubsub.NewClient(ctx, projectID,
		option.WithEndpoint("us-east1-pubsub.googleapis.com:443"))
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "pubsub.NewClient: %v", err)
		return
	}
	defer client.Close()

	var wg sync.WaitGroup
	var totalErrors uint64
	t := client.Topic(topicID)
	t.EnableMessageOrdering = true

	messages := []struct {
		message     string
		orderingKey string
	}{
		{
			message:     "message1",
			orderingKey: "key1",
		},
		{
			message:     "message2",
			orderingKey: "key2",
		},
		{
			message:     "message3",
			orderingKey: "key1",
		},
		{
			message:     "message4",
			orderingKey: "key2",
		},
	}

	for _, m := range messages {
		res := t.Publish(ctx, &pubsub.Message{
			Data:        []byte(m.message),
			OrderingKey: m.orderingKey,
		})

		wg.Add(1)
		go func(res *pubsub.PublishResult) {
			defer wg.Done()
			// The Get method blocks until a server-generated ID or
			// an error is returned for the published message.
			_, err := res.Get(ctx)
			if err != nil {
				// Error handling code can be added here.
				fmt.Printf("Failed to publish: %s\n", err)
				atomic.AddUint64(&totalErrors, 1)
				return
			}
		}(res)
	}

	wg.Wait()

	if totalErrors > 0 {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d of 4 messages did not publish successfully", totalErrors)
		return
	}

	fmt.Fprint(w, "Published 4 messages with ordering keys successfully\n")
}

Java

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Java 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Java API 参考文档

import com.google.api.core.ApiFuture;
import com.google.api.core.ApiFutureCallback;
import com.google.api.core.ApiFutures;
import com.google.api.gax.rpc.ApiException;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Publisher;
import com.google.common.util.concurrent.MoreExecutors;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.TopicName;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class PublishWithOrderingKeys {
  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    // Choose an existing topic.
    String topicId = "your-topic-id";

    publishWithOrderingKeysExample(projectId, topicId);
  }

  public static void publishWithOrderingKeysExample(String projectId, String topicId)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException {
    TopicName topicName = TopicName.of(projectId, topicId);
    // Create a publisher and set message ordering to true.
    Publisher publisher =
        Publisher.newBuilder(topicName)
            // Sending messages to the same region ensures they are received in order
            // even when multiple publishers are used.
            .setEndpoint("us-east1-pubsub.googleapis.com:443")
            .setEnableMessageOrdering(true)
            .build();

    try {
      Map<String, String> messages = new HashMap<String, String>();
      messages.put("message1", "key1");
      messages.put("message2", "key2");
      messages.put("message3", "key1");
      messages.put("message4", "key2");

      for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : messages.entrySet()) {
        ByteString data = ByteString.copyFromUtf8(entry.getKey());
        PubsubMessage pubsubMessage =
            PubsubMessage.newBuilder().setData(data).setOrderingKey(entry.getValue()).build();
        ApiFuture<String> future = publisher.publish(pubsubMessage);

        // Add an asynchronous callback to handle publish success / failure.
        ApiFutures.addCallback(
            future,
            new ApiFutureCallback<String>() {

              @Override
              public void onFailure(Throwable throwable) {
                if (throwable instanceof ApiException) {
                  ApiException apiException = ((ApiException) throwable);
                  // Details on the API exception.
                  System.out.println(apiException.getStatusCode().getCode());
                  System.out.println(apiException.isRetryable());
                }
                System.out.println("Error publishing message : " + pubsubMessage.getData());
              }

              @Override
              public void onSuccess(String messageId) {
                // Once published, returns server-assigned message ids (unique within the topic).
                System.out.println(pubsubMessage.getData() + " : " + messageId);
              }
            },
            MoreExecutors.directExecutor());
      }
    } finally {
      // When finished with the publisher, shutdown to free up resources.
      publisher.shutdown();
      publisher.awaitTermination(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
    }
  }
}

Node.js

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Node.js 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Node.js API 参考文档

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const topicName = 'YOUR_TOPIC_NAME';
// const data = JSON.stringify({foo: 'bar'});
// const orderingKey = 'key1';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {PubSub} = require('@google-cloud/pubsub');

// Creates a client; cache this for further use
const pubSubClient = new PubSub({
  // Sending messages to the same region ensures they are received in order
  // even when multiple publishers are used.
  apiEndpoint: 'us-east1-pubsub.googleapis.com:443',
});

async function publishOrderedMessage() {
  // Publishes the message as a string, e.g. "Hello, world!" or JSON.stringify(someObject)
  const dataBuffer = Buffer.from(data);

  // Be sure to set an ordering key that matches other messages
  // you want to receive in order, relative to each other.
  const message = {
    data: dataBuffer,
    orderingKey: orderingKey,
  };

  // Publishes the message
  const messageId = await pubSubClient
    .topic(topicName, {enableMessageOrdering: true})
    .publishMessage(message);

  console.log(`Message ${messageId} published.`);

  return messageId;
}

return await publishOrderedMessage();

Python

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Python 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Python API 参考文档

from google.cloud import pubsub_v1

# TODO(developer): Choose an existing topic.
# project_id = "your-project-id"
# topic_id = "your-topic-id"

publisher_options = pubsub_v1.types.PublisherOptions(enable_message_ordering=True)
# Sending messages to the same region ensures they are received in order
# even when multiple publishers are used.
client_options = {"api_endpoint": "us-east1-pubsub.googleapis.com:443"}
publisher = pubsub_v1.PublisherClient(
    publisher_options=publisher_options, client_options=client_options
)
# The `topic_path` method creates a fully qualified identifier
# in the form `projects/{project_id}/topics/{topic_id}`
topic_path = publisher.topic_path(project_id, topic_id)

for message in [
    ("message1", "key1"),
    ("message2", "key2"),
    ("message3", "key1"),
    ("message4", "key2"),
]:
    # Data must be a bytestring
    data = message[0].encode("utf-8")
    ordering_key = message[1]
    # When you publish a message, the client returns a future.
    future = publisher.publish(topic_path, data=data, ordering_key=ordering_key)
    print(future.result())

print(f"Published messages with ordering keys to {topic_path}.")

Ruby

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Ruby 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Ruby API 参考文档

# topic_name = "Your Pubsub topic name"
require "google/cloud/pubsub"

pubsub = Google::Cloud::Pubsub.new

# Start sending messages in one request once the size of all queued messages
# reaches 1 MB or the number of queued messages reaches 20
topic = pubsub.topic topic_name, async: {
  max_bytes:    1_000_000,
  max_messages: 20
}
topic.enable_message_ordering!
10.times do |i|
  topic.publish_async "This is message \##{i}.",
                      ordering_key: "ordering-key"
end

# Stop the async_publisher to send all queued messages immediately.
topic.async_publisher.stop!
puts "Messages published with ordering key."

批处理消息

Pub/Sub 客户端库会在对服务的单个调用中批处理多条消息。较大批次大小可提高消息吞吐量(每个 CPU 发送的消息速率)。批处理的代价是单条消息延迟,这些消息会在内存中排入队列,直到其相应的批次中消息达到一定数量并准备好通过网络发送。要最大程度地缩短延迟时间,应停用批处理功能。如果应用发布单条消息作为请求-响应序列的一部分,这一点尤为重要。这种模式的一个常见示例是使用 Cloud Functions 或 App Engine 的无服务器、事件驱动型应用。

消息可以根据请求大小(以字节为单位)、消息数量和时间分批。 您可以替换此示例中显示的默认设置:

C++

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C++ 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C++ API 参考文档

namespace pubsub = google::cloud::pubsub;
using google::cloud::future;
using google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](std::string project_id, std::string topic_id) {
  auto topic = pubsub::Topic(std::move(project_id), std::move(topic_id));
  // By default the publisher will flush a batch after 10ms, after it contains
  // more than 100 message, or after it contains more than 1MiB of data,
  // whichever comes first. This changes those defaults.
  auto publisher = pubsub::Publisher(pubsub::MakePublisherConnection(
      std::move(topic),
      pubsub::PublisherOptions{}
          .set_maximum_hold_time(std::chrono::milliseconds(20))
          .set_maximum_batch_bytes(4 * 1024 * 1024L)
          .set_maximum_batch_message_count(200),
      pubsub::ConnectionOptions{}));

  std::vector<future<void>> ids;
  for (char const* data : {"1", "2", "3", "go!"}) {
    ids.push_back(
        publisher.Publish(pubsub::MessageBuilder().SetData(data).Build())
            .then([data](future<StatusOr<std::string>> f) {
              auto s = f.get();
              if (!s) return;
              std::cout << "Sent '" << data << "' (" << *s << ")\n";
            }));
  }
  publisher.Flush();
  // Block until they are actually sent.
  for (auto& id : ids) id.get();
}

C#

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C# 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C# API 参考文档


using Google.Api.Gax;
using Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class PublishBatchedMessagesAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> PublishBatchMessagesAsync(string projectId, string topicId, IEnumerable<string> messageTexts)
    {
        TopicName topicName = TopicName.FromProjectTopic(projectId, topicId);

        // Default Settings:
        // byteCountThreshold: 1000000
        // elementCountThreshold: 100
        // delayThreshold: 10 milliseconds
        var customSettings = new PublisherClient.Settings
        {
            BatchingSettings = new BatchingSettings(
                elementCountThreshold: 50,
                byteCountThreshold: 10240,
                delayThreshold: TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(500))
        };

        PublisherClient publisher = await PublisherClient.CreateAsync(topicName, settings: customSettings);

        int publishedMessageCount = 0;
        var publishTasks = messageTexts.Select(async text =>
        {
            try
            {
                string message = await publisher.PublishAsync(text);
                Console.WriteLine($"Published message {message}");
                Interlocked.Increment(ref publishedMessageCount);
            }
            catch (Exception exception)
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"An error occurred when publishing message {text}: {exception.Message}");
            }
        });
        await Task.WhenAll(publishTasks);
        return publishedMessageCount;
    }
}

Go

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Go 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Go API 参考文档

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"strconv"
	"time"

	"cloud.google.com/go/pubsub"
)

func publishWithSettings(w io.Writer, projectID, topicID string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// topicID := "my-topic"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := pubsub.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("pubsub.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	var results []*pubsub.PublishResult
	var resultErrors []error
	t := client.Topic(topicID)
	t.PublishSettings.ByteThreshold = 5000
	t.PublishSettings.CountThreshold = 10
	t.PublishSettings.DelayThreshold = 100 * time.Millisecond

	for i := 0; i < 10; i++ {
		result := t.Publish(ctx, &pubsub.Message{
			Data: []byte("Message " + strconv.Itoa(i)),
		})
		results = append(results, result)
	}
	// The Get method blocks until a server-generated ID or
	// an error is returned for the published message.
	for i, res := range results {
		id, err := res.Get(ctx)
		if err != nil {
			resultErrors = append(resultErrors, err)
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Failed to publish: %v", err)
			continue
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Published message %d; msg ID: %v\n", i, id)
	}
	if len(resultErrors) != 0 {
		return fmt.Errorf("Get: %v", resultErrors[len(resultErrors)-1])
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Published messages with batch settings.")
	return nil
}

Java

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Java 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Java API 参考文档


import com.google.api.core.ApiFuture;
import com.google.api.core.ApiFutures;
import com.google.api.gax.batching.BatchingSettings;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Publisher;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.TopicName;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import org.threeten.bp.Duration;

public class PublishWithBatchSettingsExample {
  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String topicId = "your-topic-id";

    publishWithBatchSettingsExample(projectId, topicId);
  }

  public static void publishWithBatchSettingsExample(String projectId, String topicId)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException {
    TopicName topicName = TopicName.of(projectId, topicId);
    Publisher publisher = null;
    List<ApiFuture<String>> messageIdFutures = new ArrayList<>();

    try {
      // Batch settings control how the publisher batches messages
      long requestBytesThreshold = 5000L; // default : 1 byte
      long messageCountBatchSize = 100L; // default : 1 message

      Duration publishDelayThreshold = Duration.ofMillis(100); // default : 1 ms

      // Publish request get triggered based on request size, messages count & time since last
      // publish, whichever condition is met first.
      BatchingSettings batchingSettings =
          BatchingSettings.newBuilder()
              .setElementCountThreshold(messageCountBatchSize)
              .setRequestByteThreshold(requestBytesThreshold)
              .setDelayThreshold(publishDelayThreshold)
              .build();

      // Create a publisher instance with default settings bound to the topic
      publisher = Publisher.newBuilder(topicName).setBatchingSettings(batchingSettings).build();

      // schedule publishing one message at a time : messages get automatically batched
      for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
        String message = "message " + i;
        ByteString data = ByteString.copyFromUtf8(message);
        PubsubMessage pubsubMessage = PubsubMessage.newBuilder().setData(data).build();

        // Once published, returns a server-assigned message id (unique within the topic)
        ApiFuture<String> messageIdFuture = publisher.publish(pubsubMessage);
        messageIdFutures.add(messageIdFuture);
      }
    } finally {
      // Wait on any pending publish requests.
      List<String> messageIds = ApiFutures.allAsList(messageIdFutures).get();

      System.out.println("Published " + messageIds.size() + " messages with batch settings.");

      if (publisher != null) {
        // When finished with the publisher, shutdown to free up resources.
        publisher.shutdown();
        publisher.awaitTermination(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
      }
    }
  }
}

Node.js

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Node.js 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Node.js API 参考文档

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const topicName = 'YOUR_TOPIC_NAME';
// const data = JSON.stringify({foo: 'bar'});
// const maxMessages = 10;
// const maxWaitTime = 10;

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {PubSub} = require('@google-cloud/pubsub');

// Creates a client; cache this for further use
const pubSubClient = new PubSub();

async function publishBatchedMessages() {
  // Publishes the message as a string, e.g. "Hello, world!" or JSON.stringify(someObject)
  const dataBuffer = Buffer.from(data);

  const batchPublisher = pubSubClient.topic(topicName, {
    batching: {
      maxMessages: maxMessages,
      maxMilliseconds: maxWaitTime * 1000,
    },
  });

  for (let i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
    (async () => {
      const messageId = await batchPublisher.publish(dataBuffer);
      console.log(`Message ${messageId} published.`);
    })();
  }
}

publishBatchedMessages().catch(console.error);

PHP

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 PHP 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub PHP API 参考文档

use Google\Cloud\PubSub\PubSubClient;

/**
 * Publishes a message for a Pub/Sub topic.
 *
 * The publisher should be used in conjunction with the `google-cloud-batch`
 * daemon, which should be running in the background.
 *
 * To start the daemon, from your project root call `vendor/bin/google-cloud-batch daemon`.
 *
 * @param string $projectId  The Google project ID.
 * @param string $topicName  The Pub/Sub topic name.
 * @param string $message    The message to publish.
 */
function publish_message_batch($projectId, $topicName, $message)
{
    // Check if the batch daemon is running.
    if (getenv('IS_BATCH_DAEMON_RUNNING') !== 'true') {
        trigger_error(
            'The batch daemon is not running. Call ' .
            '`vendor/bin/google-cloud-batch daemon` from ' .
            'your project root to start the daemon.',
            E_USER_NOTICE
        );
    }

    $batchOptions = [
        'batchSize' => 100, // Max messages for each batch.
        'callPeriod' => 0.01, // Max time in seconds between each batch publish.
    ];

    $pubsub = new PubSubClient([
        'projectId' => $projectId,
    ]);
    $topic = $pubsub->topic($topicName);
    $publisher = $topic->batchPublisher([
        'batchOptions' => $batchOptions
    ]);

    for ($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++) {
        $publisher->publish(['data' => $message]);
    }

    print('Messages enqueued for publication.' . PHP_EOL);
}

Python

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Python 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Python API 参考文档

from google.cloud import pubsub_v1

# TODO(developer)
# project_id = "your-project-id"
# topic_id = "your-topic-id"

# Configure the batch to publish as soon as there is ten messages,
# one kilobyte of data, or one second has passed.
batch_settings = pubsub_v1.types.BatchSettings(
    max_messages=10,  # default 100
    max_bytes=1024,  # default 1 MB
    max_latency=1,  # default 10 ms
)
publisher = pubsub_v1.PublisherClient(batch_settings)
topic_path = publisher.topic_path(project_id, topic_id)

# Resolve the publish future in a separate thread.
def callback(future):
    message_id = future.result()
    print(message_id)

for n in range(1, 10):
    data = "Message number {}".format(n)
    # Data must be a bytestring
    data = data.encode("utf-8")
    future = publisher.publish(topic_path, data)
    # Non-blocking. Allow the publisher client to batch multiple messages.
    future.add_done_callback(callback)

print(f"Published messages with batch settings to {topic_path}.")

Ruby

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Ruby 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Ruby API 参考文档

# topic_name = "Your Pubsub topic name"
require "google/cloud/pubsub"

pubsub = Google::Cloud::Pubsub.new

# Start sending messages in one request once the size of all queued messages
# reaches 1 MB or the number of queued messages reaches 20
topic = pubsub.topic topic_name, async: {
  max_bytes:    1_000_000,
  max_messages: 20
}
10.times do |i|
  topic.publish_async "This is message \##{i}."
end

# Stop the async_publisher to send all queued messages immediately.
topic.async_publisher.stop.wait!
puts "Messages published asynchronously in batch."

重试请求

如果发布失败,系统会自动重试,但无法保证能够重试的错误除外。此示例代码演示了如何使用自定义重试设置创建发布者(请注意,并非所有客户端库都支持自定义重试设置;请参阅适用于您所选语言的 API 参考文档):

C++

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C++ 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C++ API 参考文档

namespace pubsub = google::cloud::pubsub;
using google::cloud::future;
using google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](std::string project_id, std::string topic_id) {
  auto topic = pubsub::Topic(std::move(project_id), std::move(topic_id));
  // By default a publisher will retry for 60 seconds, with an initial backoff
  // of 100ms, a maximum backoff of 60 seconds, and the backoff will grow by
  // 30% after each attempt. This changes those defaults.
  auto publisher = pubsub::Publisher(pubsub::MakePublisherConnection(
      std::move(topic), pubsub::PublisherOptions{}, {},
      pubsub::LimitedTimeRetryPolicy(
          /*maximum_duration=*/std::chrono::minutes(10))
          .clone(),
      pubsub::ExponentialBackoffPolicy(
          /*initial_delay=*/std::chrono::milliseconds(200),
          /*maximum_delay=*/std::chrono::seconds(45),
          /*scaling=*/2.0)
          .clone()));

  std::vector<future<bool>> done;
  for (char const* data : {"1", "2", "3", "go!"}) {
    done.push_back(
        publisher.Publish(pubsub::MessageBuilder().SetData(data).Build())
            .then([](future<StatusOr<std::string>> f) {
              return f.get().ok();
            }));
  }
  publisher.Flush();
  int count = 0;
  for (auto& f : done) {
    if (f.get()) ++count;
  }
  std::cout << count << " messages sent successfully\n";
}

C#

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C# 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C# API 参考文档


using Google.Api.Gax.Grpc;
using Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1;
using Grpc.Core;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class PublishMessageWithRetrySettingsAsyncSample
{
    public async Task PublishMessageWithRetrySettingsAsync(string projectId, string topicId, string messageText)
    {
        TopicName topicName = TopicName.FromProjectTopic(projectId, topicId);
        // Retry settings control how the publisher handles retry-able failures
        var maxAttempts = 3;
        var initialBackoff = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(110); // default: 100 ms
        var maxBackoff = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(70); // default : 60 seconds
        var backoffMultiplier = 1.3; // default: 1.0
        var totalTimeout = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(100); // default: 600 seconds

        var publisher = await PublisherClient.CreateAsync(topicName,
               clientCreationSettings: new PublisherClient.ClientCreationSettings(
                   publisherServiceApiSettings: new PublisherServiceApiSettings
                   {
                       PublishSettings = CallSettings.FromRetry(RetrySettings.FromExponentialBackoff(
                               maxAttempts: maxAttempts,
                               initialBackoff: initialBackoff,
                               maxBackoff: maxBackoff,
                               backoffMultiplier: backoffMultiplier,
                               retryFilter: RetrySettings.FilterForStatusCodes(StatusCode.Unavailable)))
                       .WithTimeout(totalTimeout)
                   }
               )).ConfigureAwait(false);
        string message = await publisher.PublishAsync(messageText);
        Console.WriteLine($"Published message {message}");
    }
}

Java

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Java 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Java API 参考文档


import com.google.api.core.ApiFuture;
import com.google.api.gax.retrying.RetrySettings;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Publisher;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.TopicName;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import org.threeten.bp.Duration;

public class PublishWithRetrySettingsExample {
  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String topicId = "your-topic-id";

    publishWithRetrySettingsExample(projectId, topicId);
  }

  public static void publishWithRetrySettingsExample(String projectId, String topicId)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException {
    TopicName topicName = TopicName.of(projectId, topicId);
    Publisher publisher = null;

    try {
      // Retry settings control how the publisher handles retry-able failures
      Duration initialRetryDelay = Duration.ofMillis(100); // default: 100 ms
      double retryDelayMultiplier = 2.0; // back off for repeated failures, default: 1.3
      Duration maxRetryDelay = Duration.ofSeconds(60); // default : 60 seconds
      Duration initialRpcTimeout = Duration.ofSeconds(1); // default: 5 seconds
      double rpcTimeoutMultiplier = 1.0; // default: 1.0
      Duration maxRpcTimeout = Duration.ofSeconds(600); // default: 600 seconds
      Duration totalTimeout = Duration.ofSeconds(600); // default: 600 seconds

      RetrySettings retrySettings =
          RetrySettings.newBuilder()
              .setInitialRetryDelay(initialRetryDelay)
              .setRetryDelayMultiplier(retryDelayMultiplier)
              .setMaxRetryDelay(maxRetryDelay)
              .setInitialRpcTimeout(initialRpcTimeout)
              .setRpcTimeoutMultiplier(rpcTimeoutMultiplier)
              .setMaxRpcTimeout(maxRpcTimeout)
              .setTotalTimeout(totalTimeout)
              .build();

      // Create a publisher instance with default settings bound to the topic
      publisher = Publisher.newBuilder(topicName).setRetrySettings(retrySettings).build();

      String message = "first message";
      ByteString data = ByteString.copyFromUtf8(message);
      PubsubMessage pubsubMessage = PubsubMessage.newBuilder().setData(data).build();

      // Once published, returns a server-assigned message id (unique within the topic)
      ApiFuture<String> messageIdFuture = publisher.publish(pubsubMessage);
      String messageId = messageIdFuture.get();
      System.out.println("Published a message with retry settings: " + messageId);

    } finally {
      if (publisher != null) {
        // When finished with the publisher, shutdown to free up resources.
        publisher.shutdown();
        publisher.awaitTermination(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
      }
    }
  }
}

Node.js

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Node.js 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Node.js API 参考文档

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID'
// const topicName = 'YOUR_TOPIC_NAME';
// const data = JSON.stringify({foo: 'bar'});

// Imports the Google Cloud client library. v1 is for the lower level
// proto access.
const {v1} = require('@google-cloud/pubsub');

// Creates a publisher client.
const publisherClient = new v1.PublisherClient({
  // optional auth parameters
});

async function publishWithRetrySettings() {
  const formattedTopic = publisherClient.projectTopicPath(
    projectId,
    topicName
  );

  // Publishes the message as a string, e.g. "Hello, world!" or JSON.stringify(someObject)
  const dataBuffer = Buffer.from(data);
  const messagesElement = {
    data: dataBuffer,
  };
  const messages = [messagesElement];

  // Build the request
  const request = {
    topic: formattedTopic,
    messages: messages,
  };

  // Retry settings control how the publisher handles retryable failures
  // Default values are shown
  const retrySettings = {
    retryCodes: [
      10, // 'ABORTED'
      1, // 'CANCELLED',
      4, // 'DEADLINE_EXCEEDED'
      13, // 'INTERNAL'
      8, // 'RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED'
      14, // 'UNAVAILABLE'
      2, // 'UNKNOWN'
    ],
    backoffSettings: {
      // The initial delay time, in milliseconds, between the completion
      // of the first failed request and the initiation of the first retrying request.
      initialRetryDelayMillis: 100,
      // The multiplier by which to increase the delay time between the completion
      // of failed requests, and the initiation of the subsequent retrying request.
      retryDelayMultiplier: 1.3,
      // The maximum delay time, in milliseconds, between requests.
      // When this value is reached, retryDelayMultiplier will no longer be used to increase delay time.
      maxRetryDelayMillis: 60000,
      // The initial timeout parameter to the request.
      initialRpcTimeoutMillis: 5000,
      // The multiplier by which to increase the timeout parameter between failed requests.
      rpcTimeoutMultiplier: 1.0,
      // The maximum timeout parameter, in milliseconds, for a request. When this value is reached,
      // rpcTimeoutMultiplier will no longer be used to increase the timeout.
      maxRpcTimeoutMillis: 600000,
      // The total time, in milliseconds, starting from when the initial request is sent,
      // after which an error will be returned, regardless of the retrying attempts made meanwhile.
      totalTimeoutMillis: 600000,
    },
  };

  const [response] = await publisherClient.publish(request, {
    retry: retrySettings,
  });
  console.log(`Message ${response.messageIds} published.`);
}

publishWithRetrySettings().catch(console.error);

Python

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Python 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Python API 参考文档

from google import api_core
from google.cloud import pubsub_v1

# TODO(developer)
# project_id = "your-project-id"
# topic_id = "your-topic-id"

# Configure the retry settings. Defaults shown in comments are values applied
# by the library by default, instead of default values in the Retry object.
custom_retry = api_core.retry.Retry(
    initial=0.250,  # seconds (default: 0.1)
    maximum=90.0,  # seconds (default: 60.0)
    multiplier=1.45,  # default: 1.3
    deadline=300.0,  # seconds (default: 60.0)
    predicate=api_core.retry.if_exception_type(
        api_core.exceptions.Aborted,
        api_core.exceptions.DeadlineExceeded,
        api_core.exceptions.InternalServerError,
        api_core.exceptions.ResourceExhausted,
        api_core.exceptions.ServiceUnavailable,
        api_core.exceptions.Unknown,
        api_core.exceptions.Cancelled,
    ),
)

publisher = pubsub_v1.PublisherClient()
topic_path = publisher.topic_path(project_id, topic_id)

for n in range(1, 10):
    data = "Message number {}".format(n)
    # Data must be a bytestring
    data = data.encode("utf-8")
    future = publisher.publish(topic=topic_path, data=data, retry=custom_retry)
    print(future.result())

print(f"Published messages with retry settings to {topic_path}.")

重试设置控制 Pub/Sub 客户端库重试发布请求的方式。客户端库具有以下任一重试设置:

  • 初始请求超时:客户端库停止等待初始发布请求完成前的时间。
  • 重试延迟:请求超时后,客户端库等待请求重试的时间。
  • 总超时:客户端库停止重试发布请求前的时间。

如需重试发布请求,初始请求超时必须短于总超时。例如,如果您使用的是指数退避算法,客户端库会按如下所示计算请求超时和重试延迟:

  • 每个发布请求后,请求超时会以请求超时倍数增加,最长为请求超时上限。
  • 每次重试后,重试延迟时间会以重试延迟倍数增加,最长为重试延迟上限。

当客户端库重试某个请求且消息带有排序键时,无论重试设置如何,客户端库都会不断重试该请求。

如果出现不可重试的错误,则客户端库不会发布消息,并会停止发布带有相同排序键的其他消息。例如,当发布者将消息发送到不存在的主题时,即会发生不可重试的错误。要继续发布带用相同排序键的消息,请调用一个方法以继续发布,然后开始重新发布。

以下示例显示了如何继续发布带有相同排序键的消息。

C++

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C++ 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C++ API 参考文档

namespace pubsub = google::cloud::pubsub;
using google::cloud::future;
using google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](pubsub::Publisher publisher) {
  struct SampleData {
    std::string ordering_key;
    std::string data;
  } data[] = {
      {"key1", "message1"}, {"key2", "message2"}, {"key1", "message3"},
      {"key1", "message4"}, {"key1", "message5"},
  };
  std::vector<future<void>> done;
  for (auto const& datum : data) {
    auto const& da = datum;  // workaround MSVC lambda capture confusion
    auto handler = [da, publisher](future<StatusOr<std::string>> f) mutable {
      auto const msg = da.ordering_key + "#" + da.data;
      auto id = f.get();
      if (!id) {
        std::cout << "An error has occurred publishing " << msg << "\n";
        publisher.ResumePublish(da.ordering_key);
        return;
      }
      std::cout << "Message " << msg << " published as id=" << *id << "\n";
    };
    done.push_back(
        publisher
            .Publish(pubsub::MessageBuilder{}
                         .SetData("Hello World! [" + datum.data + "]")
                         .SetOrderingKey(datum.ordering_key)
                         .Build())
            .then(handler));
  }
  publisher.Flush();
  // Block until all the messages are published (optional)
  for (auto& f : done) f.get();
}

C#

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C# 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C# API 参考文档


using Google.Cloud.PubSub.V1;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class ResumePublishSample
{
    public async Task<int> PublishOrderedMessagesAsync(string projectId, string topicId, IEnumerable<(string, string)> keysAndMessages)
    {
        TopicName topicName = TopicName.FromProjectTopic(projectId, topicId);

        var customSettings = new PublisherClient.Settings
        {
            EnableMessageOrdering = true
        };

        PublisherClient publisher = await PublisherClient.CreateAsync(topicName, settings: customSettings);

        int publishedMessageCount = 0;
        var publishTasks = keysAndMessages.Select(async keyAndMessage =>
        {
            try
            {
                string message = await publisher.PublishAsync(keyAndMessage.Item1, keyAndMessage.Item2);
                Console.WriteLine($"Published message {message}");
                Interlocked.Increment(ref publishedMessageCount);
            }
            catch (Exception exception)
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"An error occurred when publishing message {keyAndMessage.Item2}: {exception.Message}");
                publisher.ResumePublish(keyAndMessage.Item1);
            }
        });
        await Task.WhenAll(publishTasks);
        return publishedMessageCount;
    }
}

Go

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Go 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Go API 参考文档

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/pubsub"
	"google.golang.org/api/option"
)

func resumePublishWithOrderingKey(w io.Writer, projectID, topicID string) {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// topicID := "my-topic"
	ctx := context.Background()

	// Sending messages to the same region ensures they are received in order
	// even when multiple publishers are used.
	client, err := pubsub.NewClient(ctx, projectID,
		option.WithEndpoint("us-east1-pubsub.googleapis.com:443"))
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "pubsub.NewClient: %v", err)
		return
	}
	defer client.Close()

	t := client.Topic(topicID)
	t.EnableMessageOrdering = true
	key := "some-ordering-key"

	res := t.Publish(ctx, &pubsub.Message{
		Data:        []byte("some-message"),
		OrderingKey: key,
	})
	_, err = res.Get(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		// Error handling code can be added here.
		fmt.Printf("Failed to publish: %s\n", err)

		// Resume publish on an ordering key that has had unrecoverable errors.
		// After such an error publishes with this ordering key will fail
		// until this method is called.
		t.ResumePublish(key)
	}

	fmt.Fprint(w, "Published a message with ordering key successfully\n")
}

Java

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Java 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Java API 参考文档

import com.google.api.core.ApiFuture;
import com.google.api.core.ApiFutureCallback;
import com.google.api.core.ApiFutures;
import com.google.api.gax.rpc.ApiException;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Publisher;
import com.google.common.util.concurrent.MoreExecutors;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.TopicName;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class ResumePublishWithOrderingKeys {
  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    // Choose an existing topic.
    String topicId = "your-topic-id";

    resumePublishWithOrderingKeysExample(projectId, topicId);
  }

  public static void resumePublishWithOrderingKeysExample(String projectId, String topicId)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException {
    TopicName topicName = TopicName.of(projectId, topicId);
    // Create a publisher and set message ordering to true.
    Publisher publisher =
        Publisher.newBuilder(topicName)
            .setEnableMessageOrdering(true)
            .setEndpoint("us-east1-pubsub.googleapis.com:443")
            .build();

    try {
      Map<String, String> messages = new HashMap<String, String>();
      messages.put("message1", "key1");
      messages.put("message2", "key2");
      messages.put("message3", "key1");
      messages.put("message4", "key2");

      for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : messages.entrySet()) {
        ByteString data = ByteString.copyFromUtf8(entry.getKey());
        PubsubMessage pubsubMessage =
            PubsubMessage.newBuilder().setData(data).setOrderingKey(entry.getValue()).build();
        ApiFuture<String> future = publisher.publish(pubsubMessage);

        // Add an asynchronous callback to handle publish success / failure.
        ApiFutures.addCallback(
            future,
            new ApiFutureCallback<String>() {

              @Override
              public void onFailure(Throwable throwable) {
                if (throwable instanceof ApiException) {
                  ApiException apiException = ((ApiException) throwable);
                  // Details on the API exception.
                  System.out.println(apiException.getStatusCode().getCode());
                  System.out.println(apiException.isRetryable());
                }
                System.out.println("Error publishing message : " + pubsubMessage.getData());
                // (Beta) Must call resumePublish to reset key and continue publishing with order.
                publisher.resumePublish(pubsubMessage.getOrderingKey());
              }

              @Override
              public void onSuccess(String messageId) {
                // Once published, returns server-assigned message ids (unique within the topic).
                System.out.println(pubsubMessage.getData() + " : " + messageId);
              }
            },
            MoreExecutors.directExecutor());
      }
    } finally {
      publisher.shutdown();
      publisher.awaitTermination(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
    }
  }
}

Node.js

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Node.js 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Node.js API 参考文档

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const topicName = 'YOUR_TOPIC_NAME';
// const data = JSON.stringify({foo: 'bar'});
// const orderingKey = 'key1';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {PubSub} = require('@google-cloud/pubsub');

// Creates a client; cache this for further use
const pubSubClient = new PubSub();

async function resumePublish() {
  // Publishes the message as a string, e.g. "Hello, world!" or JSON.stringify(someObject)
  const dataBuffer = Buffer.from(data);

  // Publishes the message
  const publisher = pubSubClient.topic(topicName, {
    enableMessageOrdering: true,
  });
  try {
    const message = {
      data: dataBuffer,
      orderingKey: orderingKey,
    };
    const messageId = await publisher.publishMessage(message);
    console.log(`Message ${messageId} published.`);

    return messageId;
  } catch (e) {
    console.log(`Could not publish: ${e}`);
    publisher.resumePublishing(orderingKey);
    return null;
  }
}

return await resumePublish();

Python

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Python 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Python API 参考文档

from google.cloud import pubsub_v1

# TODO(developer): Choose an existing topic.
# project_id = "your-project-id"
# topic_id = "your-topic-id"

publisher_options = pubsub_v1.types.PublisherOptions(enable_message_ordering=True)
# Sending messages to the same region ensures they are received in order
# even when multiple publishers are used.
client_options = {"api_endpoint": "us-east1-pubsub.googleapis.com:443"}
publisher = pubsub_v1.PublisherClient(
    publisher_options=publisher_options, client_options=client_options
)
# The `topic_path` method creates a fully qualified identifier
# in the form `projects/{project_id}/topics/{topic_id}`
topic_path = publisher.topic_path(project_id, topic_id)

for message in [
    ("message1", "key1"),
    ("message2", "key2"),
    ("message3", "key1"),
    ("message4", "key2"),
]:
    # Data must be a bytestring
    data = message[0].encode("utf-8")
    ordering_key = message[1]
    # When you publish a message, the client returns a future.
    future = publisher.publish(topic_path, data=data, ordering_key=ordering_key)
    try:
        print(future.result())
    except RuntimeError:
        # Resume publish on an ordering key that has had unrecoverable errors.
        publisher.resume_publish(topic_path, ordering_key)

print(f"Resumed publishing messages with ordering keys to {topic_path}.")

Ruby

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Ruby 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Ruby API 参考文档

# topic_name = "Your Pubsub topic name"
require "google/cloud/pubsub"

pubsub = Google::Cloud::Pubsub.new

# Start sending messages in one request once the size of all queued messages
# reaches 1 MB or the number of queued messages reaches 20
topic = pubsub.topic topic_name, async: {
  max_bytes:    1_000_000,
  max_messages: 20
}
topic.enable_message_ordering!
10.times do |i|
  topic.publish_async "This is message \##{i}.",
                      ordering_key: "ordering-key" do |result|
    if result.succeeded?
      puts "Message \##{i} successfully published."
    else
      puts "Message \##{i} failed to publish"
      # Allow publishing to continue on "ordering-key" after processing the
      # failure.
      topic.resume_publish "ordering-key"
    end
  end
end

# Stop the async_publisher to send all queued messages immediately.
topic.async_publisher.stop!

并发控制

是否支持并发取决于您使用的编程语言。如需了解详情,请参阅 API 参考文档

以下示例说明了如何控制发布者并发:

C++

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 C++ 设置说明进行操作。如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub C++ API 参考文档

namespace pubsub = google::cloud::pubsub;
using google::cloud::future;
using google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](std::string project_id, std::string topic_id) {
  auto topic = pubsub::Topic(std::move(project_id), std::move(topic_id));
  // Override the default number of background (I/O) threads. By default the
  // library uses `std::thread::hardware_concurrency()` threads.
  auto options =
      pubsub::ConnectionOptions{}.set_background_thread_pool_size(8);
  auto publisher = pubsub::Publisher(pubsub::MakePublisherConnection(
      std::move(topic), pubsub::PublisherOptions{}, std::move(options)));

  std::vector<future<void>> ids;
  for (char const* data : {"1", "2", "3", "go!"}) {
    ids.push_back(
        publisher.Publish(pubsub::MessageBuilder().SetData(data).Build())
            .then([data](future<StatusOr<std::string>> f) {
              auto s = f.get();
              if (!s) return;
              std::cout << "Sent '" << data << "' (" << *s << ")\n";
            }));
  }
  publisher.Flush();
  // Block until they are actually sent.
  for (auto& id : ids) id.get();
}

Go

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Go 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Go API 参考文档

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/pubsub"
)

func publishSingleGoroutine(w io.Writer, projectID, topicID, msg string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// topicID := "my-topic"
	// msg := "Hello World"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := pubsub.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("pubsub.NewClient: %v", err)
	}

	t := client.Topic(topicID)
	t.PublishSettings.NumGoroutines = 1

	result := t.Publish(ctx, &pubsub.Message{Data: []byte(msg)})
	// Block until the result is returned and a server-generated
	// ID is returned for the published message.
	id, err := result.Get(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("Get: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Published a message; msg ID: %v\n", id)
	return nil
}

Java

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Java 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Java API 参考文档


import com.google.api.core.ApiFuture;
import com.google.api.core.ApiFutures;
import com.google.api.gax.core.ExecutorProvider;
import com.google.api.gax.core.InstantiatingExecutorProvider;
import com.google.cloud.pubsub.v1.Publisher;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.PubsubMessage;
import com.google.pubsub.v1.TopicName;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class PublishWithConcurrencyControlExample {
  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String topicId = "your-topic-id";

    publishWithConcurrencyControlExample(projectId, topicId);
  }

  public static void publishWithConcurrencyControlExample(String projectId, String topicId)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException {
    TopicName topicName = TopicName.of(projectId, topicId);
    Publisher publisher = null;
    List<ApiFuture<String>> messageIdFutures = new ArrayList<>();

    try {
      // Provides an executor service for processing messages. The default
      // `executorProvider` used by the publisher has a default thread count of
      // 5 * the number of processors available to the Java virtual machine.
      ExecutorProvider executorProvider =
          InstantiatingExecutorProvider.newBuilder().setExecutorThreadCount(4).build();

      // `setExecutorProvider` configures an executor for the publisher.
      publisher = Publisher.newBuilder(topicName).setExecutorProvider(executorProvider).build();

      // schedule publishing one message at a time : messages get automatically batched
      for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
        String message = "message " + i;
        ByteString data = ByteString.copyFromUtf8(message);
        PubsubMessage pubsubMessage = PubsubMessage.newBuilder().setData(data).build();

        // Once published, returns a server-assigned message id (unique within the topic)
        ApiFuture<String> messageIdFuture = publisher.publish(pubsubMessage);
        messageIdFutures.add(messageIdFuture);
      }
    } finally {
      // Wait on any pending publish requests.
      List<String> messageIds = ApiFutures.allAsList(messageIdFutures).get();

      System.out.println("Published " + messageIds.size() + " messages with concurrency control.");

      if (publisher != null) {
        // When finished with the publisher, shutdown to free up resources.
        publisher.shutdown();
        publisher.awaitTermination(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
      }
    }
  }
}

Ruby

在尝试此示例之前,请按照《快速入门:使用客户端库》中的 Ruby 设置说明进行操作。 如需了解详情,请参阅 Pub/Sub Ruby API 参考文档

# topic_name = "Your Pubsub topic name"
require "google/cloud/pubsub"

pubsub = Google::Cloud::Pubsub.new

topic = pubsub.topic topic_name, async: {
  threads: {
    # Use exactly one thread for publishing message and exactly one thread
    # for executing callbacks
    publish:  1,
    callback: 1
  }
}
topic.publish_async "This is a test message." do |result|
  raise "Failed to publish the message." unless result.succeeded?
  puts "Message published asynchronously."
end

# Stop the async_publisher to send all queued messages immediately.
topic.async_publisher.stop.wait!