Connecting to a Redis instance from an App Engine standard environment application

You can connect to a Redis instance from the App Engine standard environment by using Serverless VPC Access. Your App Engine app must be in the same region as the Redis instance.

Setup

If you have already installed the Cloud SDK and have created a Redis instance, you can skip these steps.

  1. Install the Cloud SDK and initialize:

    gcloud init
    
  2. Follow the Quickstart Guide to create a Redis instance. Take note of the zone, IP address, and port of the Redis instance.

Configuring Serverless VPC Access

To connect from your App Engine app to your Redis instance's authorized VPC network, you must set up Serverless VPC Access.

  1. Find your Redis instance's authorized network by running the command:

    gcloud beta redis instances describe [INSTANCE_ID] --region [REGION]
    
  2. Follow the instructions at Creating a connector to create a Serverless VPC Access connector. Make sure you create the connector in the same region as your app and your Redis instance, and make sure the connector is attached to the Redis instance's authorized VPC network. Remember the name of the connector.

Sample application

This sample HTTP server application establishes a connection to a Redis instance from an App Engine standard environment app.

Clone the repository for your desired programming language and navigate to the folder that contains the sample code:

Go

git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples
cd golang-samples/memorystore/redis

Java

git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/java-docs-samples
cd java-docs-samples/memorystore/redis

Node.js

git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/nodejs-docs-samples
cd nodejs-docs-samples/memorystore/redis

Python

git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/python-docs-samples
cd python-docs-samples/memorystore/redis

This sample application increments a Redis counter every time the / endpoint is accessed.

Go

This application uses the github.com/gomodule/redigo/redis client. Install it by running the following command:

go get github.com/gomodule/redigo/redis

// Command redis is a basic app that connects to a managed Redis instance.
package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"log"
	"net/http"
	"os"

	"github.com/gomodule/redigo/redis"
)

var redisPool *redis.Pool

func incrementHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	conn := redisPool.Get()
	defer conn.Close()

	counter, err := redis.Int(conn.Do("INCR", "visits"))
	if err != nil {
		http.Error(w, "Error incrementing visitor counter", http.StatusInternalServerError)
		return
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Visitor number: %d", counter)
}

func main() {
	redisHost := os.Getenv("REDISHOST")
	redisPort := os.Getenv("REDISPORT")
	redisAddr := fmt.Sprintf("%s:%s", redisHost, redisPort)

	const maxConnections = 10
	redisPool = redis.NewPool(func() (redis.Conn, error) {
		return redis.Dial("tcp", redisAddr)
	}, maxConnections)

	http.HandleFunc("/", incrementHandler)

	port := os.Getenv("PORT")
	if port == "" {
		port = "8080"
	}
	log.Printf("Listening on port %s", port)
	if err := http.ListenAndServe(":"+port, nil); err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}
}

Java

This application is Jetty 3.1 servlet-based.

It uses the Jedis library:

<dependency>
  <groupId>redis.clients</groupId>
  <artifactId>jedis</artifactId>
  <version>3.3.0</version>
</dependency>

The AppServletContextListener class is used to create a long-lived Redis connection pool:


package com.example.redis;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Properties;
import javax.servlet.ServletContextEvent;
import javax.servlet.ServletContextListener;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebListener;
import redis.clients.jedis.JedisPool;
import redis.clients.jedis.JedisPoolConfig;

@WebListener
public class AppServletContextListener implements ServletContextListener {

  private Properties config = new Properties();

  private JedisPool createJedisPool() throws IOException {
    String host;
    Integer port;
    config.load(
        Thread.currentThread()
            .getContextClassLoader()
            .getResourceAsStream("application.properties"));
    host = config.getProperty("redis.host");
    port = Integer.valueOf(config.getProperty("redis.port", "6379"));

    JedisPoolConfig poolConfig = new JedisPoolConfig();
    // Default : 8, consider how many concurrent connections into Redis you will need under load
    poolConfig.setMaxTotal(128);

    return new JedisPool(poolConfig, host, port);
  }

  @Override
  public void contextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent event) {
    JedisPool jedisPool = (JedisPool) event.getServletContext().getAttribute("jedisPool");
    if (jedisPool != null) {
      jedisPool.destroy();
      event.getServletContext().setAttribute("jedisPool", null);
    }
  }

  // Run this before web application is started
  @Override
  public void contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent event) {
    JedisPool jedisPool = (JedisPool) event.getServletContext().getAttribute("jedisPool");
    if (jedisPool == null) {
      try {
        jedisPool = createJedisPool();
        event.getServletContext().setAttribute("jedisPool", jedisPool);
      } catch (IOException e) {
        // handle exception
      }
    }
  }
}

The VisitCounterServlet class is a web servlet that increments a Redis counter:


package com.example.redis;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.SocketException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import redis.clients.jedis.Jedis;
import redis.clients.jedis.JedisPool;

@WebServlet(name = "Track visits", value = "")
public class VisitCounterServlet extends HttpServlet {

  @Override
  public void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws IOException {
    try {
      JedisPool jedisPool = (JedisPool) req.getServletContext().getAttribute("jedisPool");

      if (jedisPool == null) {
        throw new SocketException("Error connecting to Jedis pool");
      }
      Long visits;

      try (Jedis jedis = jedisPool.getResource()) {
        visits = jedis.incr("visits");
      }

      resp.setStatus(HttpServletResponse.SC_OK);
      resp.getWriter().println("Visitor counter: " + String.valueOf(visits));
    } catch (Exception e) {
      resp.sendError(HttpServletResponse.SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR, e.getMessage());
    }
  }
}

Node.js

This application uses the redis module.

{
  "name": "memorystore-redis",
  "description": "An example of using Memorystore(Redis) with Node.js",
  "version": "0.0.1",
  "private": true,
  "license": "Apache Version 2.0",
  "author": "Google Inc.",
  "engines": {
    "node": ">=8.0.0"
  },
  "dependencies": {
    "redis": "^3.0.0"
  }
}

'use strict';
const http = require('http');
const redis = require('redis');

const REDISHOST = process.env.REDISHOST || 'localhost';
const REDISPORT = process.env.REDISPORT || 6379;

const client = redis.createClient(REDISPORT, REDISHOST);
client.on('error', err => console.error('ERR:REDIS:', err));

// create a server
http
  .createServer((req, res) => {
    // increment the visit counter
    client.incr('visits', (err, reply) => {
      if (err) {
        console.log(err);
        res.status(500).send(err.message);
        return;
      }
      res.writeHead(200, {'Content-Type': 'text/plain'});
      res.end(`Visitor number: ${reply}\n`);
    });
  })
  .listen(8080);

Python

This application uses Flask for web serving and the redis-py package to communicate with the Redis instance.

Flask==1.1.2
gunicorn==20.0.4
redis==3.5.3
import logging
import os

from flask import Flask
import redis

app = Flask(__name__)

redis_host = os.environ.get('REDISHOST', 'localhost')
redis_port = int(os.environ.get('REDISPORT', 6379))
redis_client = redis.StrictRedis(host=redis_host, port=redis_port)


@app.route('/')
def index():
    value = redis_client.incr('counter', 1)
    return 'Visitor number: {}'.format(value)


@app.errorhandler(500)
def server_error(e):
    logging.exception('An error occurred during a request.')
    return """
    An internal error occurred: <pre>{}</pre>
    See logs for full stacktrace.
    """.format(e), 500


if __name__ == '__main__':
    # This is used when running locally. Gunicorn is used to run the
    # application on Google App Engine and Cloud Run.
    # See entrypoint in app.yaml or Dockerfile.
    app.run(host='127.0.0.1', port=8080, debug=True)

Preparing the application for deployment

To access the Redis instance, the App Engine app must be configured to use your Serverless VPC Access connector, and you must provide your Redis instance's connection details.

  1. Create an App Engine application in the same region as the Redis instance.

  2. Update the app's configuration to specify your Serverless VPC Access connector and the IP address and port of your Redis instance:

    Go

    Update the gae_standard_deployment/app.yaml file:

    runtime: go111
    
    # Update with Redis instance details
    env_variables:
      REDISHOST: '<REDIS_IP>'
      REDISPORT: '6379'
    
    # Update with Serverless VPC Access connector details
    vpc_access_connector:
      name: 'projects/<PROJECT_ID>/locations/<REGION>/connectors/<CONNECTOR_NAME>'

    See app.yaml Configuration File for more details.

    Java

    Update the gae_standard_deployment/appengine-web.xml file to specify your Serverless VPC Access connector:

    <appengine-web-app xmlns="http://appengine.google.com/ns/1.0">
      <runtime>java8</runtime>
      <threadsafe>true</threadsafe>
      <vpc-access-connector>
        <name>projects/[PROJECT_ID]/locations/[REGION]/connectors/[CONNECTOR_NAME]</name>
      </vpc-access-connector>
    </appengine-web-app>

    And update the src/main/resources/application.properties file with your Redis instance's IP address and port:

    redis.host=REDIS_HOST_IP
    redis.port=6379

    For more information about configuring your app, see appengine-web.xml Reference.

    Node.js

    Update the gae_standard_deployment/app.yaml file:

    runtime: nodejs10
    
    # Update with Redis instance details
    env_variables:
      REDISHOST: '<REDIS_IP>'
      REDISPORT: '6379'
    
    # Update with Serverless VPC Access connector details
    vpc_access_connector:
      name: 'projects/<PROJECT_ID>/locations/<REGION>/connectors/<CONNECTOR_NAME>'

    See app.yaml Configuration File for more details.

    Python

    Update the gae_standard_deployment/app.yaml file:

    runtime: python37
    entrypoint: gunicorn -b :$PORT main:app
    
    # Update with Redis instance details
    env_variables:
      REDISHOST: '<REDIS_IP>'
      REDISPORT: '6379'
    
    # Update with Serverless VPC Access connector details
    vpc_access_connector:
      name: 'projects/<PROJECT_ID>/locations/<REGION>/connectors/<CONNECTOR_NAME>'

    See app.yaml Configuration File for more details.

Deploying the application to the App Engine standard environment

To deploy the application:

  1. Copy necessary configuration files into the source directory:

    Go

    Copy the app.yaml and go.mod files into the source directory:

    cp gae_standard_deployment/{app.yaml,go.mod} .
    

    Java

    Copy the appengine-web.xml file into the source directory:

    mkdir -p src/main/webapp/WEB-INF
    cp gae_standard_deployment/appengine-web.xml src/main/webapp/WEB-INF/
    

    Node.js

    Copy the app.yaml file into the source directory:

    cp gae_standard_deployment/app.yaml .
    

    Python

    Copy the app.yaml file into the source directory:

    cp gae_standard_deployment/app.yaml .
    
  2. Run the deploy command:

    Go

    gcloud app deploy
    

    Java

    mvn package appengine:stage
    gcloud app deploy target/appengine-staging/app.yaml
    

    Node.js

    gcloud app deploy
    

    Python

    gcloud app deploy
    

After the deployment is complete, the command will output the URL where you can visit your app. If you visit this URL, you will see the count on your Redis instance increase each time the page is loaded.