Configure and manage log buckets

This page describes how to create and manage Cloud Logging buckets using the Cloud Console and the gcloud command-line tool. You can also create and manage buckets using the Logging API.

For a conceptual overview of buckets, see Routing and storage overview: Log buckets.

Before you begin

To get started with buckets, do the following:

  • Ensure that you've enabled billing for your Google Cloud project.

  • Verify that you have the permissions to create and manage your Cloud project buckets. For the list of the permissions and roles you need to access data stored in buckets, see the Access control guide.

  • Understand the LogBucket formatting requirements, including the supported regions in which you can store your logs.

Create a bucket

You can create a maximum of 100 buckets per Cloud project.

To create a user-defined log bucket for your Cloud project, complete the following steps:

Console

To create a log bucket in your Cloud project, do the following:

  1. From the Logging menu, select Logs Storage.

    Go to Logs Storage

  2. Click Create Logs Bucket.

  3. Enter a Name and Description for your bucket.

  4. (Optional) To set the region in which you want your logs to be stored, click the Select logs bucket region drop-down menu and select a region. If you don't select a region, the global region is used, which means that the logs could be physically located in any of the regions.

  5. (Optional) To set a custom retention period for the logs in the bucket, click Next.

    In the Retention field, enter the number of days, between 1 day and 3650 days, that you want Cloud Logging to retain your logs. If you don't customize the retention period, the default is 30 days.

    You can also update your bucket with a custom retention after you create it.

  6. Click Create bucket. Your new bucket appears in the Logs bucket list.

gcloud

To create a log bucket in your Cloud project, run the gcloud logging buckets create command:

gcloud logging buckets create BUCKET_ID --location=LOCATION OPTIONAL_FLAGS

The variable LOCATION refers to the region in which you want your logs to be stored.

For example, if you want to create a bucket with the BUCKET_ID my-bucket in the asia-east2 region, your command would look like the following:

gcloud logging buckets create my-bucket --location asia-east2 --description "My first bucket"

After creating a bucket, you can configure log views to control who can access the logs in your new bucket and which logs are accessible to them.

Track log ingestion

The Logs Storage page in the Cloud Console tracks the volume of logs data ingested by log buckets.

To track the logs data ingestion for your Cloud project, go to the Logs Storage page in the console:

Go to Logs Storage

The Logs Storage page displays a summary of statistics for your Cloud project:

The summary statistics report logs data ingestion amounts for the currently
selected project.

The following statistics are reported:

  • Current total volume: The amount of logs data that your Cloud project has ingested since the first day of the current calendar month.

  • Previous month volume: The amount of logs data that your Cloud project ingested in the last calendar month.

  • Projected volume by EOM: The estimated amount of logs data that your Cloud project will ingest by the end of the current calendar month, based on current usage.

The log ingestion volume statistics don't include the _Required bucket. The logs in that bucket can't be excluded or disabled.

The Log Router page in the Cloud Console gives you tools that you can use to minimize any charges for logs ingestion or storage that exceeds your your monthly allotment. You can do the following:

  • Disable logs ingestion at the bucket level.
  • Exclude certain log entries from ingestion into Logging.

For more information, see Manage sinks.

Manage buckets

This section describes how to manage your log buckets using the gcloud command-line tool or the Google Cloud Console.

Update a bucket

To update the attributes of your bucket, complete the following steps:

Console

To update your bucket's attributes, complete the following steps:

  1. From the Logging menu, select Logs Storage.

    Go to Logs Storage

  2. For the bucket you want to update, click More .

  3. Select Edit bucket.

  4. Edit your bucket as needed.

  5. Click Update bucket.

gcloud

To update your bucket's attributes, run the gcloud logging buckets update command:

gcloud logging buckets update BUCKET_ID --location=LOCATION UPDATED_ATTRIBUTES

For example:

gcloud logging buckets update my-bucket --location=global --description "Updated description"

Lock a bucket

When you lock a bucket against updates, it includes locking the bucket's retention policy. After a retention policy is locked, you can't delete the bucket until every log in the bucket has fulfilled the bucket's retention period.

To prevent anyone from updating or deleting a log bucket, lock the bucket. To lock the bucket, do the following:

Console

The Cloud Console doesn't support locking a log bucket.

gcloud

To lock your bucket, run the gcloud logging buckets update command with the --locked flag:

gcloud logging buckets update BUCKET_ID --location=LOCATION --locked

For example:

gcloud logging buckets update my-bucket --location=global --locked

List buckets

To list the log buckets associated with a Cloud project, and to see details such as retention settings, do the following:

Console

Go to the Logs Storage page:

Go to Logs Storage

You see a table Logs buckets that lists the buckets associated with the current Cloud project.

The table lists the following attributes for each log bucket:

  • Name: The name given to the bucket when it was created.
  • Description: The description given to to the bucket when it was created.
  • Retention period: The number of days that the bucket's data will be stored by Cloud Logging.
  • Region: The geographic location in which the bucket's data is stored.
  • Status: Whether the bucket is locked or unlocked.

If a bucket is pending deletion by Cloud Logging, its table entry is annotated with a warning .

gcloud

Run the gcloud logging buckets list command:

gcloud logging buckets list

You see the following attributes for the log buckets:

  • LOCATION: The region in which the bucket's data is stored.
  • BUCKET_ID: The name given to the bucket when it was created.
  • RETENTION_DAYS: The number of days that the bucket's data will be stored by Cloud Logging.
  • LIFECYCLE_STATE: Indicates whether the bucket is pending deletion by Cloud Logging.
  • LOCKED: Whether the bucket is locked or unlocked.
  • CREATE_TIME: A timestamp that indicates when the bucket was created.
  • UPDATE_TIME: A timestamp that indicates when the bucket was last modified.

You can also view the attributes for just one bucket. For example, to view the details for the _Default log bucket in the 'global' region, run the gcloud logging buckets describe command:

gcloud logging buckets describe _Default --location=global

View a bucket's details

To view the details of a single log bucket, do the following:

Console

Go to the Logs Storage page:

Go to Logs Storage

On the log bucket, click More > View bucket details.

The dialog box lists the following attributes for the log bucket:

  • Name: The name given to the bucket when it was created.
  • Description: The description given to to the bucket when it was created.
  • Retention period: The number of days that the bucket's data will be stored by Cloud Logging.
  • Region: The geographic location in which the bucket's data is stored.

gcloud

Run the gcloud logging buckets describe command:

gcloud logging buckets describe _Default --location=global

You see the following attributes for the logs bucket:

  • createTime: A timestamp that indicates when the bucket was created.
  • description: The description given to the bucket when it was created.
  • lifecycleState: Indicates whether the bucket is pending deletion by Cloud Logging.
  • name: The name given to the bucket when it was created.
  • retentionDays: The number of days that the bucket's data will be stored by Cloud Logging.
  • updateTime: A timestamp that indicates when the bucket was last modified.

Delete a bucket

To delete a log bucket, do the following:

Console

To delete a log bucket, complete the following steps:

  1. From the Logging menu, select Logs Storage.

    Go to Logs Storage

  2. For the bucket you want to delete, click More .

  3. Select Delete bucket.

  4. On the confirmation panel, click Delete.

  5. On the Logs Storage page, your bucket has an indicator that it's pending deletion. The bucket, including all the logs in it, is deleted after 7 days.

gcloud

To delete a log bucket, run the gcloud logging buckets delete command:

gcloud logging buckets delete BUCKET_ID --location=LOCATION

A deleted bucket stays in this pending state for 7 days, and Logging continues to route logs to the bucket during that time. To stop routing logs to a deleted bucket, you can delete the log sinks that have that bucket as a destination, or you can modify the filter for the sinks to stop routing logs to the deleted bucket.

Restore a deleted bucket

You can restore, or undelete, a log bucket that's in the pending deletion state. To restore a log bucket, do the following:

Console

To restore a log bucket that is pending deletion, complete the following steps:

  1. From the Logging menu, select Logs Storage.

    Go to Logs Storage

  2. For the bucket you want to restore, click More .

  3. Select Restore deleted bucket.

  4. On the confirmation panel, click Restore.

  5. On the Logs Storage page, the pending-deletion indicator is removed from your bucket.

gcloud

To restore a log bucket that is pending deletion, run the gcloud logging buckets undelete command:

gcloud logging buckets undelete BUCKET_ID --location=LOCATION

Write to a bucket

You don't directly write logs to a log bucket. Rather, you write logs to Google Cloud resource: a Cloud project, folder, or organization. The sinks in the parent resource then route the logs to destinations, including log buckets. A sink routes logs to a log bucket destination when the logs match the sink's filter and the sink has permission to route the logs to the log bucket.

Read from a bucket

Each log bucket has a set of log views. To read logs from a log bucket, you need access to a log view on the log bucket. For more information on log views, see Managing log views.

To read logs from a log bucket, do the following:

Console

You can refine the scope of the logs displayed in the Logs Explorer through the Refine scope option. You can search only logs within the current Cloud project or search logs in one or more storage views. To refine the scope of the Logs Explorer, do the following:

  1. From the Logging menu, select Logs Explorer.

    Go to Logs Explorer

  2. Select Refine Scope.

  3. On the Refine scope dialog, select a Scope by option.

  4. Select Scope by storage and choose one or more buckets you want to view.

    The dialog lists storage views that meet the following conditions:

    • You have access to the storage view.
    • The log buckets belong to the selected Cloud project, or the selected Cloud project has previously routed logs to the storage buckets.

gcloud

To read logs from a log bucket, run the gcloud logging read command:

gcloud logging read --bucket=BUCKET_ID --location=LOCATION --view=VIEW_ID

Configure custom retention

When you create a log bucket, you have the option to customize the period for how long Cloud Logging stores the bucket's logs. You can configure the retention period for any user-defined log bucket and also for the _Default log bucket.

To update the retention period for a log bucket, do the following:

Console

To update a log bucket's retention period, complete the following steps:

  1. From the Logging menu, select Logs Storage.

    Go to Logs Storage

  2. For the bucket you want to update, click More .

  3. Select Edit bucket.

  4. In the Retention field, enter the number of days, between 1 day and 3650 days, that you want Cloud Logging to retain your logs.

  5. Click Update bucket. Your new retention duration appears in the Logs bucket list.

gcloud

To update the retention period for a log bucket, run the gcloud logging buckets update command, after setting a value for RETENTION_DAYS:

gcloud logging buckets update BUCKET_ID  --location=LOCATION --retention-days=RETENTION_DAYS

For example, to retain the logs in the _Default bucket in the 'global' location for a year, your command would look like the following:

gcloud logging buckets update _Default --location=global --retention-days=365

If you extend a bucket's retention period, then the retention rules apply going forward and not retroactively. Logs can't be recovered after the applicable retention period ends.

Troubleshoot common issues

If you encounter problems when using log buckets, refer to the following troubleshooting steps and answers to common questions.

Why can't I delete this bucket?

If you're trying to delete a bucket, do the following:

  • Ensure that you have the correct permissions to delete the bucket. For the list of the permissions that you need, see the Access control guide.

  • Determine whether the bucket is locked by listing the bucket's attributes. If the bucket is locked, check the bucket's retention period. You can't delete a locked bucket until all of the logs in the bucket have fulfilled the bucket's retention period.

Why do I see logs for a Cloud project even though I excluded them from my _Default sink?

You might be viewing logs in a log bucket in a centralized Cloud project, which aggregates logs from across your organization.

If you're accessing logs in a centralized Cloud project and see logs that you excluded from the _Default sink, you might be viewing the logs under one of the following conditions:

  • Viewing the logs using the Legacy Logs Viewer, which doesn't support viewing centralized logs.

    To troubleshoot this issue, switch to using the Logs Explorer.

  • Viewing the logs using the Logs Explorer with Scope by project selected in the Refine scope panel, which shows you logs generated by the Cloud project regardless of where you store them.

    To troubleshoot this issue, instead select Scope by storage in the Refine scope panel for the Logs Explorer and then select the _Default bucket in your Cloud project. You shouldn't see the excluded logs anymore.

Why can't I create logs-based metrics for a bucket?

Logs-based metrics apply only to a single Google Cloud project. You can't create them for logs buckets or for other Google Cloud resources such as folders or organizations.

What's next

For information on the log bucket API methods, refer to the LogBucket reference documentation.

For information on addressing common use cases with log buckets, see the following topics: