Class UnsafeByteOperations

public final class UnsafeByteOperations

Provides a number of unsafe byte operations to be used by advanced applications with high performance requirements. These methods are referred to as "unsafe" due to the fact that they potentially expose the backing buffer of a ByteString to the application.

DISCLAIMER: The methods in this class should only be called if it is guaranteed that the buffer backing the ByteString will never change! Mutation of a ByteString can lead to unexpected and undesirable consequences in your application, and will likely be difficult to debug. Proceed with caution!

This can have a number of significant side affects that have spooky-action-at-a-distance-like behavior. In particular, if the bytes value changes out from under a Protocol Buffer:

  • serialization may throw
  • serialization may succeed but the wrong bytes may be written out
  • messages are no longer threadsafe
  • hashCode may be incorrect
    • can result in a permanent memory leak when used as a key in a long-lived HashMap
    • the semantics of many programs may be violated if this is the case

Each of these issues will occur in parts of the code base that are entirely distinct from the parts of the code base modifying the buffer. In fact, both parts of the code base may be correct

  • it is the bridging with the unsafe operations that was in error!

Inheritance

java.lang.Object > UnsafeByteOperations

Static Methods

unsafeWrap(byte[] buffer)

public static ByteString unsafeWrap(byte[] buffer)

An unsafe operation that returns a ByteString that is backed by the provided buffer.

Parameter
NameDescription
bufferbyte[]

the buffer to be wrapped

Returns
TypeDescription
ByteString

a ByteString backed by the provided buffer

unsafeWrap(byte[] buffer, int offset, int length)

public static ByteString unsafeWrap(byte[] buffer, int offset, int length)

An unsafe operation that returns a ByteString that is backed by a subregion of the provided buffer.

Parameters
NameDescription
bufferbyte[]

the buffer to be wrapped

offsetint

the offset of the wrapped region

lengthint

the number of bytes of the wrapped region

Returns
TypeDescription
ByteString

a ByteString backed by the provided buffer

unsafeWrap(ByteBuffer buffer)

public static ByteString unsafeWrap(ByteBuffer buffer)

An unsafe operation that returns a ByteString that is backed by the provided buffer.

Parameter
NameDescription
bufferByteBuffer

the Java NIO buffer to be wrapped

Returns
TypeDescription
ByteString

a ByteString backed by the provided buffer

unsafeWriteTo(ByteString bytes, ByteOutput output)

public static void unsafeWriteTo(ByteString bytes, ByteOutput output)

Writes the given ByteString to the provided ByteOutput. Calling this method may result in multiple operations on the target ByteOutput (i.e. for roped ByteStrings).

This method exposes the internal backing buffer(s) of the ByteString to the ByteOutput in order to avoid additional copying overhead. It would be possible for a malicious ByteOutput to corrupt the ByteString. Use with caution!

NOTE: The ByteOutput MUST NOT modify the provided buffers. Doing so may result in corrupted data, which would be difficult to debug.

Parameters
NameDescription
bytesByteString

the ByteString to be written

outputByteOutput

the output to receive the bytes

Exceptions
TypeDescription
IOException

if an I/O error occurs