You can write logs to Logging from Python applications by using the Python logging handler included with the Logging client library, or by using Stackdriver Logging API Cloud client library for Python directly.
Before you begin
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Select or create a GCP project.
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- Enable the Stackdriver Logging API.
- Prepare your environment for Python development.
Installing the library
To install the Stackdriver Logging library for Python, see Installing the client library.
Once installed, this library includes logging handlers to connect Python's standard logging module to Stackdriver, as well as an API client library to access Stackdriver Logging manually.
Connecting the library to Python logging
To send all log entries to Stackdriver by attaching the
Stackdriver Logging handler to the Python root logger, use the
# Imports the Google Cloud client library import google.cloud.logging # Instantiates a client client = google.cloud.logging.Client() # Connects the logger to the root logging handler; by default this captures # all logs at INFO level and higher client.setup_logging()
Using the Python root logger
Once the handler is attached, any logs at, by default,
INFO level or higher
which are emitted in your application will be sent to Logging:
# Imports Python standard library logging import logging # The data to log text = 'Hello, world!' # Emits the data using the standard logging module logging.warning(text)
If messages are logged to Logging from App Engine or
Google Kubernetes Engine, the handler will send them to those environments' respective
types; otherwise, logs will by default appear under the
python log in the
Global resource type.
Configuring the logging handler
To attach the Stackdriver logging handler to only select Python loggers, or to otherwise configure the logging handler, go to the API library documentation.
Using the Cloud Client Library directly
For information on using the Stackdriver Logging Cloud client library for Python directly, see Stackdriver Logging Client Libraries.
Running on Google Cloud Platform
The Stackdriver Logging library for Python can be used without needing to explicitly provide credentials.
Stackdriver Logging is automatically enabled for App Engine applications. No additional setup is required.
Google Kubernetes Engine
On Google Kubernetes Engine, you must add the
scope when creating the cluster:
gcloud container clusters create example-cluster-name --scopes https://www.googleapis.com/auth/logging.write
When using Compute Engine VM instances, add the
access scope to each instance. When creating a new instance through the
Google Cloud Platform Console, you can do this in the Identity and API access section
of the Create Instance panel. Use the Compute Engine default service
account or another service account of your choice, and select
Allow full access to all Cloud APIs in the Identity and API access
section. Whichever service
account you select, ensure that it has been granted the
Logs Writer role in the IAM & admin section of the
Running locally and elsewhere
To use the Stackdriver Logging library for Python outside of Google Cloud Platform, including running the library on your own workstation, on your data center's computers, or on the VM instances of another cloud provider, you must supply your GCP project ID and appropriate service account credentials directly to the Stackdriver Logging library for Python.
You can create and obtain service account credentials manually. When specifying the Role field, use the Logs Writer role. For more information on Cloud Identity and Access Management roles, go to Access control guide.
Viewing the logs
After deployment, you can view the logs in the GCP Console Logs Viewer.
In the Logs Viewer, you must specify one or more resources, but the resource selection might not be obvious. Here are some tips to help you get started:
If you are deploying your application to App Engine or using the App Engine-specific libraries, set your resource to GAE Application.
If you are deploying your application on Compute Engine, set the resource to GCE VM Instance.
If you are deploying your application on Google Kubernetes Engine, your cluster's logging configuration determines the resource type of the log entries. For a detailed discussion on the Legacy Stackdriver and the Stackdriver Kubernetes Monitoring solutions, and how those options affect the resource type, see Migrating to Stackdriver Kubernetes Monitoring.
If your application is using the Stackdriver Logging API directly, the resource is dependent on the API and your configuration. For example, in your application, you can specify a resource or use a default resource.
If you don't see any logs in the Logs Viewer, to see all log entries, switch to the advanced query mode and use an empty query.
- To switch to the advanced query mode, click menu (▾) at the top of the Logs Viewer and then select Convert to advanced filter.
- Clear the content that appears in the filter box.
- Click Submit Filter.
You can examine the individual entries to identify your resources.