How Subdirectories Work
This section provides details about how subdirectories work in gsutil. Most users probably don't need to know these details, and can simply use the commands (like cp -r) that work with subdirectories. We provide this additional documentation to help users understand how gsutil handles subdirectories differently than most GUI / web-based tools (e.g., why those other tools create "dir_$folder$" objects), and also to explain cost and performance implications of the gsutil approach, for those interested in such details.
gsutil provides the illusion of a hierarchical file tree atop the "flat" name space supported by the Google Cloud Storage service. To the service, the object gs://your-bucket/abc/def.txt is just an object that happens to have "/" characters in its name. There is no "abc" directory; just a single object with the given name. This diagram:
illustrates how gsutil provides a hierarchical view of objects in a bucket.
gsutil achieves the hierarchical file tree illusion by applying a variety of rules, to try to make naming work the way users would expect. For example, in order to determine whether to treat a destination URL as an object name or the root of a directory under which objects should be copied gsutil uses these rules:
If the destination object ends with a "/" gsutil treats it as a directory. For example, if you run the command:
gsutil cp your-file gs://your-bucket/abc/
gsutil will create the object gs://your-bucket/abc/your-file.
If the destination object is XYZ and an object exists called XYZ_$folder$ gsutil treats XYZ as a directory. For example, if you run the command:
gsutil cp your-file gs://your-bucket/abc
and there exists an object called abc_$folder$, gsutil will create the object gs://your-bucket/abc/your-file.
If you attempt to copy multiple source files to a destination URL, gsutil treats the destination URL as a directory. For example, if you run the command:
gsutil cp -r your-dir gs://your-bucket/abc
gsutil will create objects like gs://your-bucket/abc/your-dir/file1, etc. (assuming file1 is a file under the source directory your-dir).
If none of the above rules applies, gsutil performs a bucket listing to determine if the target of the operation is a prefix match to the specified string. For example, if you run the command:
gsutil cp your-file gs://your-bucket/abc
gsutil will make a bucket listing request for the named bucket, using delimiter="/" and prefix="abc". It will then examine the bucket listing results and determine whether there are objects in the bucket whose path starts with gs://your-bucket/abc/, to determine whether to treat the target as an object name or a directory name. In turn this impacts the name of the object you create: If the above check indicates there is an "abc" directory you will end up with the object gs://your-bucket/abc/your-file; otherwise you will end up with the object gs://your-bucket/abc. (See "HOW NAMES ARE CONSTRUCTED" under gsutil help cp for more details.)
This rule-based approach stands in contrast to the way many tools work, which create objects to mark the existence of folders (such as "dir_$folder$"). gsutil understands several conventions used by such tools but does not require such marker objects to implement naming behavior consistent with UNIX commands.
A downside of the gsutil subdirectory naming approach is it requires an extra bucket listing before performing the needed cp or mv command. However those listings are relatively inexpensive, because they use delimiter and prefix parameters to limit result data. Moreover, gsutil makes only one bucket listing request per cp/mv command, and thus amortizes the bucket listing cost across all transferred objects (e.g., when performing a recursive copy of a directory to the cloud).
Potential For Surprising Destination Subdirectory Naming
The above rules-based approach for determining how destination paths are constructed can lead to the following surprise: Suppose you start by trying to upload everything under a local directory to a bucket "subdirectory" that doesn't yet exist:
gsutil cp -r ./your-dir/* gs://your-bucket/new
where there are directories under your-dir (say, dir1 and dir2). The first time you run this command it will create the objects:
because gs://your-bucket/new doesn't yet exist. If you run the same command again, because gs://your-bucket/new does now exist, it will create the additional objects:
Beyond the fact that this naming behavior can surprise users, one particular case you should be careful about is if you script gsutil uploads with a retry loop. If you do this and the first attempt copies some but not all files, the second attempt will encounter an already existing source subdirectory and result in the above-described naming problem.
There are a couple of ways to avoid this problem:
1. Use gsutil rsync. Since rsync doesn't use the Unix cp-defined directory naming rules, it will work consistently whether the destination subdirectory exists or not.
2. If using rsync won't work for you, you can start by creating a "placeholder" object to establish that the destination is a subdirectory, by running a command such as:
gsutil cp some-file gs://your-bucket/new/placeholder
At this point running the gsutil cp -r command noted above will consistently treat gs://your-bucket/new as a subdirectory. Once you have at least one object under that subdirectory you can delete the placeholder object and subsequent uploads to that subdirectory will continue to work with naming working as you'd expect.