Create a socket connection by using Python

Open a Unix socket connection to Cloud SQL for PostgreSQL by using Python.

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For detailed documentation that includes this code sample, see the following:

Code sample


To authenticate to Cloud SQL for PostgreSQL, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

import os

import sqlalchemy

def connect_unix_socket() -> sqlalchemy.engine.base.Engine:
    """Initializes a Unix socket connection pool for a Cloud SQL instance of Postgres."""
    # Note: Saving credentials in environment variables is convenient, but not
    # secure - consider a more secure solution such as
    # Cloud Secret Manager ( to help
    # keep secrets safe.
    db_user = os.environ["DB_USER"]  # e.g. 'my-database-user'
    db_pass = os.environ["DB_PASS"]  # e.g. 'my-database-password'
    db_name = os.environ["DB_NAME"]  # e.g. 'my-database'
    unix_socket_path = os.environ[
    ]  # e.g. '/cloudsql/project:region:instance'

    pool = sqlalchemy.create_engine(
        # Equivalent URL:
        # postgresql+pg8000://<db_user>:<db_pass>@/<db_name>
        #                         ?unix_sock=<INSTANCE_UNIX_SOCKET>/.s.PGSQL.5432
        # Note: Some drivers require the `unix_sock` query parameter to use a different key.
        # For example, 'psycopg2' uses the path set to `host` in order to connect successfully.
            query={"unix_sock": f"{unix_socket_path}/.s.PGSQL.5432"},
        # ...
    return pool

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