Create a connection using the Cloud SQL Go Connector

Open a connection to Cloud SQL for Postgres by using the Cloud SQL Go Connector.

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For detailed documentation that includes this code sample, see the following:

Code sample


To authenticate to Cloud SQL for PostgreSQL, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

package cloudsql

import (


func connectWithConnector() (*sql.DB, error) {
	mustGetenv := func(k string) string {
		v := os.Getenv(k)
		if v == "" {
			log.Fatalf("Fatal Error in connect_connector.go: %s environment variable not set.\n", k)
		return v
	// Note: Saving credentials in environment variables is convenient, but not
	// secure - consider a more secure solution such as
	// Cloud Secret Manager ( to help
	// keep passwords and other secrets safe.
	var (
		dbUser                 = mustGetenv("DB_USER")                  // e.g. 'my-db-user'
		dbPwd                  = mustGetenv("DB_PASS")                  // e.g. 'my-db-password'
		dbName                 = mustGetenv("DB_NAME")                  // e.g. 'my-database'
		instanceConnectionName = mustGetenv("INSTANCE_CONNECTION_NAME") // e.g. 'project:region:instance'
		usePrivate             = os.Getenv("PRIVATE_IP")

	dsn := fmt.Sprintf("user=%s password=%s database=%s", dbUser, dbPwd, dbName)
	config, err := pgx.ParseConfig(dsn)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	var opts []cloudsqlconn.Option
	if usePrivate != "" {
		opts = append(opts, cloudsqlconn.WithDefaultDialOptions(cloudsqlconn.WithPrivateIP()))
	d, err := cloudsqlconn.NewDialer(context.Background(), opts...)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	// Use the Cloud SQL connector to handle connecting to the instance.
	// This approach does *NOT* require the Cloud SQL proxy.
	config.DialFunc = func(ctx context.Context, network, instance string) (net.Conn, error) {
		return d.Dial(ctx, instanceConnectionName)
	dbURI := stdlib.RegisterConnConfig(config)
	dbPool, err := sql.Open("pgx", dbURI)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("sql.Open: %w", err)
	return dbPool, nil

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