Operators are represented by special characters or keywords; they do not use function call syntax. An operator manipulates any number of data inputs, also called operands, and returns a result.
Common conventions:
 Unless otherwise specified, all operators return
NULL
when one of the operands isNULL
.  All operators will throw an error if the computation result overflows.
 For all floating point operations,
+/inf
andNaN
may only be returned if one of the operands is+/inf
orNaN
. In other cases, an error is returned.
The following table lists all Cloud Spanner SQL operators from highest to lowest precedence, i.e. the order in which they will be evaluated within a statement.
Order of Precedence  Operator  Input Data Types  Name  Operator Arity 

1  .  STRUCT 
Member field access operator  Binary 
[ ]  ARRAY  Array position. Must be used with OFFSET or ORDINAL—see Array Functions .  Binary  
2    All numeric types  Unary minus  Unary 
~  Integer or BYTES  Bitwise not  Unary  
3  *  All numeric types  Multiplication  Binary 
/  All numeric types  Division  Binary  
  STRING, BYTES, or ARRAY<T>  Concatenation operator  Binary  
4  +  All numeric types  Addition  Binary 
  All numeric types  Subtraction  Binary  
5  <<  Integer or BYTES  Bitwise leftshift  Binary 
>>  Integer or BYTES  Bitwise rightshift  Binary  
6  &  Integer or BYTES  Bitwise and  Binary 
7  ^  Integer or BYTES  Bitwise xor  Binary 
8    Integer or BYTES  Bitwise or  Binary 
9 (Comparison Operators)  =  Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list.  Equal  Binary 
<  Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list.  Less than  Binary  
>  Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list.  Greater than  Binary  
<=  Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list.  Less than or equal to  Binary  
>=  Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list.  Greater than or equal to  Binary  
!=, <>  Any comparable type. See Data Types for a complete list.  Not equal  Binary  
[NOT] LIKE  STRING and byte  Value does [not] match the pattern specified  Binary  
[NOT] BETWEEN  Any comparable types. See Data Types for a complete list.  Value is [not] within the range specified  Binary  
[NOT] IN  Any comparable types. See Data Types for a complete list.  Value is [not] in the set of values specified  Binary  
IS [NOT] NULL 
All  Value is [not] NULL 
Unary  
IS [NOT] TRUE  BOOL  Value is [not] TRUE.  Unary  
IS [NOT] FALSE  BOOL  Value is [not] FALSE.  Unary  
10  NOT  BOOL  Logical NOT  Unary 
11  AND  BOOL  Logical AND  Binary 
12  OR  BOOL  Logical OR  Binary 
Operators with the same precedence are left associative. This means that those operators are grouped together starting from the left and moving right. For example, the expression:
x AND y AND z
is interpreted as
( ( x AND y ) AND z )
The expression:
x * y / z
is interpreted as:
( ( x * y ) / z )
All comparison operators have the same priority, but comparison operators are not associative. Therefore, parentheses are required in order to resolve ambiguity. For example:
(x < y) IS FALSE
Element access operators
Operator  Syntax  Input Data Types  Result Data Type  Description 

.  expression.fieldname1...  STRUCT 
Type T stored in fieldname1  Dot operator. Can be used to access nested fields, e.g.expression.fieldname1.fieldname2... 
[ ]  array_expression [position_keyword (int_expression ) ]  See ARRAY Functions.  Type T stored in ARRAY  position_keyword is either OFFSET or ORDINAL. See Array Functions for the two functions that use this operator. 
Arithmetic operators
All arithmetic operators accept input of numeric type T, and the result type has type T unless otherwise indicated in the description below:
Name  Syntax 

Addition  X + Y 
Subtraction  X  Y 
Multiplication  X * Y 
Division  X / Y 
Unary Minus   X 
NOTE: Divide by zero operations return an error. To return a different result, consider the IEEE_DIVIDE or SAFE_DIVIDE functions.
Result types for Addition and Multiplication:
INT64  FLOAT64  

INT64  INT64  FLOAT64 
FLOAT64  FLOAT64  FLOAT64 
Result types for Subtraction:
INT64  FLOAT64  

INT64  INT64  FLOAT64 
FLOAT64  FLOAT64  FLOAT64 
Result types for Division:
INT64  FLOAT64  

INT64  FLOAT64  FLOAT64 
FLOAT64  FLOAT64  FLOAT64 
Result types for Unary Minus:
Input Data Type  Result Data Type 

INT64  INT64 
FLOAT64  FLOAT64 
Bitwise operators
All bitwise operators return the same type and the same length as the first operand.
Name  Syntax  Input Data Type  Description 

Bitwise not  ~ X  Integer or BYTES  Performs logical negation on each bit, forming the ones' complement of the given binary value. 
Bitwise or  X  Y  X: Integer or BYTES
Y: Same type as X 
Takes two bit patterns of equal length and performs the logical inclusive OR operation on each pair of the corresponding bits. This operator throws an error if X and Y are BYTES of different lengths. 
Bitwise xor  X ^ Y  X: Integer or BYTES
Y: Same type as X 
Takes two bit patterns of equal length and performs the logical exclusive OR operation on each pair of the corresponding bits. This operator throws an error if X and Y are BYTES of different lengths. 
Bitwise and  X & Y  X: Integer or BYTES
Y: Same type as X 
Takes two bit patterns of equal length and performs the logical AND operation on each pair of the corresponding bits. This operator throws an error if X and Y are BYTES of different lengths. 
Left shift  X << Y  X: Integer or BYTES
Y: INT64 
Shifts the first operand X to the left. This operator returns 0 or a byte sequence of b'\x00' if the second operand Y is greater than or equal to the bit length of the first operand X (for example, 64 if X has the type INT64). This operator throws an error if Y is negative. 
Right shift  X >> Y  X: Integer or BYTES
Y: INT64 
Shifts the first operand X to the right. This operator does not do sign bit extension with a signed type (i.e. it fills vacant bits on the left with 0). This operator returns 0 or a byte sequence of b'\x00' if the second operand Y is greater than or equal to the bit length of the first operand X (for example, 64 if X has the type INT64). This operator throws an error if Y is negative. 
Logical operators
All logical operators allow only BOOL input.
Name  Syntax  Description 

Logical NOT  NOT X  Returns FALSE if input is TRUE. Returns TRUE if input is FALSE. Returns NULL
otherwise. 
Logical AND  X AND Y  Returns FALSE if at least one input is FALSE. Returns TRUE if both X and Y
are TRUE. Returns NULL otherwise. 
Logical OR  X OR Y  Returns FALSE if both X and Y are FALSE. Returns TRUE if at least one input
is TRUE. Returns NULL otherwise. 
Comparison operators
Comparisons always return BOOL. Comparisons generally require both operands to be of the same type. If operands are of different types, and if Cloud Spanner SQL can convert the values of those types to a common type without loss of precision, Cloud Spanner SQL will generally coerce them to that common type for the comparison; Cloud Spanner SQL will generally coerce literals to the type of nonliterals, where present. Comparable data types are defined in Data Types.
STRUCTs support only 4 comparison operators: equal (=), not equal (!= and <>), and IN.
The following rules apply when comparing these data types:
 FLOAT64
: All comparisons with NaN return FALSE,
except for
!=
and<>
, which return TRUE.  BOOL: FALSE is less than TRUE.
 STRING: Strings are compared codepointbycodepoint, which means that canonically equivalent strings are only guaranteed to compare as equal if they have been normalized first.
NULL
: The convention holds here: any operation with aNULL
input returnsNULL
.
Name  Syntax  Description 

Less Than  X < Y  Returns TRUE if X is less than Y. 
Less Than or Equal To  X <= Y  Returns TRUE if X is less than or equal to Y. 
Greater Than  X > Y  Returns TRUE if X is greater than Y. 
Greater Than or Equal To  X >= Y  Returns TRUE if X is greater than or equal to Y. 
Equal  X = Y  Returns TRUE if X is equal to Y. 
Not Equal  X != Y X <> Y 
Returns TRUE if X is not equal to Y. 
BETWEEN  X [NOT] BETWEEN Y AND Z  Returns TRUE if X is [not] within the range specified. The result of "X BETWEEN Y AND Z" is equivalent to "Y <= X AND X <= Z" but X is evaluated only once in the former. 
LIKE  X [NOT] LIKE Y  Checks if the STRING in the first operand X
matches a pattern specified by the second operand Y. Expressions can contain
these characters:

IN  Multiple  see below  Returns FALSE if the right operand is empty. Returns NULL if the left
operand is NULL . Returns TRUE or NULL , never FALSE, if the right operand
contains NULL . Arguments on either side of IN are general expressions. Neither
operand is required to be a literal, although using a literal on the right is
most common. X is evaluated only once. 
When testing values that have a STRUCT data type for
equality, it's possible that one or more fields are NULL
. In such cases:
 If all nonNULL field values are equal, the comparison returns NULL.
 If any nonNULL field values are not equal, the comparison returns false.
The following table demonstrates how STRUCT data
types are compared when they have fields that are NULL
valued.
Struct1  Struct2  Struct1 = Struct2 

STRUCT(1, NULL) 
STRUCT(1, NULL) 
NULL 
STRUCT(1, NULL) 
STRUCT(2, NULL) 
FALSE 
STRUCT(1,2) 
STRUCT(1, NULL)
 NULL 
IN operators
The IN
operator supports the following syntaxes:
x [NOT] IN (y, z, ... ) # Requires at least one element
x [NOT] IN (<subquery>)
x [NOT] IN UNNEST(<array expression>) # analysis error if the expression
# does not return an ARRAY type.
Arguments on either side of the IN
operator are general expressions.
It is common to use literals on the right side expression; however, this is not
required.
The semantics of:
x IN (y, z, ...)
are defined as equivalent to:
(x = y) OR (x = z) OR ...
and the subquery and array forms are defined similarly.
x NOT IN ...
is equivalent to:
NOT(x IN ...)
The UNNEST form treats an array scan like UNNEST
in the
FROM clause:
x [NOT] IN UNNEST(<array expression>)
This form is often used with ARRAY parameters. For example:
x IN UNNEST(@array_parameter)
Note: A NULL
ARRAY will be treated equivalently to an empty ARRAY.
See the Arrays topic for more information on how to use this syntax.
When using the IN
operator, the following semantics apply:
IN
with an empty right side expression is always FALSEIN
with aNULL
left side expression and a nonempty right side expression is alwaysNULL
IN
with aNULL
in theIN
list can only return TRUE orNULL
, never FALSENULL IN (NULL)
returnsNULL
IN UNNEST(<NULL array>)
returns FALSE (notNULL
)NOT IN
with aNULL
in theIN
list can only return FALSE orNULL
, never TRUE
IN
can be used with multipart keys by using the struct constructor syntax.
For example:
(Key1, Key2) IN ( (12,34), (56,78) )
(Key1, Key2) IN ( SELECT (table.a, table.b) FROM table )
See the Struct Type section of the Data Types topic for more information on this syntax.
IS operators
IS operators return TRUE or FALSE for the condition they are testing. They never
return NULL
, even for NULL
inputs, unlike the IS_INF and IS_NAN functions
defined in Mathematical Functions. If NOT is present,
the output BOOL value is inverted.
Function Syntax  Input Data Type  Result Data Type  Description 

X IS [NOT] NULL 
Any value type  BOOL  Returns TRUE if the operand X evaluates to NULL , and returns FALSE
otherwise. 
X IS [NOT] TRUE 
BOOL  BOOL  Returns TRUE if the BOOL operand evaluates to TRUE. Returns FALSE otherwise. 
X IS [NOT] FALSE 
BOOL  BOOL  Returns TRUE if the BOOL operand evaluates to FALSE. Returns FALSE otherwise. 
Concatenation operator
The concatenation operator combines multiple values into one.
Function Syntax  Input Data Type  Result Data Type 

STRING  STRING [  ... ] 
STRING  STRING 
BYTES  BYTES [  ... ] 
BYTES  STRING 
ARRAY<T>  ARRAY<T> [  ... ] 
ARRAY<T>  ARRAY<T> 