Fonctions HTTP

Les fonctions HTTP vous permettent d'appeler votre fonction via une requête HTTP(S). Pour autoriser la sémantique HTTP, les signatures de fonction HTTP acceptent des arguments HTTP spécifiques.

Exemple d'utilisation

L'exemple ci-dessous montre comment traiter une requête HTTP POST contenant un paramètre name :

Node.js

const escapeHtml = require('escape-html');

/**
 * HTTP Cloud Function.
 *
 * @param {Object} req Cloud Function request context.
 *                     More info: https://expressjs.com/en/api.html#req
 * @param {Object} res Cloud Function response context.
 *                     More info: https://expressjs.com/en/api.html#res
 */
exports.helloHttp = (req, res) => {
  res.send(`Hello ${escapeHtml(req.query.name || req.body.name || 'World')}!`);
};

Python

from flask import escape

def hello_http(request):
    """HTTP Cloud Function.
    Args:
        request (flask.Request): The request object.
        <https://flask.palletsprojects.com/en/1.1.x/api/#incoming-request-data>
    Returns:
        The response text, or any set of values that can be turned into a
        Response object using `make_response`
        <https://flask.palletsprojects.com/en/1.1.x/api/#flask.make_response>.
    """
    request_json = request.get_json(silent=True)
    request_args = request.args

    if request_json and 'name' in request_json:
        name = request_json['name']
    elif request_args and 'name' in request_args:
        name = request_args['name']
    else:
        name = 'World'
    return 'Hello {}!'.format(escape(name))

Go


// Package helloworld provides a set of Cloud Functions samples.
package helloworld

import (
	"encoding/json"
	"fmt"
	"html"
	"net/http"
)

// HelloHTTP is an HTTP Cloud Function with a request parameter.
func HelloHTTP(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	var d struct {
		Name string `json:"name"`
	}
	if err := json.NewDecoder(r.Body).Decode(&d); err != nil {
		fmt.Fprint(w, "Hello, World!")
		return
	}
	if d.Name == "" {
		fmt.Fprint(w, "Hello, World!")
		return
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Hello, %s!", html.EscapeString(d.Name))
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpFunction;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpRequest;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpResponse;
import com.google.gson.Gson;
import com.google.gson.JsonElement;
import com.google.gson.JsonObject;
import com.google.gson.JsonParseException;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

public class HelloHttp implements HttpFunction {
  private static final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(HelloHttp.class.getName());

  private static final Gson gson = new Gson();

  @Override
  public void service(HttpRequest request, HttpResponse response)
      throws IOException {
    // Check URL parameters for "name" field
    // "world" is the default value
    String name = request.getFirstQueryParameter("name").orElse("world");

    // Parse JSON request and check for "name" field
    try {
      JsonElement requestParsed = gson.fromJson(request.getReader(), JsonElement.class);
      JsonObject requestJson = null;

      if (requestParsed != null && requestParsed.isJsonObject()) {
        requestJson = requestParsed.getAsJsonObject();
      }

      if (requestJson != null && requestJson.has("name")) {
        name = requestJson.get("name").getAsString();
      }
    } catch (JsonParseException e) {
      logger.severe("Error parsing JSON: " + e.getMessage());
    }

    var writer = new PrintWriter(response.getWriter());
    writer.printf("Hello %s!", name);
  }
}

La commande suivante montre comment appeler la fonction et lui transmettre un paramètre à l'aide de curl :

curl -X POST HTTP_TRIGGER_ENDPOINT -H "Content-Type:application/json"  -d '{"name":"Jane"}'

HTTP_TRIGGER_ENDPOINT est l'URL de la fonction, obtenue lorsque la fonction est déployée. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la page Déclencheurs HTTP.

Frameworks HTTP

Pour gérer HTTP, Cloud Functions utilise un framework HTTP spécifique à chaque environnement d'exécution :

Environnement d'exécution Framework HTTP
Node.js (6, 8 et 10) Express 4.17.1
Python Flask 1.0.2
Go Interface http.HandlerFunc standard
Java Framework des fonctions de l'API Java

Analyser des requêtes HTTP

L'exemple ci-dessous décrit comment lire les requêtes HTTP dans différents formats :

Node.js

Dans Node.js, le corps de la requête est automatiquement analysé en fonction de l'en-tête content-type et mis à disposition via les arguments de votre fonction HTTP.

const escapeHtml = require('escape-html');

/**
 * Responds to an HTTP request using data from the request body parsed according
 * to the "content-type" header.
 *
 * @param {Object} req Cloud Function request context.
 * @param {Object} res Cloud Function response context.
 */
exports.helloContent = (req, res) => {
  let name;

  switch (req.get('content-type')) {
    // '{"name":"John"}'
    case 'application/json':
      ({name} = req.body);
      break;

    // 'John', stored in a Buffer
    case 'application/octet-stream':
      name = req.body.toString(); // Convert buffer to a string
      break;

    // 'John'
    case 'text/plain':
      name = req.body;
      break;

    // 'name=John' in the body of a POST request (not the URL)
    case 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded':
      ({name} = req.body);
      break;
  }

  res.status(200).send(`Hello ${escapeHtml(name || 'World')}!`);
};

Python

from flask import escape

def hello_content(request):
    """ Responds to an HTTP request using data from the request body parsed
    according to the "content-type" header.
    Args:
        request (flask.Request): The request object.
        <https://flask.palletsprojects.com/en/1.1.x/api/#incoming-request-data>
    Returns:
        The response text, or any set of values that can be turned into a
        Response object using `make_response`
        <https://flask.palletsprojects.com/en/1.1.x/api/#flask.make_response>.
    """
    content_type = request.headers['content-type']
    if content_type == 'application/json':
        request_json = request.get_json(silent=True)
        if request_json and 'name' in request_json:
            name = request_json['name']
        else:
            raise ValueError("JSON is invalid, or missing a 'name' property")
    elif content_type == 'application/octet-stream':
        name = request.data
    elif content_type == 'text/plain':
        name = request.data
    elif content_type == 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded':
        name = request.form.get('name')
    else:
        raise ValueError("Unknown content type: {}".format(content_type))
    return 'Hello {}!'.format(escape(name))

Go


// Package http provides a set of HTTP Cloud Functions samples.
package http

import (
	"encoding/json"
	"fmt"
	"html"
	"io/ioutil"
	"log"
	"net/http"
)

// HelloContentType is an HTTP Cloud function.
// It uses the Content-Type header to identify the request payload format.
func HelloContentType(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	var name string

	switch r.Header.Get("Content-Type") {
	case "application/json":
		var d struct {
			Name string `json:"name"`
		}
		err := json.NewDecoder(r.Body).Decode(&d)
		if err != nil {
			log.Printf("error parsing application/json: %v", err)
		} else {
			name = d.Name
		}
	case "application/octet-stream":
		body, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r.Body)
		if err != nil {
			log.Printf("error parsing application/octet-stream: %v", err)
		} else {
			name = string(body)
		}
	case "text/plain":
		body, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r.Body)
		if err != nil {
			log.Printf("error parsing text/plain: %v", err)
		} else {
			name = string(body)
		}
	case "application/x-www-form-urlencoded":
		if err := r.ParseForm(); err != nil {
			log.Printf("error parsing application/x-www-form-urlencoded: %v", err)
		} else {
			name = r.FormValue("name")
		}
	}

	if name == "" {
		name = "World"
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Hello, %s!", html.EscapeString(name))
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpFunction;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpRequest;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpResponse;
import com.google.gson.Gson;
import com.google.gson.JsonObject;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
import java.util.Base64;
import java.util.Optional;

public class ParseContentType implements HttpFunction {

  // Use GSON (https://github.com/google/gson) to parse JSON content.
  private static final Gson gson = new Gson();

  // Responds to an HTTP request using data from the request body parsed according to the
  // "content-type" header.
  @Override
  public void service(HttpRequest request, HttpResponse response)
      throws IOException {
    String name;

    // Default values avoid null issues (with switch/case) and exceptions from get() (optionals)
    String contentType = request.getContentType().orElse("");

    switch (contentType) {
      case "application/json":
        // '{"name":"John"}'
        JsonObject body = gson.fromJson(request.getReader(), JsonObject.class);
        if (body.has("name")) {
          name = body.get("name").getAsString();
          break;
        }
        // else: No "name" parameter specified; fall through to default case
      case "application/octet-stream":
        // 'John', stored in a Buffer
        name = new String(Base64.getDecoder().decode(request.getInputStream().readAllBytes()),
            StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
        break;
      case "text/plain":
        // 'John'
        name = request.getReader().readLine();
        break;
      case "application/x-www-form-urlencoded":
        // 'name=John' in the body of a POST request (not the URL)
        Optional<String> nameParam = request.getFirstQueryParameter("name");
        if (nameParam.isPresent()) {
          name = nameParam.get();
          break;
        }
        // else: No "name" parameter specified; fall through to default case
      default:
        // Invalid or missing header "Content-Type"
        response.setStatusCode(HttpURLConnection.HTTP_BAD_REQUEST);
        return;
    }

    // Respond with a name, if one was detected
    if (name != null) {
      var writer = new PrintWriter(response.getWriter());
      writer.printf("Hello %s!", name);
    }
  }
}

Gérer les requêtes CORS

Le partage de ressources entre origines multiples (CORS, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing) permet aux applications exécutées sur un domaine d'accéder au contenu d'un autre domaine, par exemple en autorisant yourdomain.com à envoyer des requêtes à region-project.cloudfunctions.net/yourfunction.

Si CORS n'est pas configuré correctement, vous risquez d'obtenir des erreurs de ce type :

XMLHttpRequest cannot load https://region-project.cloudfunctions.net/function.
No 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' header is present on the requested resource.
Origin 'http://yourdomain.com' is therefore not allowed access.

CORS se compose de deux requêtes :

  • Une requête OPTIONS préliminaire
  • Une requête principale qui suit la requête OPTIONS

La requête préliminaire contient des en-têtes indiquant quelle méthode (Access-Control-Request-Method) et quels en-têtes supplémentaires (Access-Control-Request-Headers) seront envoyés dans la requête principale, ainsi que l'origine de la requête principale (Origin).

Pour traiter une requête préliminaire, vous devez définir les en-têtes Access-Control-Allow-* appropriés afin d'assurer la correspondance avec les requêtes que vous souhaitez accepter :

Node.js

/**
 * HTTP function that supports CORS requests.
 *
 * @param {Object} req Cloud Function request context.
 * @param {Object} res Cloud Function response context.
 */
exports.corsEnabledFunction = (req, res) => {
  // Set CORS headers for preflight requests
  // Allows GETs from any origin with the Content-Type header
  // and caches preflight response for 3600s

  res.set('Access-Control-Allow-Origin', '*');

  if (req.method === 'OPTIONS') {
    // Send response to OPTIONS requests
    res.set('Access-Control-Allow-Methods', 'GET');
    res.set('Access-Control-Allow-Headers', 'Content-Type');
    res.set('Access-Control-Max-Age', '3600');
    res.status(204).send('');
  } else {
    res.send('Hello World!');
  }
};

Python

def cors_enabled_function(request):
    # For more information about CORS and CORS preflight requests, see
    # https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Glossary/Preflight_request
    # for more information.

    # Set CORS headers for the preflight request
    if request.method == 'OPTIONS':
        # Allows GET requests from any origin with the Content-Type
        # header and caches preflight response for an 3600s
        headers = {
            'Access-Control-Allow-Origin': '*',
            'Access-Control-Allow-Methods': 'GET',
            'Access-Control-Allow-Headers': 'Content-Type',
            'Access-Control-Max-Age': '3600'
        }

        return ('', 204, headers)

    # Set CORS headers for the main request
    headers = {
        'Access-Control-Allow-Origin': '*'
    }

    return ('Hello World!', 200, headers)

Go


// Package http provides a set of HTTP Cloud Functions samples.
package http

import (
	"fmt"
	"net/http"
)

// CORSEnabledFunction is an example of setting CORS headers.
// For more information about CORS and CORS preflight requests, see
// https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Glossary/Preflight_request.
func CORSEnabledFunction(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	// Set CORS headers for the preflight request
	if r.Method == http.MethodOptions {
		w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*")
		w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Methods", "POST")
		w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Headers", "Content-Type")
		w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Max-Age", "3600")
		w.WriteHeader(http.StatusNoContent)
		return
	}
	// Set CORS headers for the main request.
	w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*")
	fmt.Fprint(w, "Hello, World!")
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpFunction;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpRequest;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpResponse;
import java.io.BufferedWriter;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;

public class CorsEnabled implements HttpFunction {
  // corsEnabled is an example of setting CORS headers.
  // For more information about CORS and CORS preflight requests, see
  // https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Glossary/Preflight_request.
  @Override
  public void service(HttpRequest request, HttpResponse response)
      throws IOException {
    // Set CORS headers
    //   Allows GETs from any origin with the Content-Type
    //   header and caches preflight response for 3600s
    response.appendHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*");

    if ("OPTIONS".equals(request.getMethod())) {
      response.appendHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Methods", "GET");
      response.appendHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Headers", "Content-Type");
      response.appendHeader("Access-Control-Max-Age", "3600");
      response.setStatusCode(HttpURLConnection.HTTP_NO_CONTENT);
      return;
    }

    // Handle the main request.
    BufferedWriter writer = response.getWriter();
    writer.write("CORS headers set successfully!");
  }
}

Vous pouvez également utiliser une bibliothèque tierce pour gérer vos requêtes CORS.

Authentification et CORS

Si vous prévoyez d'envoyer une requête avec un en-tête Authorization, vous devez :

  1. ajouter l'en-tête Authorization à Access-Control-Allow-Headers ;
  2. définir l'en-tête Access-Control-Allow-Credentials sur true ;
  3. définir une origine spécifique dans Access-Control-Allow-Origin (les caractères génériques ne sont pas acceptés).

Node.js

/**
 * HTTP function that supports CORS requests with credentials.
 *
 * @param {Object} req Cloud Function request context.
 * @param {Object} res Cloud Function response context.
 */
exports.corsEnabledFunctionAuth = (req, res) => {
  // Set CORS headers for preflight requests
  // Allows GETs from origin https://mydomain.com with Authorization header

  res.set('Access-Control-Allow-Origin', 'https://mydomain.com');
  res.set('Access-Control-Allow-Credentials', 'true');

  if (req.method === 'OPTIONS') {
    // Send response to OPTIONS requests
    res.set('Access-Control-Allow-Methods', 'GET');
    res.set('Access-Control-Allow-Headers', 'Authorization');
    res.set('Access-Control-Max-Age', '3600');
    res.status(204).send('');
  } else {
    res.send('Hello World!');
  }
};

Python

def cors_enabled_function_auth(request):
    # For more information about CORS and CORS preflight requests, see
    # https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Glossary/Preflight_request
    # for more information.

    # Set CORS headers for preflight requests
    if request.method == 'OPTIONS':
        # Allows GET requests from origin https://mydomain.com with
        # Authorization header
        headers = {
            'Access-Control-Allow-Origin': 'https://mydomain.com',
            'Access-Control-Allow-Methods': 'GET',
            'Access-Control-Allow-Headers': 'Authorization',
            'Access-Control-Max-Age': '3600',
            'Access-Control-Allow-Credentials': 'true'
        }
        return ('', 204, headers)

    # Set CORS headers for main requests
    headers = {
        'Access-Control-Allow-Origin': 'https://mydomain.com',
        'Access-Control-Allow-Credentials': 'true'
    }

    return ('Hello World!', 200, headers)

Go


// Package http provides a set of HTTP Cloud Functions samples.
package http

import (
	"fmt"
	"net/http"
)

// CORSEnabledFunctionAuth is an example of setting CORS headers with
// authentication enabled.
// For more information about CORS and CORS preflight requests, see
// https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Glossary/Preflight_request.
func CORSEnabledFunctionAuth(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	// Set CORS headers for the preflight request
	if r.Method == http.MethodOptions {
		w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Credentials", "true")
		w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Headers", "Authorization")
		w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Methods", "POST")
		w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "https://example.com")
		w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Max-Age", "3600")
		w.WriteHeader(http.StatusNoContent)
		return
	}
	// Set CORS headers for the main request.
	w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Credentials", "true")
	w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "https://example.com")
	fmt.Fprint(w, "Hello World!")
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpFunction;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpRequest;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpResponse;
import java.io.BufferedWriter;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;

public class CorsEnabledAuth implements HttpFunction {
  // corsEnabledAuth is an example of setting CORS headers.
  // For more information about CORS and CORS preflight requests, see
  // https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Glossary/Preflight_request.
  @Override
  public void service(HttpRequest request, HttpResponse response)
      throws IOException {
    // Set CORS headers
    //   Allows GETs from origin https://mydomain.com
    //   with the Authorization header present
    response.appendHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "https://mydomain.com");
    response.appendHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Credentials", "true");

    if ("OPTIONS".equals(request.getMethod())) {
      response.appendHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Methods", "GET");
      response.appendHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Headers", "Authorization");
      response.appendHeader("Access-Control-Max-Age", "3600");
      response.setStatusCode(HttpURLConnection.HTTP_NO_CONTENT);
      return;
    }

    // Handle the main request
    BufferedWriter writer = response.getWriter();
    writer.write("CORS headers set successfully!");
  }
}

Héberger sur le même domaine

Au lieu de mettre en œuvre CORS, vous avez tout intérêt à héberger votre site Web et vos fonctions sur le même domaine. Comme les requêtes auront alors la même origine, CORS ne sera pas appliqué. Cela simplifiera considérablement votre code.

La façon la plus simple de procéder consiste à intégrer l'hébergement Firebase à Google Cloud Functions.

Gérer CORS à l'aide de Cloud Endpoints

Vous pouvez déployer un proxy Cloud Endpoints et activer CORS.

Si vous souhaitez ajouter des fonctionnalités d'authentification, vous pouvez également activer la validation des jetons d'identification Google.

Gérer les méthodes HTTP

Les fonctions HTTP acceptent toutes les méthodes HTTP. L'exemple suivant montre comment effectuer différentes actions en fonction de la méthode HTTP obtenue (par exemple, GET et PUT) :

Node.js

/**
 * Responds to a GET request with "Hello World!". Forbids a PUT request.
 *
 * @example
 * gcloud functions call helloHttp
 *
 * @param {Object} req Cloud Function request context.
 * @param {Object} res Cloud Function response context.
 */
exports.helloHttp = (req, res) => {
  switch (req.method) {
    case 'GET':
      res.status(200).send('Hello World!');
      break;
    case 'PUT':
      res.status(403).send('Forbidden!');
      break;
    default:
      res.status(405).send({error: 'Something blew up!'});
      break;
  }
};

Python

def hello_method(request):
    """ Responds to a GET request with "Hello world!". Forbids a PUT request.
    Args:
        request (flask.Request): The request object.
        <https://flask.palletsprojects.com/en/1.1.x/api/#incoming-request-data>
    Returns:
        The response text, or any set of values that can be turned into a
        Response object using `make_response`
        <https://flask.palletsprojects.com/en/1.1.x/api/#flask.make_response>.
    """
    from flask import abort

    if request.method == 'GET':
        return 'Hello World!'
    elif request.method == 'PUT':
        return abort(403)
    else:
        return abort(405)

Go


// Package http provides a set of HTTP Cloud Functions samples.
package http

import (
	"fmt"
	"net/http"
)

// HelloHTTPMethod is an HTTP Cloud function.
// It uses the request method to differentiate the response.
func HelloHTTPMethod(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	switch r.Method {
	case http.MethodGet:
		fmt.Fprint(w, "Hello World!")
	case http.MethodPut:
		http.Error(w, "403 - Forbidden", http.StatusForbidden)
	default:
		http.Error(w, "405 - Method Not Allowed", http.StatusMethodNotAllowed)
	}
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpFunction;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpRequest;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpResponse;
import java.io.BufferedWriter;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;

public class HttpMethod implements HttpFunction {
  @Override
  public void service(HttpRequest request, HttpResponse response)
      throws IOException {

    BufferedWriter writer = response.getWriter();

    switch (request.getMethod()) {
      case "GET":
        response.setStatusCode(HttpURLConnection.HTTP_OK);
        writer.write("Hello world!");
        break;
      case "PUT":
        response.setStatusCode(HttpURLConnection.HTTP_FORBIDDEN);
        writer.write("Forbidden!");
        break;
      default:
        response.setStatusCode(HttpURLConnection.HTTP_BAD_METHOD);
        writer.write("Something blew up!");
        break;
    }
  }
}

Gérer les types de contenus

Pour Node.js, Cloud Functions analyse les types de contenus du corps de la requête de application/json et de application/x-www-form-urlencoded, comme illustré ci-dessus. Les types de contenus en texte brut (text/plain) sont transmis sous forme de chaînes en utilisant UTF-8 comme encodage par défaut (ou un encodage personnalisé fourni dans l'en-tête content-type).

D'autres types de contenus sont accessibles en inspectant l'argument de votre fonction HTTP. Les méthodes pour ce faire varient selon le langage.

L'exemple ci-dessous gère une requête avec un type de contenu text/xml :

Node.js

La propriété rawBody contient les octets non analysés du corps de la requête.

/**
 * Parses a document of type 'text/xml'
 *
 * @param {Object} req Cloud Function request context.
 * @param {Object} res Cloud Function response context.
 */
exports.parseXML = (req, res) => {
  // Convert the request to a Buffer and a string
  // Use whichever one is accepted by your XML parser
  const data = req.rawBody;
  const xmlData = data.toString();

  const {parseString} = require('xml2js');

  parseString(xmlData, (err, result) => {
    if (err) {
      console.error(err);
      res.status(500).end();
      return;
    }
    res.send(result);
  });
};

Python

import json
import xmltodict

def parse_xml(request):
    """ Parses a document of type 'text/xml'
    Args:
        request (flask.Request): The request object.
    Returns:
        The response text, or any set of values that can be turned into a
         Response object using `make_response`
        <http://flask.pocoo.org/docs/1.0/api/#flask.Flask.make_response>.
    """
    data = xmltodict.parse(request.data)
    return json.dumps(data, indent=2)

Go


// Package http provides a set of HTTP Cloud Functions samples.
package http

import (
	"encoding/xml"
	"fmt"
	"html"
	"io/ioutil"
	"net/http"
)

// ParseXML is an example of parsing a text/xml request.
func ParseXML(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	var d struct {
		Name string
	}
	b, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r.Body)
	if err != nil {
		http.Error(w, "Could not read request", http.StatusBadRequest)
	}
	if err := xml.Unmarshal(b, &d); err != nil {
		http.Error(w, "Could not parse request", http.StatusBadRequest)
	}
	if d.Name == "" {
		d.Name = "World"
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Hello, %v!", html.EscapeString(d.Name))
}

Données multipart

L'exemple suivant montre comment traiter des données avec un type de contenu multipart/form-data. Selon le langage choisi, vous devrez peut-être utiliser une bibliothèque d'analyse.

Node.js

/**
 * Parses a 'multipart/form-data' upload request
 *
 * @param {Object} req Cloud Function request context.
 * @param {Object} res Cloud Function response context.
 */
const path = require('path');
const os = require('os');
const fs = require('fs');

// Node.js doesn't have a built-in multipart/form-data parsing library.
// Instead, we can use the 'busboy' library from NPM to parse these requests.
const Busboy = require('busboy');

exports.uploadFile = (req, res) => {
  if (req.method !== 'POST') {
    // Return a "method not allowed" error
    return res.status(405).end();
  }
  const busboy = new Busboy({headers: req.headers});
  const tmpdir = os.tmpdir();

  // This object will accumulate all the fields, keyed by their name
  const fields = {};

  // This object will accumulate all the uploaded files, keyed by their name.
  const uploads = {};

  // This code will process each non-file field in the form.
  busboy.on('field', (fieldname, val) => {
    // TODO(developer): Process submitted field values here
    console.log(`Processed field ${fieldname}: ${val}.`);
    fields[fieldname] = val;
  });

  const fileWrites = [];

  // This code will process each file uploaded.
  busboy.on('file', (fieldname, file, filename) => {
    // Note: os.tmpdir() points to an in-memory file system on GCF
    // Thus, any files in it must fit in the instance's memory.
    console.log(`Processed file ${filename}`);
    const filepath = path.join(tmpdir, filename);
    uploads[fieldname] = filepath;

    const writeStream = fs.createWriteStream(filepath);
    file.pipe(writeStream);

    // File was processed by Busboy; wait for it to be written.
    // Note: GCF may not persist saved files across invocations.
    // Persistent files must be kept in other locations
    // (such as Cloud Storage buckets).
    const promise = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
      file.on('end', () => {
        writeStream.end();
      });
      writeStream.on('finish', resolve);
      writeStream.on('error', reject);
    });
    fileWrites.push(promise);
  });

  // Triggered once all uploaded files are processed by Busboy.
  // We still need to wait for the disk writes (saves) to complete.
  busboy.on('finish', async () => {
    await Promise.all(fileWrites);

    // TODO(developer): Process saved files here
    for (const file in uploads) {
      fs.unlinkSync(uploads[file]);
    }
    res.send();
  });

  busboy.end(req.rawBody);
};

Python

import os
import tempfile
from werkzeug.utils import secure_filename

# Helper function that computes the filepath to save files to
def get_file_path(filename):
    # Note: tempfile.gettempdir() points to an in-memory file system
    # on GCF. Thus, any files in it must fit in the instance's memory.
    file_name = secure_filename(filename)
    return os.path.join(tempfile.gettempdir(), file_name)

def parse_multipart(request):
    """ Parses a 'multipart/form-data' upload request
    Args:
        request (flask.Request): The request object.
    Returns:
        The response text, or any set of values that can be turned into a
         Response object using `make_response`
        <http://flask.pocoo.org/docs/1.0/api/#flask.Flask.make_response>.
    """

    # This code will process each non-file field in the form
    fields = {}
    data = request.form.to_dict()
    for field in data:
        fields[field] = data[field]
        print('Processed field: %s' % field)

    # This code will process each file uploaded
    files = request.files.to_dict()
    for file_name, file in files.items():
        # Note: GCF may not keep files saved locally between invocations.
        # If you want to preserve the uploaded files, you should save them
        # to another location (such as a Cloud Storage bucket).
        file.save(get_file_path(file_name))
        print('Processed file: %s' % file_name)

    # Clear temporary directory
    for file_name in files:
        file_path = get_file_path(file_name)
        os.remove(file_path)

    return "Done!"

Go


// Package http provides a set of HTTP Cloud Functions samples.
package http

import (
	"fmt"
	"log"
	"net/http"
)

// UploadFile processes a 'multipart/form-data' upload request.
func UploadFile(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	const maxMemory = 2 * 1024 * 1024 // 2 megabytes.

	// ParseMultipartForm parses a request body as multipart/form-data.
	// The whole request body is parsed and up to a total of maxMemory bytes of
	// its file parts are stored in memory, with the remainder stored on
	// disk in temporary files.

	// Note that any files saved during a particular invocation may not
	// persist after the current invocation completes; persistent files
	// should be stored elsewhere, such as in a Cloud Storage bucket.
	if err := r.ParseMultipartForm(maxMemory); err != nil {
		http.Error(w, "Unable to parse form", http.StatusBadRequest)
		log.Printf("Error parsing form: %v", err)
		return
	}

	// Be sure to remove all temporary files after your function is finished.
	defer func() {
		if err := r.MultipartForm.RemoveAll(); err != nil {
			http.Error(w, "Error cleaning up form files", http.StatusInternalServerError)
			log.Printf("Error cleaning up form files: %v", err)
		}
	}()

	// r.MultipartForm.File contains *multipart.FileHeader values for every
	// file in the form. You can access the file contents using
	// *multipart.FileHeader's Open method.
	for _, headers := range r.MultipartForm.File {
		for _, h := range headers {
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "File uploaded: %q (%v bytes)", h.Filename, h.Size)
			// Use h.Open() to read the contents of the file.
		}
	}

}

Java


import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpFunction;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpRequest;
import com.google.cloud.functions.HttpResponse;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.StandardCopyOption;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

public class HttpFormData implements HttpFunction {
  private static final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(HttpFormData.class.getName());

  @Override
  public void service(HttpRequest request, HttpResponse response)
      throws IOException {

    if (!"POST".equals(request.getMethod())) {
      response.setStatusCode(HttpURLConnection.HTTP_BAD_METHOD);
      return;
    }

    // This code will process each file uploaded.
    String tempDirectory = System.getProperty("java.io.tmpdir");
    for (HttpRequest.HttpPart httpPart : request.getParts().values()) {
      String filename = httpPart.getFileName().orElse(null);
      if (filename == null) {
        continue;
      }

      logger.info("Processed file: " + filename);

      // Note: GCF's temp directory is an in-memory file system
      // Thus, any files in it must fit in the instance's memory.
      Path filePath = Paths.get(tempDirectory, filename).toAbsolutePath();

      // Note: files saved to a GCF instance itself may not persist across executions.
      // Persistent files should be stored elsewhere, e.g. a Cloud Storage bucket.
      Files.copy(httpPart.getInputStream(), filePath, StandardCopyOption.REPLACE_EXISTING);

      // TODO(developer): process saved files here
      Files.delete(filePath);
    }

    // This code will process other form fields.
    request.getQueryParameters().forEach(
        (fieldName, fieldValues) -> {
          String firstFieldValue = fieldValues.get(0);

          // TODO(developer): process field values here
          logger.info(String.format(
              "Processed field: %s (value: %s)", fieldName, firstFieldValue));
        });
  }
}

Importer des fichiers depuis Cloud Storage

Le traitement des fichiers est un cas d'utilisation courant pour Cloud Functions. Pour les fichiers volumineux ou nécessitant un stockage permanent au-delà d'une seule requête, vous pouvez utiliser Cloud Storage comme point d'entrée pour vos fichiers importés. Pour ce faire, vous devez générer une URL signée, qui fournit un accès en écriture temporaire à un bucket Cloud Storage.

Si vous utilisez Cloud Functions directement, générez une URL signée à partir de la bibliothèque cliente Cloud Storage appropriée.

L'importation de fichiers dans une fonction Cloud Functions à l'aide de Cloud Storage est un processus en trois étapes :

  1. Les clients appellent directement une fonction Cloud Functions pour récupérer une URL signée.

  2. Les clients envoient ensuite les données du fichier à l'URL signée via une requête HTTP PUT.

  3. Une deuxième fonction Cloud Functions est déclenchée par une mutation dans le bucket de stockage en vue du traitement ultérieur du fichier.

Consultez ci-dessous l'exemple d'utilisation de la bibliothèque cliente Cloud Storage pour générer une URL signée.

Les fonctions Cloud ont un "identifiant d'application par défaut" qui n'inclut généralement pas l'autorisation iam.serviceAccounts.signBlob. Pour y accéder, vous devez d'abord vous assurer que le compte de service de votre fonction détient le rôle approprié. Pour cela, utilisez Cloud Console ou l'outil de ligne de commande gcloud :

Console

Pour vous assurer que le compte de service de votre fonction détient le rôle approprié, il est possible de modifier directement les rôles IAM d'un compte :

  1. Accédez à Google Cloud Console :

    Accéder à Google Cloud Console

  2. Sélectionnez le compte approprié et choisissez Éditeur > Comptes de service > Générateur de jetons de compte de service.

gcloud

Pour vous assurer que le compte de service de votre fonction détient le rôle approprié, exécutez la commande suivante. Le rôle serviceAccountTokenCreator prédéfini dispose de l'autorisation iam.serviceAccounts.signBlob dont vous avez besoin :

gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding YOUR_PROJECT \
--member serviceAccount:YOUR_SERVICE_ACCOUNT --role roles/iam.serviceAccountTokenCreator

Vous pouvez déterminer le compte de service utilisé par vos fonctions à l'aide de Cloud Console ou de l'outil de ligne de commande gcloud :

Console

Pour déterminer le compte de service utilisé par vos fonctions à l'aide de Cloud Console, procédez comme suit :

  1. Accédez à Google Cloud Console :

    Accéder à Google Cloud Console

  2. Sélectionnez la fonction que vous souhaitez inspecter dans la liste.

Le compte de service est visible sur la page des détails de la fonction.

gcloud

Pour déterminer le compte de service utilisé par vos fonctions, exécutez la commande suivante et recherchez la propriété serviceAccountEmail :

gcloud beta functions describe YOUR_FUNCTION_NAME

Voici un exemple de génération d'URL signée :

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const bucketName = 'Name of a bucket, e.g. my-bucket';
// const filename = 'File to access, e.g. file.txt';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

async function generateV4UploadSignedUrl() {
  // These options will allow temporary uploading of the file with outgoing
  // Content-Type: application/octet-stream header.
  const options = {
    version: 'v4',
    action: 'write',
    expires: Date.now() + 15 * 60 * 1000, // 15 minutes
    contentType: 'application/octet-stream',
  };

  // Get a v4 signed URL for uploading file
  const [url] = await storage
    .bucket(bucketName)
    .file(filename)
    .getSignedUrl(options);

  console.log('Generated PUT signed URL:');
  console.log(url);
  console.log('You can use this URL with any user agent, for example:');
  console.log(
    "curl -X PUT -H 'Content-Type: application/octet-stream' " +
      `--upload-file my-file '${url}'`
  );
}

generateV4UploadSignedUrl().catch(console.error);

Python

import datetime

from google.cloud import storage

def generate_upload_signed_url_v4(bucket_name, blob_name):
    """Generates a v4 signed URL for uploading a blob using HTTP PUT.

    Note that this method requires a service account key file. You can not use
    this if you are using Application Default Credentials from Google Compute
    Engine or from the Google Cloud SDK.
    """
    # bucket_name = 'your-bucket-name'
    # blob_name = 'your-object-name'

    storage_client = storage.Client()
    bucket = storage_client.bucket(bucket_name)
    blob = bucket.blob(blob_name)

    url = blob.generate_signed_url(
        version="v4",
        # This URL is valid for 15 minutes
        expiration=datetime.timedelta(minutes=15),
        # Allow PUT requests using this URL.
        method="PUT",
        content_type="application/octet-stream",
    )

    print("Generated PUT signed URL:")
    print(url)
    print("You can use this URL with any user agent, for example:")
    print(
        "curl -X PUT -H 'Content-Type: application/octet-stream' "
        "--upload-file my-file '{}'".format(url)
    )
    return url

Go

import (
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"io/ioutil"
	"time"

	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
	"golang.org/x/oauth2/google"
)

// generateV4PutObjectSignedURL generates object signed URL with PUT method.
func generateV4PutObjectSignedURL(w io.Writer, bucket, object, serviceAccount string) (string, error) {
	// bucket := "bucket-name"
	// object := "object-name"
	// serviceAccount := "service_account.json"
	jsonKey, err := ioutil.ReadFile(serviceAccount)
	if err != nil {
		return "", fmt.Errorf("ioutil.ReadFile: %v", err)
	}
	conf, err := google.JWTConfigFromJSON(jsonKey)
	if err != nil {
		return "", fmt.Errorf("google.JWTConfigFromJSON: %v", err)
	}
	opts := &storage.SignedURLOptions{
		Scheme: storage.SigningSchemeV4,
		Method: "PUT",
		Headers: []string{
			"Content-Type:application/octet-stream",
		},
		GoogleAccessID: conf.Email,
		PrivateKey:     conf.PrivateKey,
		Expires:        time.Now().Add(15 * time.Minute),
	}
	u, err := storage.SignedURL(bucket, object, opts)
	if err != nil {
		return "", fmt.Errorf("storage.SignedURL: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintln(w, "Generated PUT signed URL:")
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%q\n", u)
	fmt.Fprintln(w, "You can use this URL with any user agent, for example:")
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "curl -X PUT -H 'Content-Type: application/octet-stream' --upload-file my-file %q\n", u)
	return u, nil
}

Java

import com.google.cloud.storage.BlobId;
import com.google.cloud.storage.BlobInfo;
import com.google.cloud.storage.HttpMethod;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Storage;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageException;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageOptions;
import java.net.URL;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class GenerateV4PutObjectSignedUrl {
  /**
   * Signing a URL requires Credentials which implement ServiceAccountSigner. These can be set
   * explicitly using the Storage.SignUrlOption.signWith(ServiceAccountSigner) option. If you don't,
   * you could also pass a service account signer to StorageOptions, i.e.
   * StorageOptions().newBuilder().setCredentials(ServiceAccountSignerCredentials). In this example,
   * neither of these options are used, which means the following code only works when the
   * credentials are defined via the environment variable GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS, and those
   * credentials are authorized to sign a URL. See the documentation for Storage.signUrl for more
   * details.
   */
  public static void generateV4GPutObjectSignedUrl(
      String projectId, String bucketName, String objectName) throws StorageException {
    // String projectId = "my-project-id";
    // String bucketName = "my-bucket";
    // String objectName = "my-object";

    Storage storage = StorageOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(projectId).build().getService();

    // Define Resource
    BlobInfo blobInfo = BlobInfo.newBuilder(BlobId.of(bucketName, objectName)).build();

    // Generate Signed URL
    Map<String, String> extensionHeaders = new HashMap<>();
    extensionHeaders.put("Content-Type", "application/octet-stream");

    URL url =
        storage.signUrl(
            blobInfo,
            15,
            TimeUnit.MINUTES,
            Storage.SignUrlOption.httpMethod(HttpMethod.PUT),
            Storage.SignUrlOption.withExtHeaders(extensionHeaders),
            Storage.SignUrlOption.withV4Signature());

    System.out.println("Generated PUT signed URL:");
    System.out.println(url);
    System.out.println("You can use this URL with any user agent, for example:");
    System.out.println(
        "curl -X PUT -H 'Content-Type: application/octet-stream' --upload-file my-file '"
            + url
            + "'");
  }
}

Lorsque le client importe un fichier dans l'URL signée, vous pouvez déclencher une deuxième fonction à partir de cette mutation si vous souhaitez effectuer une autre action sur l'importation. Consultez le tutoriel sur Cloud Storage pour en savoir plus sur le déclenchement d'une fonction Cloud après des modifications apportées à un bucket Cloud Storage.

Étapes suivantes