Key terms

This page provides key terminology that applies to Cloud DNS. Review these terms to better understand how Cloud DNS works and the concepts on which it is built.

The Cloud DNS API is built around projects, managed zones, record sets, and changes to record sets.

Project
A Google Cloud Console project is a container for resources, a domain for access control, and the place where billing is configured and aggregated. For more details, see Creating and managing projects.
Managed zone

The managed zone holds Domain Name System (DNS) records for the same DNS name suffix (such as example.com). A project can have multiple managed zones, but they must each have a unique name. In Cloud DNS, the managed zone is the resource that models a DNS zone.

All records in a managed zone are hosted on the same Google-operated name servers. These name servers respond to DNS queries against your managed zone according to how you configure the zone. A project can contain multiple managed zones. Charges accrue for each zone for each day that the managed zone exists. Managed zones support labels that you can use to help organize your billing.

Public zone

A public zone is visible to the internet. Cloud DNS has public authoritative name servers that respond to queries about public zones regardless of where the queries originate. You can create DNS records in a public zone to publish your service on the internet. For example, you might create the following record in a public zone example.com for your public website www.example.com.

DNS name Type TTL (seconds) Data
www.example.com A 300 198.51.100.0

Cloud DNS assigns a set of name servers when a public zone is created. For the DNS records in a public zone to be resolvable over the internet, you must update the name server setting of your domain registration at your registrar.

For more information about how to register and set up your domain, see Setting up a domain using Cloud DNS.

Private zone

Private zones enable you to manage custom domain names for your virtual machine (VM) instances, load balancers, and other Google Cloud resources without exposing the underlying DNS data to the public internet. A private zone is a container of DNS records that can only be queried by one or more Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) networks that you authorize.

A private zone can only be queried by resources in the same project where it is defined. The VPC networks that you authorize must be located in the same project as the private zone. If you need to query records hosted in managed private zones in other projects, use DNS peering.

You must specify the list of authorized VPC networks that can query your private zone when you create or update it. Only authorized networks are allowed to query your private zone; if you do not specify any authorized networks, you cannot query the private zone at all.

You can use private zones with Shared VPC. For important information about using private zones with Shared VPC, see Shared VPC considerations.

Private zones do not support DNS security extensions (DNSSEC) or custom resource record sets of type NS. Requests for DNS records in private zones must be submitted through the metadata server 169.254.169.254, which is the default internal name server for VMs created from Google-supplied images.

You can submit queries to this name server from any VM that uses an authorized VPC network. For example, you can create a private zone for dev.gcp.example.com to host internal DNS records for experimental applications. The following table shows example records in that zone. Database clients can connect to the database server db-01.dev.gcp.example.com by using its internal DNS name instead of its IP address. Database clients resolve this internal DNS name by using the host resolver on the VM, which submits the DNS query to the metadata server 169.254.169.254. The metadata server acts as a recursive resolver to query your private zone.

DNS name Type TTL (seconds) Data
db-01.dev.gcp.example.com A 5 10.128.1.35
instance-01.dev.gcp.example.com A 50 10.128.1.10

Private zones enable you to create split horizon DNS configurations. This is because you can create a private zone with a different set of records, which overrides the set of records in a public zone. You can then control which VPC networks query the records in the private zone. For example, see overlapping zones.

Service Directory

Service Directory is a managed service registry for Google Cloud that enables you to register and discover services by using HTTP or gRPC (using its Lookup API) in addition to using traditional DNS. You can use Service Directory to register both Google Cloud and non-Google Cloud services.

Cloud DNS enables you to create Service Directory-backed zones, which are a type of private zone containing information about your services and endpoints. You don't add record sets to the zone; rather, they're inferred automatically based on the configuration of the Service Directory namespace associated with the zone. For more information about Service Directory, see the Service Directory overview.

When you create a Service Directory-backed zone, you cannot add records to the zone directly; the data comes from the Service Directory service registry.

Cloud DNS and non-RFC 1918 addresses

By default, Cloud DNS forwards to non-RFC 1918 addresses through the public internet. However, Cloud DNS also supports forwarding to non-RFC 1918 addresses for private zones.

After you configure a VPC network to use non-RFC 1918 addresses, you must configure the Cloud DNS private zone as a managed reverse lookup zone. This configuration enables Cloud DNS to resolve non-RFC 1918 addresses locally instead of sending them over the internet.

When you create a managed reverse lookup DNS zone, you cannot add records to the zone directly; the data comes from the Compute Engine IP address data.

Cloud DNS also supports outbound forwarding to non-RFC 1918 addresses by privately routing those addresses within Google Cloud. To enable this type of outbound forwarding, you must configure a forwarding zone with specific forwarding path arguments. For details, see Creating an outbound server policy.

Forwarding zone

A forwarding zone is a type of Cloud DNS managed private zone that sends requests for that zone to the IP addresses of its forwarding targets. For more information, see DNS forwarding methods.

When you create a forwarding zone, you cannot add records to the forwarding zone directly; the data comes from one or more configured target name servers.

Peering zone

A peering zone is a type of Cloud DNS managed private zone that follows the name resolution order of another VPC network. You can use it to resolve the names that are defined in the other VPC network.

When you create a DNS peering zone, you cannot add records to the zone directly; the data comes from the producer VPC network according to its VPC name resolution order.

Zone operations

Any changes that you make to managed zones in Cloud DNS are recorded in the operations collection, which lists managed zone updates (modifying descriptions or DNSSEC state or configuration).

Internationalized Domain Name (IDN)

An Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) is an internet domain name that allows people all over the world to use a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Devanagari, Hebrew, or the Latin alphabet-based special characters in domain names. This conversion is implemented by using Punycode, which is a representation of Unicode characters that use ASCII. For example, an IDN representation of .ελ is .xn--qxam. Some browsers, email clients, and applications might recognize it and render it as .ελ on your behalf. The Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) standard only allows for Unicode strings that are short enough to be represented as a valid DNS label. For information about how you can use IDN with Cloud DNS, see Creating zones with internationalized domain names.

Registrar

A domain name registrar is an organization that manages the reservation of internet domain names. A registrar must be accredited by a generic top-level domain (gTLD) registry or a country code top-level domain (ccTLD) registry.

Internal DNS

Google Cloud creates internal DNS names for VMs automatically, even if you do not use Cloud DNS. For more information about internal DNS, see the internal DNS documentation.

Delegated subzone

DNS lets the owner of a zone delegate a subdomain to a different name server by using NS (name server) records. Resolvers follow these records and send queries for the subdomain to the target name server specified in the delegation.

Resource record sets collection

The resource record sets collection holds the current state of the DNS records that make up a managed zone. You can read this collection, but you do not modify it directly. Rather, you edit the resource record sets in a managed zone by creating a Change request in the changes collection. The resource record sets collection reflects all your changes immediately. However, there is a delay between when changes are made in the API and the time that they take effect at your authoritative DNS servers. For information about how to manage records, see Managing records.

Resource record change

To make a change to the resource record sets collection, submit a Change request containing additions or deletions. Additions and deletions can be done in bulk or in a single atomic transaction, and take effect at the same time in each authoritative DNS server.

For example, if you have an A record that looks like this:

www  A  203.0.113.1 203.0.113.2

And you run a command that looks like this:

DEL  www  A  203.0.113.2
ADD  www  A  203.0.113.3

Your record looks like this after the bulk change:

www  A  203.0.113.1 203.0.113.3

The ADD and DEL happen simultaneously.

SOA serial number format

The serial numbers of SOA records created in Cloud DNS managed zones monotonically increase with each transactional change to a zone's record sets made by using the gcloud dns record-sets transaction command. However, you are free to manually change the serial number of an SOA record to an arbitrary number, including an ISO 8601-formatted date as recommended in RFC 1912.

For example, in the following SOA record, you can change the serial number directly from the Google Cloud Console by entering the desired value into the third space-delimited field of the record:

ns-gcp-private.googledomains.com. cloud-dns-hostmaster.google.com.
[serial number] 21600 3600 259200 300`
DNS server policy

A DNS server policy lets you access name resolution services provided by Google Cloud in a VPC network with inbound forwarding, or change the VPC name resolution order with outbound forwarding.

Domain, subdomain, and delegation

Most subdomains are only records in the managed zone for the parent domain. Subdomains that are delegated by creating NS (name server) records in their parent domain's zone need to have their own zones as well.

Create managed zones for parent domains in Cloud DNS before creating any zones for their delegated subdomains. Do this even if you are hosting the parent domain on another DNS service. If you have several subdomain zones but don't create the parent zone, it can be complicated to create the parent zone later if you decide to move it to Cloud DNS. For more information, see Name server limits.

DNSSEC

The Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is a suite of Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) extensions to DNS which authenticate responses to domain name lookups. DNSSEC does not provide privacy protections for those lookups, but prevents attackers from manipulating or poisoning the responses to DNS requests.

DNSKEYs collection

The DNSKEYs collection holds the current state of the DNSKEY records used to sign a DNSSEC-enabled managed zone. You can only read this collection; all changes to the DNSKEYs are made by Cloud DNS. The DNSKEYs collection has all the information that domain registrars require to activate DNSSEC.