Known issues

This page describes known issues that you might run into while using Compute Engine. For issues that specifically affect Confidential VMs, see Confidential VM Known issues.

General issues

The CPU utilization observability metric is incorrect for VMs that use one thread per core

If your VM's CPU uses one thread per core, the CPU utilization Cloud Monitoring observability metric in the Compute Engine > VM instances > Observability tab only scales to 50%. Two threads per core is the default for all machine types, except Tau T2D. For more information, see Set number of threads per core.

To view your VM's CPU utilization normalized to 100%, view CPU utilization in Metrics Explorer instead. For more information, see Create charts with Metrics Explorer.

Google Cloud console SSH-in-browser connections might fail if you use custom firewall rules

If you use custom firewall rules to control SSH access to your VM instances, you might not be able to use the SSH-in-browser feature.

To work around this issue, do one of the following:

Downsizing or deleting specific reservations stops VMs from consuming other reservations

If you downsize or delete a specific reservation that was consumed by one or more VMs, the orphaned VMs cannot consume any reservations.

Learn more about deleting reservations and resizing reservations.

Moving VMs or disks using the moveInstance API or the gcloud CLI causes unexpected behavior

Moving virtual machine (VM) instances using the gcloud compute instances move command or the project.moveInstance method might cause data loss, VM deletion, or other unexpected behavior. When you move VMs, we recommend that you follow the instructions in Move a VM instance between zones or regions.

Disks attached to VMs with n2d-standard-64 machine types do not consistently reach performance limits

Persistent disks attached to VMs with n2d-standard-64 machine types do not consistently reach the maximum performance limit of 100,000 IOPS. This is the case for both read and write IOPS.

Temporary names for disks

During virtual machine (VM) instance updates initiated using the gcloud compute instances update command or the instances.update API method, Compute Engine might temporarily change the name of your VM's disks, by adding of the following suffixes to the original name:

  • -temp
  • -old
  • -new

Compute Engine removes the suffix and restores the original disk names as the update completes.

Increased latency for some persistent disks caused by disk resizing

In some cases, resizing large persistent disks (~3 TB or larger) might be disruptive to the I/O performance of the disk. If you are impacted by this issue, your persistent disks might experience increased latency during the resize operation. This issue can impact persistent disks of any type.

Able to attach unsupported PD-Standard and PD-Extreme disks to C3 and M3 VMs

Standard persistent disks (pd-standard) are the default boot disk type when using Google Cloud CLI or Compute Engine API. However, pd-standard disks aren't supported on C3 and M3 VMs. Additionally, C3 VMs don't support pd-extreme disks.

The following problems can occur when using Google Cloud CLI or Compute Engine API:

  • pd-standard is configured as the default boot disk type and the disk is created unless you specify a different, supported boot disk type, such as pd-balanced or pd-ssd.
  • Prior to the general availability (GA) of C3, you could attach pd-extreme disks to C3 VMs and pd-standard disks to C3 and M3 VMs.

If you created a C3 or M3 VM with an unsupported disk type, move your data to a new, supported disk type, as described in Change the type of your persistent disk. If you don't change the disk type, the VMs will continue working, but some operations such as disk detach and reattach will fail.


To work around this issue, do one of the following:

  • Use the Google Cloud console to create C3 or M3 VMs and attach disks. The console creates C3 and M3 VMs with pd-balanced boot disks and doesn't allow attaching unsupported disk types to VMs.
  • If using Google Cloud CLI or Compute Engine API, explicitly configure a boot disk of type pd-balanced or pd-ssd when creating a VM.

Your automated processes might fail if they use API response data about your resource-based commitment quotas

Your automated processes that consume and use API response data about your Compute Engine resource-based commitment quotas might fail if each of the following things happen. Your automated processes can include any snippets of code, business logic, or database fields that use or store the API responses.

  1. The response data is from any of the following Compute Engine API methods:

  2. You use an int instead of a number to define the field for your resource quota limit in your API response bodies. You can find the field in the following ways for each method:

  3. You have unlimited default quota available for any of your Compute Engine committed SKUs.

    For more information about quotas for commitments and committed SKUs, see Quotas for commitments and committed resources.

Root cause

When you you have limited quota, if you define the items[].quotas[].limit or quotas[].limit field as an int type, the API response data for your quota limits might still fall within the range for int type and your automated process might not get disrupted. But when the default quota limit is unlimited, Compute Engine API returns a value for the limit field that falls outside of the range defined by int type. Your automated process can't consume the value returned by the API method and fails as a result.

How to work around this issue

You can work around this issue and continue generating your automated reports in the following ways:

  • Recommended: Follow the Compute Engine API reference documentation and use the correct data types for the API method definitions. Specifically, use the number type to define the items[].quotas[].limit and quotas[].limit fields for your API methods.

  • Decrease your quota limit to a value under 9,223,372,036,854,775,807. You must set quota caps for all projects that have resource-based commitments, across all regions. You can do this in one of the following ways:

Known issues for Linux VM instances

repomd.xml signature could not be verified

On Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or CentOS 7 based systems, you might see the following error when trying to install or update software using yum. This error shows that you have an expired or incorrect repository GPG key.

Sample log:

[root@centos7 ~]# yum update


google-cloud-sdk/signature                                                                  | 1.4 kB  00:00:01 !!! [Errno -1] repomd.xml signature could not be verified for google-cloud-sdk
Trying other mirror.


failure: repodata/repomd.xml from google-cloud-sdk: [Errno 256] No more mirrors to try. [Errno -1] repomd.xml signature could not be verified for google-cloud-sdk


To fix this, disable repository GPG key checking in the yum repo configuration by setting repo_gpgcheck=0. In supported Compute Engine base images this setting might be found in /etc/yum.repos.d/google-cloud.repo file. However, your VM can have this set in different repository configuration files or automation tools.

Yum repositories do not usually use GPG keys for repository validation. Instead, the https endpoint is trusted.

To locate and update this setting, complete the following steps:

  1. Look for the setting in your /etc/yum.repos.d/google-cloud.repo file.

    cat /etc/yum.repos.d/google-cloud.repo
    name=Google Compute Engine
    name=Google Cloud SDK
  2. Change all lines that say repo_gpgcheck=1 to repo_gpgcheck=0.

    sudo sed -i 's/repo_gpgcheck=1/repo_gpgcheck=0/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/google-cloud.repo
  3. Check that the setting is updated.

    cat /etc/yum.repos.d/google-cloud.repo
    name=Google Compute Engine
    name=Google Cloud SDK

GPG error: EXPKEYSIG 3746C208A7317B0F when updating packages

On Debian systems and Ubuntu systems where you manually installed the Google Cloud CLI, including your local workstation, you might encounter an error similar to the following example:

W: An error occurred during the signature verification.
The repository is not updated and the previous index files will be used.
GPG error: cloud-sdk-stretch InRelease:
The following signatures were invalid: EXPKEYSIG 3746C208A7317B0F
Google Cloud Packages Automatic Signing Key <>

This error prevents you from obtaining the latest updates for several Google Cloud tools, including the following items:

To resolve this error, get the latest valid apt-key.gpg key file from

Debian systems

Run the following command:

curl | sudo apt-key add -

Ubuntu systems

Run the following command:

curl | sudo apt-key --keyring /usr/share/keyrings/ add -

Alternatively, on Compute Engine VM instances running Debian or Ubuntu images, you can get the latest keys if you recreate your instances using the following image versions:

  • Image project debian-cloud:
    • debian-9-stretch-v20180401 or image family debian-9
    • debian-8-jessie-v20180401 or image family debian-8
  • Image project ubuntu-os-cloud:
    • ubuntu-1710-artful-v20180315 or image family ubuntu-1710
    • ubuntu-1604-xenial-v20180323 or image family ubuntu-1604-lts
    • ubuntu-1404-trusty-v20180308 or image family ubuntu-1404-lts

Instances using OS Login return a login message after connection

On some instances that use OS Login, you might receive the following error message after the connection is established:

/usr/bin/id: cannot find name for group ID 123456789

Ignore the error message.

Known issues for Windows VM instances

  • Instances running Windows 11, Version 22H2 fail to boot. Please use Windows 11, Version 21H2 until this issue is resolved.
  • Support for NVMe on Windows using the Community NVMe driver is in Beta, and we do not guarantee the same performance as Linux instances. The Community NVMe driver has been replaced with the Microsoft StorNVMe driver in Google Cloud public images. Replace the NVME driver on VMs created before May 2022 and use the Microsoft StorNVMe driver instead.
  • After you create an instance, you cannot connect to it instantly. All new Windows instances use the System preparation (sysprep) tool to set up your instance, which can take 5–10 mins to complete.
  • Windows Server images cannot activate without a network connection to and stop functioning if they do not initially authenticate within 30 days. Software activated by the KMS must reactivate every 180 days, but the KMS attempts to reactivate every 7 days. Make sure to configure your Windows instances so that they remain activated.
  • Kernel software that accesses non-emulated model specific registers will generate general protection faults, which can cause a system crash depending on the guest operating system.

Poor networking throughput when using gVNIC

Windows Server 2022 and Windows 11 VMs that use gVNIC driver GooGet package version 1.0.0@44 or earlier might experience poor networking throughput when using Google Virtual NIC (gVNIC).

To resolve this issue, update the gVNIC driver GooGet package to version 1.0.0@45 or later by doing the following:

  1. Check which driver version is installed on your VM by running the following command from an administrator Command Prompt or Powershell session:

    googet installed

    The output looks similar to the following:

    Installed packages:
      google-compute-engine-driver-gvnic.x86_64 VERSION_NUMBER
  2. If the google-compute-engine-driver-gvnic.x86_64 driver version is 1.0.0@44 or earlier, update the GooGet package repository by running the following command from an administrator Command Prompt or Powershell session:

    googet update

Limited bandwidth with gVNIC on Microsoft Windows with C3 VMs

On Windows operating systems, the gVNIC driver does not reach the documented bandwidth limits. Currently, the gVNIC driver can achieve up to 85 Gbps of network bandwidth on C3 VMs running Microsoft Windows, for both the default network and per VM Tier_1 networking performance.

A performance update will be available in the second half of 2023.

Replace the NVME driver on VMs created before May 2022

If you want to use NVMe on a VM that uses Microsoft Windows, and the VM was created prior to May 1, 2022, you must update the existing NVMe driver in the Guest OS to use the Microsoft StorNVMe driver.

You must update the NVMe driver on your VM before you change the machine type to a third generation machine series, or before creating a boot disk snapshot that will be used to create new VMs that use a third generation machine series.

Use the following commands to install the StorNVME driver package and remove the community driver, if it's present in the guest OS.

googet update
googet install google-compute-engine-driver-nvme

Lower IOPS performance for Hyperdisk Extreme on Microsoft Windows with C3 VMs

Hyperdisk Extreme performance is currently limited on Microsoft Windows VMs.

A performance update will be available in the second half of 2023.

Generic disk error on Windows Server 2016 and 2012 R2 for M3 and C3 VMs

The ability to add or resize a Hyperdisk or Persistent Disk for a running M3 or C3 VM doesn't work as expected on specific Windows guests at this time. Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016, and their corresponding non-server Windows variants, do not respond correctly to the disk attach and disk resize commands.

For example, removing a disk from a running M3 VM disconnects the disk from a Windows Server instance without the Windows operating system recognizing that the disk is gone. Subsequent writes to the disk return a generic error.


You must restart the M3 or C3 VM running on Windows after modifying a Hyperdisk or Persistent Disk for the disk modifications to be recognized by these guests.