A custom build step is a container image that the Cloud Build worker
VM pulls and runs with your source volume-mounted to
/workspace. Your custom
build step can execute any script or binary inside the container; as such, it
can do anything a container can do.
Custom build steps are useful for:
- Downloading source code or packages from external locations
- Using an external tool chain
- Caching any necessary libraries
- Pre-building source (with Cloud Build responsible only for potentially packaging the build into a container image)
A custom build step runs with the source mounted under
/workspace, and is run
with a working directory somewhere in
/workspace. Any files left in
/workspace by a given build step are available to other build steps, whether
those steps are run concurrently or subsequently.
Your custom build step can push to or pull from
Google Container Registry
repository (hosted at
gcr.io/$PROJECT-NAME/) to which your
builder service account has
docker command-line tool credentials are not sufficient to provide
authenticated access to Docker Hub.
This guide explains how to create a custom build step with an example that walks you through how to create a build step that executes a shell script. You can create a "shell script executor" as a custom build step to execute a shell script from somewhere in your build source.
Creating a custom build step
To create a custom build step, you can create a build config file that builds and pushes the build step image to an image registry, such as Container Registry, that the builder service account can access. Alternatively, you can use another tool to build the custom build step image, then store it in an image registry. Once this is complete, you can invoke your custom build step in future builds.
Dockerfile may have an
ENTRYPOINT specifies the entry point to use for your custom build step
if the container is to be run as an executable.
CMD provides defaults for
execution and, if
ENTRYPOINT is omitted, should include an executable.
In a build config, the optional
entrypoint field defines how the build step
should be run when it is invoked. For example, you can specify the main command
that should be called when the build step is run: the
docker build step's
entry point is
"/usr/bin/docker". When you use your build step in a later
build, you can override the Dockerfile
ENTRYPOINT by specifying an
entrypoint in that build.
If you do not specify the
entrypoint field in your build step's build request
file and the build step's image did not have an
specified in its
Dockerfile, the first item in
args is used as the entry
point with the remaining items in
args as the arguments.
Example: executing a shell script from your source
For a custom build step to execute a shell script from your source, the step's
container image must contain a tool capable of running the script. Standard
base images such as
images can all run scripts; however, the
busybox images do not
bash pre-installed (and thus cannot run
bash scripts), while
If an image contains all the tools (including the shell) that you need to run your script, you can use that image as a build step directly.
This example uses an
ubuntu image to run scripts, since it comes prepackaged
bash and has support for a lot of developer tools. The build itself
creates images based on
alpine; such images are much smaller and only contain
what's needed for the runtime environment.
Here's the example
./cloudbuild.yaml configuration file for the custom build
steps: - name: 'ubuntu' args: ['bash', './myscript.bash'] - name: 'gcr.io/cloud-builders/docker' args: ['build', '-t', 'gcr.io/$PROJECT_ID/custom-script-test', '.'] images: ['gcr.io/$PROJECT_ID/custom-script-test']
The step runs the following script, called
echo "Hello, world!" > file.txt
Here is the example
FROM alpine COPY file.txt /file.txt ENTRYPOINT ["cat", "/file.txt"]
To submit the build that uses this custom build step, run the following command in your shell or terminal window:
$ gcloud builds submit --config cloudbuild.yaml . ... $ gcloud docker -- pull gcr.io/<your-project-id>/custom-script-test ... $ docker run gcr.io/<your-project-id>/custom-script-test Hello, world!
The script that your custom build step runs might require more resources than those
provided in the
alpine base image used in this example. If that's the case,
you can pre-build an image with the necessary resources by using
directives in your Dockerfile to bring resources from the workspace into your
For example, suppose you want to run a script that uses
curl to pull down a
file to be included in the built image. Since the
ubuntu image doesn't come
prepackaged with the
curl command-line tool, we'll make a new image with an
ubuntu base image and
curl layered on top.
Here is an example
./cloudbuild.yaml configuration file for a build that uses
ubuntu-curl build step:
steps: - name: 'gcr.io/$PROJECT_ID/ubuntu-curl' args: ['bash', './curl.bash'] - name: 'gcr.io/cloud-builders/docker' args: ['build', '-t', 'gcr.io/$PROJECT_ID/custom-script-test2', '.'] images: ['gcr.io/$PROJECT_ID/custom-script-test2']
Dockerfile.ubuntu-curl that installs the
FROM ubuntu RUN apt-get -q update && apt-get install -qqy curl
./curl.bash script might resemble the following:
#!/bin/bash curl http://example.com > example.html
FROM alpine COPY example.html /example.html ENTRYPOINT ["cat", "/example.html"]
To run the custom build step for
ubuntu-curl and then build the image, run
the following command in your shell or terminal window:
# First, build and push the `ubuntu-curl` custom build step. $ docker build -f Dockerfile.ubuntu-curl -t gcr.io/your-project/ubuntu-curl . ... $ gcloud docker -- push gcr.io/your-project/ubuntu-curl ...
Once you push the image you created using
Dockerfile.ubuntu-curl to a Docker
Registry, you can use the image directly as a build step.
# Then, use the custom `ubuntu-curl` build step in a new build. $ gcloud builds submit --config cloudbuild.yaml . ... $ gcloud docker -- pull gcr.io/your-project/custom-script-test2 ... $ docker run gcr.io/your-project/custom-script-test2 `<`contents of example.com's source`>`
You can accomplish the same thing in one build by adding a preliminary step to
build your script executor image. Once you've built that image, you can use it
as the next step in your build. This has the advantage of keeping
clean and performing the bulk of the work in the Cloud Build
Here is an example
./cloudbuild.yaml configuration file with the preliminary
steps: - name: 'gcr.io/cloud-builders/docker' args: ['build', '-f', 'Dockerfile.ubuntu-curl', '-t', 'script-runner', '.'] - name: 'script-runner' args: ['bash', './curl.bash'] - name: 'gcr.io/cloud-builders/docker' args: ['build', '-t', 'gcr.io/$PROJECT_ID/custom-script-test2', '.'] images: ['gcr.io/$PROJECT_ID/custom-script-test2']
As long as you leave
script-runner out of the
images field in your
cloudbuild.yaml, the Cloud Build service will not attempt to push
it (which would fail in this example). In the context of the build, however, the
script-runner image will exist in the image cache and can be used as a build