Reading and Writing Application Logs

Overview

When a request is sent to your app, a request log is automatically written by App Engine. During the handling of the request, your app can also write application logs. In this page, you'll learn how to write application logs from your application, how to read both application and request logs programmatically using the Logs API, how to view logging in the Google Cloud Platform Console, and how to understand the request log data that App Engine writes during the request.

Request logs vs application logs

There are two categories of log data: request logs and application logs. A request log is automatically written by App Engine for each request handled by your app, and contains information such as the project ID, HTTP version, and so forth.

Writing application logs

You write logs using the Logs PHP API when you call the built-in PHP function syslog(). For example:

if (authorizedUser()) {
  echo '<p>Welcome authorized user</p>';
  syslog(LOG_INFO, 'Authorized access');
} else {
  echo 'Go away unauthorized user<p />';
  syslog(LOG_WARNING, "Unauthorized access");
}

You do not need to call openlog() or closelog() before writing to syslog. Calls to these functions will be ignored.

Log URL format in the Google Cloud Platform Console

See the following sample URL for an example of the log URL format in the GCP Console:

https://console.cloud.google.com/logs?filters=request_id:000000db00ff00ff827e493472570001737e73686966746361727331000168656164000100

Reading logs in the console

To view logs written by apps running in the flexible environment, use the Logs Viewer.

To filter log entries by label or text search in Logs Viewer, see Basic Logs Filters. To write advanced logs filters using expressions specifying a set of log entries from any number of logs, see Advanced Logs Filters.

A typical App Engine log contains data in the Apache combined log format, along with some special App Engine fields, as shown in the following sample log:

192.0.2.0 - test [27/Jun/2014:09:11:47 -0700] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 414
"http://www.example.com/index.html"
Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/35.0.1916.153 Safari/537.36"
"1-dot-calm-sylph-602.appspot.com" ms=195 cpu_ms=42 cpm_usd=0.000046
loading_request=1 instance=00c61b117cfeb66f973d7df1b7f4ae1f064d app_engine_release=1.9.70

Understanding request log fields

The following table lists the fields in order of occurrence along with a description:

Field Order Field Name Always Present? Description
1 Client address Yes Client IP address. Example: 192.0.2.0
2 RFC 1413 identity No RFC 1413 identity of the client. This is nearly always the character -
3 User No Present only if the app uses the Users API and the user is logged in. This value is the "nickname" portion of the Google Account, for example, if the Google Account is test@example.com, the nickname that is logged in this field is test.
4 Timestamp Yes Request timestamp. Example: [27/Jun/2014:09:11:47 -0700]
5 Request querystring Yes First line of the request, containing method, path, and HTTP version. Example: GET / HTTP/1.1
6 HTTP Status Code Yes Returned HTTP status code. Example: 200
7 Response size Yes Response size in bytes. Example: 414
8 Referrer path No If there is no referrer, the log contains no path, but only -. Example referrer path: "http://www.example.com/index.html".
9 User-agent Yes Identifies the browser and operating system to the web server. Example: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/35.0.1916.153 Safari/537.36
10 Hostname Yes The hostname used by the client to connect to the App Engine application. Example : (1-dot-calm-sylph-602.appspot.com)
11 Wallclock time Yes Total clock time in milliseconds spent by App Engine on the request. This time duration does not include time spent between the client and the server running the instance of your application. Example: ms=195.
12 CPU milliseconds Yes CPU milliseconds required to fulfill the request. This is the number of milliseconds spent by the CPU actually executing your application code, expressed in terms of a baseline 1.2 GHz Intel x86 CPU. If the CPU actually used is faster than the baseline, the CPU milliseconds can be larger than the actual clock time defined above. Example: cpu_ms=42
13 Exit code No Only present if the instance shut down after getting the request. In the format exit_code=XXX where XXX is a 3 digit number corresponding to the reason the instance shut down. The exit codes are not documented since they are primarily intended to help Google spot and fix issues.
14 Estimated cost Yes DEPRECATED. Estimated cost of 1000 requests just like this one, in USD. Example: cpm_usd=0.000046
15 Queue name No The name of the task queue used. Only present if request used a task queue. Example: queue_name=default
16 Task name No The name of the task executed in the task queue for this request. Only present if the request resulted in the queuing of a task. Example: task_name=7287390692361099748
17 Pending queue No Only present if a request spent some time in a pending queue. If there are many of these in your logs and/or the values are high, it might be an indication that you need more instances to serve your traffic. Example: pending_ms=195
18 Loading request No Only present if the request is a loading request. This means an instance had to be started up. Ideally, your instances should be up and healthy for as long as possible, serving large numbers of requests before being recycled and needing to be started again. Which means you shouldn't see too many of these in your logs. Example: loading_request=1.
19 Instance Yes Unique identifier for the instance that handles the request. Example: instance=00c61b117cfeb66f973d7df1b7f4ae1f064d
20 Version Yes The current App Engine release version used in production App Engine: 1.9.70

Quotas and limits

Your application is affected by the following logs-related quotas:

  • Logs data retrieved via the Logs API.
  • Log ingestion allotment and retention.

Quota for data retrieved

The first 100 megabytes of logs data retrieved per day via the Logs API calls are free. After this amount is exceeded, no further Logs API calls will succeed unless billing is enabled for your app. If billing is enabled for your app, data in excess of 100 megabytes results in charges of $0.12/GB.

Logs ingestion allotment

Logging for App Engine apps is provided by Stackdriver. See Stackdriver Pricing for more information on logging costs and limits. For long-term storage of logs, you can export logs from Stackdriver to Cloud Storage, BigQuery, and Cloud Pub/Sub.

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