Accessing Instance Metadata (Java 8)

Google Cloud Platform provides a metadata server that knows details about your App Engine instance, such as its containing project ID, service accounts, and tokens used by the service accounts. You can access this data using simple HTTP requests: no client libraries are required.

This page shows how to access instance metadata from your deployed Java 8 runtime application by making HTTP calls to the appropriate metadata server endpoints.

One useful way to use this API is to get the service account token and supply it as a bearer token in the Authorization header of one of the Google Cloud APIs, to authenticate your application to that particular API service. See the Google Cloud Translation API documentation for an example of how these bearer tokens are used.

Identifying which metadata endpoint to use

The following table lists the endpoints you can make HTTP requests to. All of the endpoints shown are relative to the URL http://metadata.google.internal.

Metadata endpoint Description
/computeMetadata/v1/project/numeric-project-id The project number assigned to your project.
/computeMetadata/v1/project/project-id The project ID assigned to your project.
/computeMetadata/v1/instance/zone The zone the instance is running in.
/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/default/aliases
/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/default/email The default service account email assigned to your project.
/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/default/ Lists all the default service accounts for your project.
/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/default/scopes Lists all the supported scopes for the default service accounts.
/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/default/token Returns the auth token that can be used to authenticate your application to other Google Cloud APIs.

Making metadata requests

The following sample code gets all of the metadata available for the instance and displays it, except for the service account token.

@SuppressWarnings("serial")
// With @WebServlet annotation the webapp/WEB-INF/web.xml is no longer required.
@WebServlet(name = "Metadata", description = "Metadata: Write info about GAE Standard",
    urlPatterns = "/metadata")
public class MetadataServlet extends HttpServlet {

  private final String[] metaPath = {
      "/computeMetadata/v1/project/numeric-project-id", //  (pending)
      "/computeMetadata/v1/project/project-id",
      "/computeMetadata/v1/instance/zone",
      "/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/default/aliases",
      "/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/default/email",
      "/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/default/",
      "/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/default/scopes",
      // Tokens work - but are a security risk to display
      //      "/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/default/token"
  };

  final String[] metaServiceAcct = {
      "/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/{account}/aliases",
      "/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/{account}/email",
      "/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/{account}/scopes",
      // Tokens work - but are a security risk to display
      //     "/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/{account}/token"
  };

  private final String metadata = "http://metadata.google.internal";
  private TemplateEngine templateEngine;

  // Use OkHttp from Square as it's quite easy to use for simple fetches.
  private final OkHttpClient ok = new OkHttpClient.Builder()
      .readTimeout(500, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)  // Don't dawdle
      .writeTimeout(500, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
      .build();

  // Setup to pretty print returned json
  private final Gson gson = new GsonBuilder()
      .setPrettyPrinting()
      .create();
  private final JsonParser jp = new JsonParser();

  // Fetch Metadata
  String fetchMetadata(String key) throws IOException {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url(metadata + key)
        .addHeader("Metadata-Flavor", "Google")
        .get()
        .build();

    Response response = ok.newCall(request).execute();
    return response.body().string();
  }

  String fetchJsonMetadata(String prefix) throws IOException {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url(metadata + prefix)
        .addHeader("Metadata-Flavor", "Google")
        .get()
        .build();

    Response response = ok.newCall(request).execute();

    // Convert json to prety json
    return gson.toJson(jp.parse(response.body().string()));
  }

  @Override
  public void init() {
    // Setup ThymeLeaf
    ServletContextTemplateResolver templateResolver =
        new ServletContextTemplateResolver(this.getServletContext());

    templateResolver.setPrefix("/WEB-INF/templates/");
    templateResolver.setSuffix(".html");
    templateResolver.setCacheTTLMs(Long.valueOf(1200000L)); // TTL=20m

    // Cache is set to true by default. Set to false if you want templates to
    // be automatically updated when modified.
    templateResolver.setCacheable(true);

    templateEngine = new TemplateEngine();
    templateEngine.setTemplateResolver(templateResolver);
  }

  @Override
  public void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws IOException {
    String defaultServiceAccount = "";
    WebContext ctx = new WebContext(req, resp, getServletContext(), req.getLocale());

    resp.setContentType("text/html");

    String environment =
        (String) System.getProperties().get("com.google.appengine.runtime.environment");
    ctx.setVariable("production", environment);

    // The metadata server is only on a production system
    if (environment.equals("Production")) {

      TreeMap<String, String> m = new TreeMap<>();

      for (String key : metaPath) {
        m.put(key, fetchMetadata(key));
        if (key.contains("default/email")) {
          defaultServiceAccount = m.get(key);
        }
      }

      ctx.setVariable("Metadata", m.descendingMap());

      m = new TreeMap<>();
      for (String key : metaServiceAcct) {
        // substitute a service account for {account}
        key = key.replace("{account}", defaultServiceAccount);
        m.put(key, fetchMetadata(key));
      }
      ctx.setVariable("sam", m.descendingMap());

      // Recursivly get all info about service accounts -- Note tokens are leftout by default.
      ctx.setVariable("rsa",
          fetchJsonMetadata("/computeMetadata/v1/instance/service-accounts/?recursive=true"));
      // Recursivly get all data on Metadata server.
      ctx.setVariable("ram", fetchJsonMetadata("/?recursive=true"));
    }

    templateEngine.process("index", ctx, resp.getWriter());

  }
}

In the sample code, notice the check to make sure the app is running in production. If the app is running locally, no metadata will be returned from the requests.

Also, notice the use of the Google Gson JSON serializer / deserializer, the OkHttp HTTP and HTTP2 client, and the Thymeleaf templating system. These are not required, but they are useful libraries for your own projects.

Running locally

The metadata server is available for deployed applications: running locally on the development server is not supported. You can add an environment check to your code to expect metadata results only if the app is running in production, as shown in the sample code provided above:

String environment =
      (String) System.getProperties().get("com.google.appengine.runtime.environment");
  ctx.setVariable("production", environment);

  // The metadata server is only on a production system
  if (environment.equals("Production")) {
     ... //show metadata results
   }

Send feedback about...

App Engine standard environment for Java