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Migrating to grafeas 1.0

The 1.0 release of the grafeas client is a significant upgrade based on a next-gen code generator, and includes substantial interface changes. Existing code written for earlier versions of this library will likely require updates to use this version. This document describes the changes that have been made, and what you need to do to update your usage.

To summarize:

  • The library has been broken out into two libraries. The new gem grafeas-v1 contains the actual client classes for version V1 of the Grafeas service, and the gem grafeas now simply provides a convenience wrapper. See Library Structure for more info.
  • The library uses a new configuration mechanism giving you closer control over endpoint address, network timeouts, and retry. See Client Configuration for more info. Furthermore, when creating a client object, you can customize its configuration in a block rather than passing arguments to the constructor. See Creating Clients for more info.
  • The library is now provider-agnostic, no longer defaulting to the endpoint and credentials for Google's implementation. You must specify the endpoint explicitly. If you want to use Google's Cloud Container Analysis service, install the google-cloud-container_analysis gem, which provides a Google-specific wrapper. See Provider Independence for more info.
  • Previously, positional arguments were used to indicate required arguments. Now, all method arguments are keyword arguments, with documentation that specifies whether they are required or optional. Additionally, you can pass a proto request object instead of separate arguments. See Passing Arguments for more info.
  • Previously, some client classes included helper methods for constructing resource paths. These methods now take keyword rather than positional arguments, and are also available in a separate paths module. See Resource Path Helpers for more info.
  • Previously, clients reported RPC errors by raising instances of Google::Gax::GaxError and its subclasses. Now, RPC exceptions are of type Google::Cloud::Error and its subclasses. See Handling Errors for more info.
  • Some classes have moved into different namespaces. See Class Namespaces for more info.

Library Structure

Older 0.x releases of the grafeas gem were all-in-one gems that included potentially multiple clients for multiple versions of the Grafeas service. The Grafeas.new factory method would return you an instance of a Grafeas::V1::GrafeasClient object for the V1 version of the service.

With the 1.0 release, the grafeas gem still provides factory methods for obtaining clients. (The method signatures will have changed. See Creating Clients for details.) However, the actual client classes have been moved into separate gems, one per service version. Currently, Grafeas has one version, V1. The Grafeas::V1::Grafeas::Client class, along with its helpers and data types, is now part of the grafeas-v1 gem. If additional versions of the Grafeas service are released, additional gems may be provided for their client classes.

For normal usage, you can continue to install the grafeas gem (which will bring in the versioned client gems as dependencies) and continue to use factory methods to create clients. However, you may alternatively choose to install only one of the versioned gems. For example, if you know you will only use implementations of V1 of the service, you can install grafeas-v1 by itself, and construct instances of the Grafeas::V1::Grafeas::Client client class directly.

Client Configuration

In older releases, if you wanted to customize performance parameters or low-level behavior of the client (such as credentials, timeouts, or instrumentation), you would pass a variety of keyword arguments to the client constructor. It was also extremely difficult to customize the default settings.

With the 1.0 release, a configuration interface provides control over these parameters, including defaults for all instances of a client, and settings for each specific client instance. For example, to set default credentials and timeout for all Grafeas V1 clients:

Grafeas::V1::Grafeas::Client.configure do |config|
  config.credentials = my_credentials
  config.timeout = 10.0
end

Individual RPCs can also be configured independently. For example, to set the timeout for the create_occurrence call:

Grafeas::V1::Grafeas::Client.configure do |config|
  config.rpcs.create_occurrence.timeout = 20.0
end

Finally, you can override the configuration for each client instance. See the section on Creating Clients for details.

Creating Clients

In older releases, to create a client object, you would use the Grafeas.new class method. Keyword arguments were available to select a service version and to configure parameters such as credentials and timeouts.

With the 1.0 release, use the Grafeas.grafeas class method to create a client object. You may select a service version using the :version keyword argument. However, other configuration parameters should be set in a configuration block when you create the client.

Old:

client = Grafeas.new credentials: my_credentials_object

New:

client = Grafeas.grafeas do |config|
  config.credentials = my_credentials_object
end

The configuration block is optional. If you do not provide it, or you do not set some configuration parameters, then the default configuration is used. See Client Configuration.

Provider Independence

Older releases were tied to Google's Grafeas implementation, the Google Cloud Container Analysis service. Clients were configured to use Google's endpoint and credentials by default, though this could be overridden. You could also use Google-specific credential specifications such as the path to a Google service account keyfile.

With the 1.0 release, the grafeas gem is provider-independent, and does not default to the Google implementation. You must specify an endpoint host, and you must provide gRPC-based credentials (such as a GRPC::Core::ChannelCredentials or a pre-constructed GRPC::Core::Channel object) when creating a client object. These properties can be set using the configuration interface or by passing a block to the constructor as covered in Creating Clients.

Old:

client = Grafeas.new credentials: "path/to/google/keyfile.json"

New:

client = Grafeas.grafeas do |config|
  config.endpoint = "my-grafeas.example.com"
  config.credentials = my_grpc_credentials
end

# or

client = Grafeas.grafeas do |config|
  config.credentials = my_existing_grpc_channel
end

If you want to continue using Google's Cloud Container Analysis implementation, we recommend using the google-cloud-container_analysis gem, which provides the Google-specific default endpoint and credentials. Using the Container Analysis client library, you can obtain a Grafeas client object connected and authenticated with the Google backend.

New:

require "google/cloud/container_analysis"

# Create a connection to the Google Container Analysis service
container_analysis = Google::Cloud::ContainerAnalysis.container_analysis do |config|
  config.credentials = "/path/to/google/keyfile.json"
end

# You can obtain a Grafeas client from the Container Analysis connection
grafeas_client = container_analysis.grafeas_client

Passing Arguments

In older releases, required arguments would be passed as positional method arguments, while most optional arguments would be passed as keyword arguments.

With the 1.0 release, all RPC arguments are passed as keyword arguments, regardless of whether they are required or optional. For example:

Old:

client = Grafeas.new

parent = "projects/my-project"

# Parent is a positional argument, while page_size is a keyword argument.
response = client.list_occurrences parent, page_size: 10

New:

client = Grafeas.grafeas

parent = "projects/my-project"

# Parent and page_size are both keyword arguments
response = client.list_occurrences parent: parent, page_size: 10

In the 1.0 release, it is also possible to pass a request object, either as a hash or as a protocol buffer.

New:

client = Grafeas.grafeas

request = Grafeas::V1::ListOccurrencesRequest.new(
  parent: "projects/my-project",
  page_size: 10
)

# Pass a request object as a positional argument:
response = client.list_occurrences request

Finally, in older releases, to provide call options, you would pass a Google::Gax::CallOptions object with the :options keyword argument. In the 1.0 release, pass call options using a second set of keyword arguments.

Old:

client = Grafeas.new

parent = "projects/my-project"

options = Google::Gax::CallOptions.new timeout: 10.0

response = client.list_occurrences parent, page_size: 10, options: options

New:

client = Grafeas.grafeas

parent = "projects/my-project"

# Use a hash to wrap the normal call arguments (or pass a request object), and
# then add further keyword arguments for the call options.
response = client.list_occurrences(
  { parent: parent, page_size: 10 },
  timeout: 10.0
)

Resource Path Helpers

The client library includes helper methods for generating the resource path strings passed to many calls. These helpers have changed in two ways:

  • In older releases, they are class methods on the client class. In the 1.0 release, they are instance methods on the client. They are also available on a separate paths module that you can include elsewhere for convenience.
  • In older releases, arguments to a resource path helper are passed as positional arguments. In the 1.0 release, they are passed as named keyword arguments.

Following is an example involving using a resource path helper.

Old:

client = Grafeas.new

# Call the helper on the client class
parent = Grafeas::V1::GrafeasClient.project_path "my-project"

response = client.list_occurrences parent

New:

client = Grafeas.grafeas

# Call the helper on the client instance, and use keyword arguments
parent = client.project_path project: "my-project"

response = client.list_occurrences parent: parent

In the 1.0 client, you can also use the paths module as a convenience module.

New:

# Bring the path helper methods into the current class
include Grafeas::V1::Grafeas::Paths

def foo
  client = Grafeas.grafeas

  # Call the included helper method
  parent = project_path project: "my-project"

  response = client.list_occurrences parent: parent

  # Do something with response...
end

Handling Errors

The client reports standard gRPC error codes by raising exceptions. In older releases, these exceptions were located in the Google::Gax namespace and were subclasses of the Google::Gax::GaxError base exception class, defined in the google-gax gem. However, these classes were different from the standard exceptions (subclasses of Google::Cloud::Error) thrown by other client libraries such as google-cloud-storage.

The 1.0 client library now uses the Google::Cloud::Error exception hierarchy, for consistency across all the Google Cloud client libraries. In general, these exceptions have the same name as their counterparts from older releases, but are located in the Google::Cloud namespace rather than the Google::Gax namespace.

Old:

client = Grafeas.new

parent = "projects/my-project"

begin
  response = client.list_occurrences parent, page_size: 10
rescue Google::Gax::Error => e
  # Handle exceptions that subclass Google::Gax::Error
end

New:

client = Grafeas.grafeas

parent = "projects/my-project"

begin
  response = client.list_occurrences parent: parent, page_size: 10
rescue Google::Cloud::Error => e
  # Handle exceptions that subclass Google::Cloud::Error
end

Class Namespaces

In older releases, the client object was of classes with names like: Grafeas::V1::GrafeasClient. In the 1.0 release, the client object is of a different class: Grafeas::V1::Grafeas::Client. Note that most users will use the factory methods such as Grafeas.grafeas to create instances of the client object, so you may not need to reference the actual class directly. See Creating Clients.

In older releases, there was a Google-specific credentials class named Grafeas::V1::Credentials. In the 1.0 release, this class is no longer present. See Provider Independence.