Version 2.3

Service Discovery

This document contains is an overview of Kubernetes DNS based service discovery and how it can be used with Kf.

When to use Kubernetes service discovery with Kf

Kubernetes service discovery can be used by applications that need to locate backing services in a consistent way regardless of where the application is deployed. For example, a team might want to use a common URI in their configuration that always points at the local SMTP gateway to decouple code from the environment it ran in.

Service discovery helps application teams by:

  • Reducing the amount of per-environment configuration.
  • Decoupling client and server applications.
  • Allowing applications to be portable to new environments.

You can use Kubernetes service discovery when:

  • Applications use their container's DNS configurations to resolve hosts.
  • Applications are deployed with their backing services in the same Kubernetes cluster or namespace.
  • Backing services have an associated Kubernetes service. Kf creates these for each app.
  • Kubernetes NetworkPolicies allow traffic between an application and the Kubernetes service it needs to communicate with. Kf creates these policies in each Kf space.

You should not use Kubernetes service discovery if:

  • Applications need to failover between multiple clusters.
  • You override the DNS resolver used by your application.
  • Applications need specific types of load balancing.

How Kubernetes service discovery works

Kubernetes service discovery works by modifying the DNS configuration of containers running on a Kubernetes node. When an application looks up an unqualified domain name, the local DNS resolver will first attempt to resolve the name in the local cluster.

Domains without multiple parts will be resolved against the names of Kubernetes services in the container's namespace. Each Kf app creates a Kubernetes service with the same name. If two Kf apps ping and pong were deployed in the same Kf space, then ping could use the URL http://pong to send traffic to the other service.

Domains with a single dot will be resolved against the Kubernetes services in the Kubernetes namespace with the same name as the label after the dot. For example, if there was a PostgreSQL database with a customers service in the database namespace, an application in another namespace could resolve it using postgres://customers.database.

How to use service discovery with Kf

Kubernetes DNS based service discovery can be used in any Kf app. Each Kf app creates a Kubernetes service of the same name, and each Kf space creates a Kubernetes namespace with the same name.

  • Refer to a Kf app in the current space using protocol://app-name.
  • Refer to a Kf app in a different space using protocol://app-name.space-name.
  • Refer to a Kf app in the current space listening on a custom port using protocol://app-name:port.
  • Refer to a Kf app in a different space listening a custom port using protocol://app-name.space-name:port.

Best practices

Applications that are going to be the target of DNS based service discovery should have frequent health checks to ensure they are rapidly added and removed from the pool of hosts that accept connections.

Applications using DNS based service discovery should not cache the IP addresses of the resolved services because they are not guaranteed to be stable.

If environment specific services exist outside of the cluster, they can be resolved using Kubernetes DNS if you set up ExternalName Kubernetes services. These Kubernetes services provide the same resolution capabilities, but return a CNAME record to redirect requests to an external authority.

Comparison to Eureka

Eureka is an open source client-side load-balancer created by Netflix. It is commonly used as part of the Spring Cloud Services service broker. Eureka was built to be a regional load balancer and service discovery mechanism for services running in an environment that caused frequent disruptions to workloads leading to unstable IP addresses.

Eureka is designed as a client/server model. Clients register themselves with the server indicating which names they want to be associated with and periodically send the server heartbeats. The server allows all connected clients to resolve names.

In general, you should use Kubernetes DNS rather than Eureka in Kubernetes for the following reasons:

  • DNS works with all programming languages and applications without the need for libraries.
  • Your application's existing health check will be reused reducing combinations of errors.
  • Kubernetes manages the DNS server, allowing you to rely on fewer dependencies.
  • Kubernetes DNS respects the same policy and RBAC constraints as the rest of Kubernetes.

There are a few times when deploying a Eureka server would be advantageous:

  • You need service discovery across Kubernetes and VM based applications.
  • You need client based load-balancing.
  • You need independent health checks.

What's next