PostgreSQL

The PostgreSQL connector type lets you insert, read, update and delete rows in a PostgreSQL database.

Supported versions

PostgreSQL versions 7.4 and later

Before you begin

Before using the PostgreSQL connector, do the following tasks:

  • In your Google Cloud project:
    • Grant the roles/connectors.admin IAM role to the user configuring the connector.
    • Grant the following IAM roles to the service account that you want to use for the connector:
      • roles/secretmanager.viewer
      • roles/secretmanager.secretAccessor

      A service account is a special type of Google account intended to represent a non-human user that needs to authenticate and be authorized to access data in Google APIs. If you don't have a service account, you must create a service account. For more information, see Creating a service account.

    • Enable the following services:
      • secretmanager.googleapis.com (Secret Manager API)
      • connectors.googleapis.com (Connectors API)

      To understand how to enable services, see Enabling services.

    If these services or permissions have not been enabled for your project previously, you are prompted to enable them when configuring the connector.

Configure the connector

Configuring the connector requires you to create a connection to your data source (backend system). A connection is specific to a data source. It means that if you have many data sources, you must create a separate connection for each data source. To create a connection, do the following steps:

  1. In the Cloud console, go to the Integration Connectors > Connections page and then select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to the Connections page

  2. Click + Create new to open the Create Connection page.
  3. In the Location section, choose the location for the connection.
    1. Region: Select a location from the drop-down list.

      For the list of all the supported regions, see Locations.

    2. Click Next.
  4. In the Connection Details section, complete the following:
    1. Connector: Select PostgreSQL from the drop down list of available Connectors.
    2. Connector version: Select the Connector version from the drop down list of available versions.
    3. In the Connection Name field, enter a name for the Connection instance.

      Connection names must meet the following criteria:

      • Connection names can use letters, numbers, or hyphens.
      • Letters must be lower-case.
      • Connection names must begin with a letter and end with a letter or number.
      • Connection names cannot exceed 63 characters.
    4. Optionally, enter a Description for the connection instance.
    5. Service Account: Select a service account that has the required roles.
    6. Optionally, configure the Connection node settings:

      • Minimum number of nodes: Enter the minimum number of connection nodes.
      • Maximum number of nodes: Enter the maximum number of connection nodes.

      A node is a unit (or replica) of a connection that processes transactions. More nodes are required to process more transactions for a connection and conversely, fewer nodes are required to process fewer transactions. To understand how the nodes affect your connector pricing, see Pricing for connection nodes. If you don't enter any values, by default the minimum nodes are set to 2 (for better availability) and the maximum nodes are set to 50.

    7. Database Name: The name of the Postgresql database to connect to.
    8. Use proxy: Select this checkbox to configure a proxy server for the connection and configure the following values:
      • Proxy Auth Scheme: Select the authentication type to authenticate with the proxy server. The following authentication types are supported:
        • Basic: Basic HTTP authentication.
        • Digest: Digest HTTP authentication.
      • Proxy User: A user name to be used to authenticate with the proxy server.
      • Proxy Password: The Secret manager secret of the user's password.
      • Proxy SSL Type: The SSL type to use when connecting to the proxy server. The following authentication types are supported:
        • Auto: Default setting. If the URL is an HTTPS URL, then the Tunnel option is used. If the URL is an HTTP URL, then the NEVER option is used.
        • Always: The connection is always SSL enabled.
        • Never: The connection is not SSL enabled.
        • Tunnel: The connection is through a tunneling proxy. The proxy server opens a connection to the remote host and traffic flows back and forth through the proxy.
      • In the Proxy Server section, enter details of the proxy server.
        1. Click + Add destination.
        2. Select a Destination Type.
          • Host address: Specify the hostname or IP address of the destination.

            If you want to establish a private connection to your backend system, do the following:

    9. Optionally, click + Add label to add a label to the Connection in the form of a key/value pair.
    10. Optionally, if you want to use SSL, select Enable SSL. This displays the SSL configuration details.
      1. Select a trust store type. It can be either Public, Private, or Insecure Connection.
      2. Select the certificates as displayed based on your trust store selection.
      3. If you are using mTLS, select the key store certificates in the Key Store section.
    11. Click Next.
  5. In the Destinations section, enter details of the remote host (backend system) you want to connect to.
    1. Destination Type: Select a Destination Type.
      1. In the Host address field, specify the hostname or IP address of the destination.
        1. If you want to establish a private connection to your backend systems, follow these steps:
          1. Create a PSC service attachment.
          2. Create an endpoint attachment and then enter the details of the endpoint attachment in the Host address field.
        2. If you want to establish a public connection to your backend systems with additional security, you can consider configuring static outbound IP addresses for your connections, and then configure your firewall rules to allowlist only the specific static IP addresses.

      To enter additional destinations, click +Add destination.

    2. Click Next.
  6. In the Authentication section, enter the authentication details.
    1. Select an Authentication type and enter the relevant details.

      The following authentication types are supported by the PostgreSQL connection:

      • Username and password
    2. To understand how to configure these authentication types, see Configure authentication.

    3. Click Next.
  7. Review: Review your connection and authentication details.
  8. Click Create.

Configure authentication

Enter the details based on the authentication you want to use.

  • Username and password
    • Username: The Postgresql username to use for the connection.
    • Password: Secret Manager Secret containing the password associated with the Postgresql username.

Entities, operations, and actions

All the Integration Connectors provide a layer of abstraction for the objects of the connected application. You can access an application's objects only through this abstraction. The abstraction is exposed to you as entities, operations, and actions.

  • Entity: An entity can be thought of as an object, or a collection of properties, in the connected application or service. The definition of an entity differs from a connector to a connector. For example, in a database connector, tables are the entities, in a file server connector, folders are the entities, and in a messaging system connector, queues are the entities.

    However, it is possible that a connector doesn't support or have any entities, in which case the Entities list will be empty.

  • Operation: An operation is the activity that you can perform on an entity. You can perform any of the following operations on an entity:

    Selecting an entity from the available list, generates a list of operations available for the entity. For a detailed description of the operations, see the Connectors task's entity operations. However, if a connector doesn't support any of the entity operations, such unsupported operations aren't listed in the Operations list.

  • Action: An action is a first class function that is made available to the integration through the connector interface. An action lets you make changes to an entity or entities, and vary from connector to connector. However, it is possible that a connector doesn't support any action, in which case the Actions list will be empty.

System limitations

The PostgreSQL connector can process 9 transaction per second, per node, and throttles any transactions beyond this limit. By default, Integration Connectors allocates 2 nodes (for better availability) for a connection.

For information on the limits applicable to Integration Connectors, see Limits.

Supported data types

The following are the supported data types for this connector:

  • BIGINT
  • BINARY
  • BIT
  • BOOLEAN
  • CHAR
  • DATE
  • DECIMAL
  • DOUBLE
  • FLOAT
  • INTEGER
  • LONGN VARCHAR
  • LONG VARCHAR
  • NCHAR
  • NUMERIC
  • NVARCHAR
  • REAL
  • SMALL INT
  • TIME
  • TIMESTAMP
  • TINY INT
  • VARBINARY
  • VARCHAR

Use terraform to create connections

You can use the Terraform resource to create a new connection.

To learn how to apply or remove a Terraform configuration, see Basic Terraform commands.

To view a sample terraform template for connection creation, see sample template.

When creating this connection by using Terraform, you must set the following variables in your Terraform configuration file:

Parameter name Data type Required Description
database_name STRING True The name of the Postgresql database to connect to.
proxy_enabled BOOLEAN False Select this checkbox to configure a proxy server for the connection.
proxy_auth_scheme ENUM False The authentication type to use to authenticate to the ProxyServer proxy. Supported values are: BASIC, DIGEST, NONE
proxy_user STRING False A user name to be used to authenticate to the ProxyServer proxy.
proxy_password SECRET False A password to be used to authenticate to the ProxyServer proxy.
proxy_ssltype ENUM False The SSL type to use when connecting to the ProxyServer proxy. Supported values are: AUTO, ALWAYS, NEVER, TUNNEL

Actions

This connector supports execution of the following actions:

  • User-defined stored procedures and functions. If you have any stored procedures and functions in your backend, those are listed in the Actions column of the Configure connector task dialog.
  • Custom SQL queries. To execute custom SQL queries, the connector provides the Execute custom query action.

    To create a custom query, follow these steps:

    1. Follow the detailed instructions to add a connectors task.
    2. When you configure the connector task, in the type of action you want to perform, select Actions.
    3. In the Action list, select Execute custom query, and then click Done.
    4. Expand the Task input section, and then do the following:
      1. In the Timeout after field, enter the number of seconds to wait till the query executes.

        Default value: 180 seconds.

      2. In the Maximum number of rows field, enter the maximum number of rows to be returned from the database.

        Default value: 25.

      3. To update the custom query, click Edit Custom Query. The Script editor dialog opens.
      4. In the Script editor dialog, enter the SQL query and click Save.

        You can use a question mark (?) in a SQL statement to represent a single parameter that must be specified in the query parameters list. For example, the following SQL query selects all rows from the Employees table that matches the values specified for the LastName column:

        SELECT * FROM Employees where LastName=?

        You can also use variables in a SQL statement and enclose them in double quotation marks (""). For example, the following SQL query selects rows from the table that matches the where clause:

        SELECT * FROM $tablename$ WHERE FirstName="$firstName$" AND LastName="$lastName$";

      5. If you've used question marks in your SQL query, you must add the parameter by clicking + Add Parameter Name for each question mark. While executing the integration, these parameters replace the question marks (?) in the SQL query sequentially. For example, if you have added three question marks (?), then you must add three parameters in order of sequence. To add query parameters, do the following:
        1. From the Type list, select the data type of the parameter.
        2. In the Value field, enter the value of the parameter.
        3. To add multiple parameters, click + Add Query Parameter.

Action examples

Example - Find the greater value

This example shows how to run a user-defined function. The find_greater function in this example, compares two integers and returns the integer which is greater.

  1. In the Configure connector task dialog, click Actions.
  2. Select the find_greater action, and then click Done.
  3. In the Task Input section of the Connectors task, click connectorInputPayload and then enter a value similar to the following in the Default Value field:
    {
        "$1": 1.0,
        "$2": 5.0
      }
  4. If the action execution is successful, the connector task's connectorOutputPayload field will have a value similar to the following:

    [{
        "udf_sql_bignum": 5.0
      }]

Entity operation examples

Example - List records of an entity

This example lists the records of the Users entity.

  1. In the Configure connector task dialog, click Entities.
  2. Select Users from the Entity list.
  3. Select the List operation, and then click Done.
  4. In the Task Input section of the Connectors task, you can set the filterClause as per your requirement.

    For example, setting the filter clause to employeeCode='5100' and startDate='2010-01-01 00:00:00', lists only those records whose employeeCode is 5100 and startDate is 2010-01-01 00:00:00.

Example - Get a single record from an entity

This example fetches a record from the Users entity.

  1. In the Configure connector task dialog, click Entities.
  2. Select User from the Entity list.
  3. Select the Get operation, and then click Done.
  4. In the Task Input section of the Connectors task, click entityId and then enter 103032 in the Default Value field.

    Here, 103032 is the primary key value of the Users entity.

Example - Delete a record from an entity

This example deletes a record from the Users entity.

  1. In the Configure connector task dialog, click Entities.
  2. Select Users from the Entity list.
  3. Select the Delete operation, and then click Done.
  4. In the Task Input section of the Connectors task, click entityId and then enter 113132 in the Default Value field.

    Alternately, if the entity has composite primary keys instead of specifying the entityId, you can set the filterClause. For example, employeeCode='5100' and startDate='2010-01-01 00:00:00'.

Example - Create a record in an entity

This example creates a record in the Users entity.

  1. In the Configure connector task dialog, click Entities.
  2. Select Users from the Entity list.
  3. Select the Create operation, and then click Done.
  4. In the Task Input section of the Connectors task, click connectorInputPayload and then enter a value similar to the following in the Default Value field:
    {
    "employeeCode": "5100",
    "startDate": "2010-01-01 00:00:00.0",
    "country": "US"
    }
    
  5. If the integration is successful, the connector task's connectorOutputPayload field will have the response of the create operation.

Example - Update a record in an entity

This example updates a record in the Users entity.

  1. In the Configure connector task dialog, click Entities.
  2. Select Users from the Entity list.
  3. Select the Update operation, and then click Done.
  4. In the Task Input section of the Connectors task, click connectorInputPayload and then enter a value similar to the following in the Default Value field:
    {
    "country": "IN"
    }
  5. In the Task Input section of the Connectors task, click entityId and then enter 113132 in the Default Value field.

    Alternately, if the entity has composite primary keys instead of specifying the entityId, you can set the filterClause. For example, employeeCode='5100' and startDate='2010-01-01 00:00:00'.

  6. If the integration is successful, the connector task's connectorOutputPayload field will have the response of the update operation.

Use the PostgreSQL connection in an integration

After you create the connection, it becomes available in both Apigee Integration and Application Integration. You can use the connection in an integration through the Connectors task.

  • To understand how to create and use the Connectors task in Apigee Integration, see Connectors task.
  • To understand how to create and use the Connectors task in Application Integration, see Connectors task.

Get help from the Google Cloud community

You can post your questions and discuss this connector in the Google Cloud community at Cloud Forums.

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