Firewallregel erstellen

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Erstellen Sie eine Firewallregel, die eingehenden HTTP- und HTTPS-Zugriff aus dem gesamten Internet zulässt.

Weitere Informationen

Eine ausführliche Dokumentation, die dieses Codebeispiel enthält, finden Sie hier:

Codebeispiel

C#

Bevor Sie dieses Beispiel anwenden, folgen Sie den Schritten zur Einrichtung von C# in der Compute Engine-Kurzanleitung zur Verwendung von Clientbibliotheken. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zur Compute Engine C# API.


using Google.Cloud.Compute.V1;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class CreateFirewallRuleAsyncSample
{
    public async Task CreateFirewallRuleAsync(
        // TODO(developer): Set your own default values for these parameters or pass different values when calling this method.
        string projectId = "your-project-id",
        string firewallRuleName = "my-test-firewall-rule",
        // Name of the network the rule will be applied to. Some available name formats:
        // projects/{project_id}/global/networks/{network}
        // global/networks/{network}
        string networkName = "global/networks/default")
    {
        Firewall firewallRule = new Firewall
        {
            Name = firewallRuleName,
            Network = networkName,
            Direction = ComputeEnumConstants.Firewall.Direction.Ingress,
            Allowed =
            {
                new Allowed
                {
                    Ports = { "80", "443" },
                    IPProtocol = "tcp"
                }
            },
            TargetTags = { "web" },
            Description = "Allows TCP traffic on port 80 and 443 from anywhere."
        };

        // Note that the default value of priority for the firewall API is 1000.
        // If you check the value of firewallRule.Priority at this point it
        // will be equal to 0, however it is not treated as "set" by the library, and thus
        // the default will be applied to the new rule. If you want to create a rule that
        // has priority == 0, you'll need to explicitly set it: firewallRule.Priority = 0.
        // You can use the firewallRule.HasPriority property to check if the priority has been set.
        // You can use the firewallRule.ClearPriority() method to unset the priority.

        // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
        // once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
        FirewallsClient client = await FirewallsClient.CreateAsync();

        // Create the firewall rule in the specified project.
        var firewallRuleCreation = await client.InsertAsync(projectId, firewallRule);

        // Wait for the operation to complete using client-side polling.
        await firewallRuleCreation.PollUntilCompletedAsync();
    }
}

Go

Bevor Sie dieses Beispiel anwenden, folgen Sie den Schritten zur Einrichtung von Go in der Compute Engine-Kurzanleitung zur Verwendung von Clientbibliotheken. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zur Compute Engine Go API.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	compute "cloud.google.com/go/compute/apiv1"
	computepb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/compute/v1"
	"google.golang.org/protobuf/proto"
)

// createFirewallRule creates a firewall rule allowing for incoming HTTP and HTTPS access from the entire Internet.
func createFirewallRule(w io.Writer, projectID, firewallRuleName, networkName string) error {
	// projectID := "your_project_id"
	// firewallRuleName := "europe-central2-b"
	// networkName := "global/networks/default"

	ctx := context.Background()
	firewallsClient, err := compute.NewFirewallsRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewInstancesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer firewallsClient.Close()

	firewallRule := &computepb.Firewall{
		Allowed: []*computepb.Allowed{
			{
				IPProtocol: proto.String("tcp"),
				Ports:      []string{"80", "443"},
			},
		},
		Direction: proto.String(computepb.Firewall_INGRESS.String()),
		Name:      &firewallRuleName,
		TargetTags: []string{
			"web",
		},
		Network:     &networkName,
		Description: proto.String("Allowing TCP traffic on port 80 and 443 from Internet."),
	}

	// Note that the default value of priority for the firewall API is 1000.
	// If you check the value of `firewallRule.GetPriority()` at this point it
	// will be equal to 0, however it is not treated as "set" by the library and thus
	// the default will be applied to the new rule. If you want to create a rule that
	// has priority == 0, you need to explicitly set it so:

	// firewallRule.Priority = proto.Int32(0)

	req := &computepb.InsertFirewallRequest{
		Project:          projectID,
		FirewallResource: firewallRule,
	}

	op, err := firewallsClient.Insert(ctx, req)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to create firewall rule: %v", err)
	}

	if err = op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to wait for the operation: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Firewall rule created\n")

	return nil
}

Java

Bevor Sie dieses Beispiel anwenden, folgen Sie den Schritten zur Einrichtung von Java in der Compute Engine-Kurzanleitung zur Verwendung von Clientbibliotheken. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zur Compute Engine Java API.


import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Allowed;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Firewall;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Firewall.Direction;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.FirewallsClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InsertFirewallRequest;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.UUID;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;

public class CreateFirewallRule {

  public static void main(String[] args)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException, TimeoutException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample
    /* project: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
       firewallRuleName: name of the rule that is created.
       network: name of the network the rule will be applied to. Available name formats:
        * https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/{project_id}/global/networks/{network}
        * projects/{project_id}/global/networks/{network}
        * global/networks/{network} */
    String project = "your-project-id";
    String firewallRuleName = "firewall-rule-name-" + UUID.randomUUID();
    String network = "global/networks/default";

    // The rule will be created with default priority of 1000.
    createFirewall(project, firewallRuleName, network);
  }

  // Creates a simple firewall rule allowing for incoming HTTP and
  // HTTPS access from the entire Internet.
  public static void createFirewall(String project, String firewallRuleName, String network)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException, TimeoutException {
    /* Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
       once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After completing all of your requests, call
       the `firewallsClient.close()` method on the client to safely
       clean up any remaining background resources. */
    try (FirewallsClient firewallsClient = FirewallsClient.create()) {

      // The below firewall rule is created in the default network.
      Firewall firewallRule = Firewall.newBuilder()
          .setName(firewallRuleName)
          .setDirection(Direction.INGRESS.toString())
          .addAllowed(
              Allowed.newBuilder().addPorts("80").addPorts("443").setIPProtocol("tcp").build())
          .addSourceRanges("0.0.0.0/0")
          .setNetwork(network)
          .addTargetTags("web")
          .setDescription("Allowing TCP traffic on port 80 and 443 from Internet.")
          .build();

      /* Note that the default value of priority for the firewall API is 1000.
         If you check the value of `firewallRule.getPriority()` at this point it
         will be equal to 0, however it is not treated as "set" by the library and thus
         the default will be applied to the new rule. If you want to create a rule that
         has priority == 0, you'll need to explicitly set it so: setPriority(0) */

      InsertFirewallRequest insertFirewallRequest = InsertFirewallRequest.newBuilder()
          .setFirewallResource(firewallRule)
          .setProject(project).build();

      firewallsClient.insertAsync(insertFirewallRequest).get(3, TimeUnit.MINUTES);

      System.out.println("Firewall rule created successfully -> " + firewallRuleName);
    }
  }
}

Node.js

Bevor Sie dieses Beispiel anwenden, folgen Sie den Schritten zur Einrichtung von Node.js in der Compute Engine-Kurzanleitung zur Verwendung von Clientbibliotheken. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zur Compute Engine Node.js API.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment and replace these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID';
// const firewallRuleName = 'YOUR_FIREWALL_RULE_NAME'
// const networkName = 'global/networks/default'

const compute = require('@google-cloud/compute');
const computeProtos = compute.protos.google.cloud.compute.v1;

async function createFirewallRule() {
  const firewallsClient = new compute.FirewallsClient();
  const operationsClient = new compute.GlobalOperationsClient();

  const firewallRule = new computeProtos.Firewall();
  firewallRule.name = firewallRuleName;
  firewallRule.direction = 'INGRESS';
  firewallRule.allowed = [
    {
      IPProtocol: 'tcp',
      ports: ['80', '443'],
    },
  ];
  firewallRule.targetTags = ['web'];
  firewallRule.network = networkName;
  firewallRule.description =
    'Allowing TCP traffic on port 80 and 443 from Internet.';

  // Note that the default value of priority for the firewall API is 1000.
  // If you check the value of `firewallRule.priority` at this point it
  // will be equal to null, however it is not treated as "set" by the library and thus
  // the default will be applied to the new rule. If you want to create a rule that
  // has priority == 0, you need to explicitly set it so:

  // firewallRule.priority = 0

  const [response] = await firewallsClient.insert({
    project: projectId,
    firewallResource: firewallRule,
  });
  let operation = response.latestResponse;

  // Wait for the create operation to complete.
  while (operation.status !== 'DONE') {
    [operation] = await operationsClient.wait({
      operation: operation.name,
      project: projectId,
    });
  }

  console.log('Firewall rule created');
}

createFirewallRule();

PHP

Bevor Sie dieses Beispiel anwenden, folgen Sie den Schritten zur Einrichtung von PHP in der Compute Engine-Kurzanleitung zur Verwendung von Clientbibliotheken. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zur Compute Engine PHP API.

use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\FirewallsClient;
use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\Allowed;
use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\Firewall;

/**
 * To correctly handle string enums in Cloud Compute library
 * use constants defined in the Enums subfolder.
 */
use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\Enums\Firewall\Direction;

/**
 * Creates a simple firewall rule allowing incoming HTTP and HTTPS access from the entire internet.
 *
 * @param string $projectId Project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to create a rule for.
 * @param string $firewallRuleName Name of the rule that is created.
 * @param string $network Name of the network the rule will be applied to. Available name formats:
 *                        https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/{project_id}/global/networks/{network}
 *                        projects/{project_id}/global/networks/{network}
 *                        global/networks/{network}
 *
 * @throws \Google\ApiCore\ApiException if the remote call fails.
 * @throws \Google\ApiCore\ValidationException if local error occurs before remote call.
 */

function create_firewall_rule(string $projectId, string $firewallRuleName, string $network = 'global/networks/default')
{
    $firewallsClient = new FirewallsClient();
    $allowedPorts = (new Allowed())
      ->setIPProtocol('tcp')
      ->setPorts(['80', '443']);
    $firewallResource = (new Firewall())
      ->setName($firewallRuleName)
      ->setDirection(Direction::INGRESS)
      ->setAllowed([$allowedPorts])
      ->setSourceRanges(['0.0.0.0/0'])
      ->setTargetTags(['web'])
      ->setNetwork($network)
      ->setDescription('Allowing TCP traffic on ports 80 and 443 from Internet.');

    /**
    * Note that the default value of priority for the firewall API is 1000.
    * If you check the value of its priority at this point it will be
    * equal to 0, however it is not treated as "set" by the library and thus
    * the default will be applied to the new rule. If you want to create a rule
    * that has priority == 0, you need to explicitly set it so:
    *
    *   $firewallResource->setPriority(0);
    */

    //Create the firewall rule using Firewalls Client.
    $operation = $firewallsClient->insert($firewallResource, $projectId);

    // Wait for the operation to complete.
    $operation->pollUntilComplete();
    if ($operation->operationSucceeded()) {
        printf('Created rule %s.' . PHP_EOL, $firewallRuleName);
    } else {
        $error = $operation->getError();
        printf('Firewall rule creation failed: %s' . PHP_EOL, $error->getMessage());
    }
}

Python

Bevor Sie dieses Beispiel anwenden, folgen Sie den Schritten zur Einrichtung von Python in der Compute Engine-Kurzanleitung zur Verwendung von Clientbibliotheken. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zur Compute Engine Python API.

import sys
from typing import Any

from google.api_core.extended_operation import ExtendedOperation
from google.cloud import compute_v1

def wait_for_extended_operation(
    operation: ExtendedOperation, verbose_name: str = "operation", timeout: int = 300
) -> Any:
    """
    This method will wait for the extended (long-running) operation to
    complete. If the operation is successful, it will return its result.
    If the operation ends with an error, an exception will be raised.
    If there were any warnings during the execution of the operation
    they will be printed to sys.stderr.

    Args:
        operation: a long-running operation you want to wait on.
        verbose_name: (optional) a more verbose name of the operation,
            used only during error and warning reporting.
        timeout: how long (in seconds) to wait for operation to finish.
            If None, wait indefinitely.

    Returns:
        Whatever the operation.result() returns.

    Raises:
        This method will raise the exception received from `operation.exception()`
        or RuntimeError if there is no exception set, but there is an `error_code`
        set for the `operation`.

        In case of an operation taking longer than `timeout` seconds to complete,
        a `concurrent.futures.TimeoutError` will be raised.
    """
    result = operation.result(timeout=timeout)

    if operation.error_code:
        print(
            f"Error during {verbose_name}: [Code: {operation.error_code}]: {operation.error_message}",
            file=sys.stderr,
            flush=True,
        )
        print(f"Operation ID: {operation.name}", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)
        raise operation.exception() or RuntimeError(operation.error_message)

    if operation.warnings:
        print(f"Warnings during {verbose_name}:\n", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)
        for warning in operation.warnings:
            print(f" - {warning.code}: {warning.message}", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)

    return result

def create_firewall_rule(
    project_id: str, firewall_rule_name: str, network: str = "global/networks/default"
) -> compute_v1.Firewall:
    """
    Creates a simple firewall rule allowing for incoming HTTP and HTTPS access from the entire Internet.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        firewall_rule_name: name of the rule that is created.
        network: name of the network the rule will be applied to. Available name formats:
            * https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/{project_id}/global/networks/{network}
            * projects/{project_id}/global/networks/{network}
            * global/networks/{network}

    Returns:
        A Firewall object.
    """
    firewall_rule = compute_v1.Firewall()
    firewall_rule.name = firewall_rule_name
    firewall_rule.direction = "INGRESS"

    allowed_ports = compute_v1.Allowed()
    allowed_ports.I_p_protocol = "tcp"
    allowed_ports.ports = ["80", "443"]

    firewall_rule.allowed = [allowed_ports]
    firewall_rule.source_ranges = ["0.0.0.0/0"]
    firewall_rule.network = network
    firewall_rule.description = "Allowing TCP traffic on port 80 and 443 from Internet."

    firewall_rule.target_tags = ["web"]

    # Note that the default value of priority for the firewall API is 1000.
    # If you check the value of `firewall_rule.priority` at this point it
    # will be equal to 0, however it is not treated as "set" by the library and thus
    # the default will be applied to the new rule. If you want to create a rule that
    # has priority == 0, you need to explicitly set it so:
    # TODO: Uncomment to set the priority to 0
    # firewall_rule.priority = 0

    firewall_client = compute_v1.FirewallsClient()
    operation = firewall_client.insert(
        project=project_id, firewall_resource=firewall_rule
    )

    wait_for_extended_operation(operation, "firewall rule creation")

    return firewall_client.get(project=project_id, firewall=firewall_rule_name)

Ruby

Bevor Sie dieses Beispiel anwenden, folgen Sie den Schritten zur Einrichtung von Ruby in der Compute Engine-Kurzanleitung zur Verwendung von Clientbibliotheken. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Referenzdokumentation zur Compute Engine Ruby API.


require "google/cloud/compute/v1"

# Creates a simple firewall rule allowing for incoming HTTP and HTTPS access from the entire Internet.
#
# @param [String] project project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
# @param [String] name: name of the rule that is created.
# @param network: name of the network the rule will be applied to. Available name formats:
#         * https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/{project_id}/global/networks/{network}
#         * projects/{project_id}/global/networks/{network}
#         * global/networks/{network}
def create_firewall_rule project:, name:, network: "global/networks/default"
  rule = {
    name: name,
    direction: "INGRESS",
    allowed: [{
      I_p_protocol: "tcp",
      ports: ["80", "443"]
    }],
    source_ranges: ["0.0.0.0/0"],
    network: network,
    description: "Allowing TCP traffic on port 80 and 443 from Internet.",
    target_tags: ["web"]
  }

  # Note that the default value of priority for the firewall API is 1000.
  # If you want to create a rule that has priority == 0, you need to explicitly set it:
  #   rule[:priority] = 0
  # Use `rule.has_key? :priority` to check if the priority has been set.
  # Use `rule.delete :priority` method to unset the priority.

  request = {
    firewall_resource: rule,
    project: project
  }

  client = ::Google::Cloud::Compute::V1::Firewalls::Rest::Client.new
  operation = client.insert request

  wait_until_done operation: operation
end

Nächste Schritte

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