Quotas and limits

This page describe quotas and limits for Network Connectivity products. To change a quota, see requesting additional quota. Limits cannot generally be increased unless specifically noted.

Cloud VPN

Quotas

This table covers important quotas per project. For other quotas, see the Cloud Console Quotas page.

Item Quota Notes
VPN gateways Quota For HA VPN only
External VPN gateways Quota For HA VPN only
VPN tunnels Quota This quota represents the combined total number of Classic VPN tunnels and HA VPN tunnels.
Routers Quota

This quota represents the number of Cloud Routers that you can create within your project, in any network and region. Networks also have a limit on the number of Cloud Routers in any given region. For more details, see Cloud Router quotas and limits.

Subject to the Cloud Router quotas and limits, the number of Cloud Routers is independent of the type of Cloud VPN gateway, Classic VPN or HA VPN, that a tunnel is attached to. The quota is applied the same to either type of gateway.

Target VPN gateways Quota For Classic VPN only
Forwarding rules Quota For Classic VPN only

Limits

The following limits apply to Cloud VPN. In this table, VPN tunnel means either a Classic VPN tunnel or an HA VPN tunnel. Unless otherwise stated, these limits cannot be increased.

Item Limit Notes
Bandwidth per VPN tunnel Up to 3 Gbps for the sum of ingress and egress

This maximum bandwidth can only be achieved by using an MTU size of 1,460 bytes and a packet rate of 250,000 packets per second (pps).

Cloud VPN only throttles egress IPsec traffic. It does not throttle ingress traffic.

For more details, see Network bandwidth.

Known issues

Be aware of the following issues:

Cloud Interconnect

Quotas

This table highlights important quotas for each project. For other quotas, see the Cloud Console Quotas page.

Item Quota Notes
Interconnect connections Quota

The number of Interconnect connections per project.

Interconnect connections are not associated with regions or VPC networks.

Interconnect connection bandwidth per project Calculated automatically

The total Interconnect connection bandwidth for the project, calculated by adding up the bandwidths of each connection it contains.

The bandwidth of each connection is calculated by multiplying the capacities of its circuits (either 10 Gbps or 100 Gbps) by the number of circuits in the connection.

For example, an Interconnect connection consisting of four 10-Gbps circuits has 40 Gbps of bandwidth. If you have two such connections in your project, this quota is automatically set to 80 Gbps.

VLAN attachments Quota

The number of VLAN attachments that you can configure in each region for your project.

Regardless of this quota, you are also limited to a total of 16 VLAN attachments per Interconnect connection. If you require additional attachments per connection, see the Maximum number of VLAN attachments that can be associated with a single Interconnect connection in the Limits table.

VLAN attachments total Mbps Quota

The maximum bandwidth capacity of all VLAN attachments in a given region for a given project, irrespective of their relationship with Interconnect connections.

In addition to this quota, the limits described in the Limits table apply.

Cloud Routers Quota

The number of Cloud Routers that you can create within your project, in any network and region.

Networks also have a limit on the number of Cloud Routers in any given region.

For more details, see Cloud Router quotas and limits.

Limits

The following limits apply to Interconnect connections and VLAN attachments. Unless otherwise stated, these limits cannot be increased.

Item Limit Notes
Maximum number of physical circuits per Interconnect connection 8 x 10 Gbps (80-Gbps) circuits or
2 x 100 Gbps (200-Gbps) circuits

An Interconnect connection is a logical connection to Google, made up of one or more physical circuits. You can request one of the following circuit choices:

  • Up to 2 x 100 Gbps (200-Gbps) circuits.
  • 10-Gbps increments up to eight circuits (80 Gbps) to increase the maximum total bandwidth of all VLAN attachments that use the Interconnect connection to 80 Gbps.

    To determine the bandwidth, multiply the number of physical circuits by the bandwidth per circuit (10 Gbps).

Maximum number of VLAN attachments that can be associated with a single Interconnect connection 16 Each Interconnect connection supports no more than 16 VLAN attachments, even if you would otherwise have quota to create more VLAN attachments.
Maximum bandwidth per VLAN attachment Capacities from 50 Mbps to 50 Gbps

The maximum possible bandwidth per VLAN attachment depends on the bandwidth capacity that you order. For capacities, see the Pricing page. For Partner Interconnect, not all service providers offer all capacities.

The throughput of individual flows on a VLAN attachment is limited. To achieve maximum throughput, you must use multiple five-tuple flows (for example: 10+) with packet sizes within the MTU of the VLAN attachment.

Maximum total packet rate per VLAN attachment

This rate varies according to the attachment's capacity:

  • The maximum rate for a 50-Gbps VLAN attachment is 6.25 M packets per second (pps).
  • The maximum rate for a 10-Gbps VLAN attachment is 1.25 M packets per second (pps).
The maximum packet rate for the entire VLAN attachment.
Maximum bandwidth per traffic flow on a VLAN attachment

3 Gbps

Even if you configure your attachment higher than 3 Gbps, your per-flow capacity is capped at 3 Gbps.

A traffic flow to a destination in a VPC network is identified by either a five-tuple hash for non-fragmented packets or a three-tuple hash for fragmented packets. In addition, traffic flows that use Private Google Access for on-premises hosts are identified by a three-tuple hash.

  • A five-tuple hash consists of a protocol, source IP address, source port, destination IP address, and destination port.
  • A three-tuple hash consists of a protocol, source IP address, and destination IP address.

The following cases describe where the maximum bandwidth is lower than 3 Gbps:

  • If the bandwidth capacity of your VLAN attachment is less than 3 Gbps, the bandwidth per traffic flow is limited by the bandwidth of the VLAN attachment.
  • If you reach the maximum packet rate per traffic flow (as described in the next section).
Maximum packet rate per traffic flow on a VLAN attachment 250,000 packets per second The maximum rate of packets per traffic flow, identified by a five-tuple hash for non-fragmented packets and by a three-tuple hash for fragmented packets (as described in the previous section).
Maximum transmission unit (MTU) 1440 or 1500 bytes Depending on the VLAN attachment MTU setting, the size of the largest IP address packet that can be transmitted over a VLAN attachment. For more information, see the Cloud Interconnect MTU section.
Maximum lifetime of (Partner Interconnect) VLAN attachment pairing key 28 days

The maximum amount of time that can pass between generating a (Partner Interconnect) VLAN attachment pairing key and successful attachment provisioning by the service provider.

If a pairing key is no longer valid, you delete and create a new pairing key for the Partner Interconnect service provider to use.

Cloud Router limits

Because Dedicated Interconnect and Partner Interconnect require Cloud Router, all the Cloud Router quotas and limits apply.

There are limits on the maximum number of learned custom dynamic routes and on the number of advertised routes. For more information, see the Cloud Router Quotas and limits page.

Cloud Router

Quotas

This table covers important quotas per project. For other quotas, see the Cloud Console Quotas page.

Item Quota Notes
Cloud Routers per project Quota Regardless of quota, each network is limited to five Cloud Routers per region. See Limits.

Limits

The following limits for Cloud Router apply to Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) networks. Unless otherwise stated, these limits cannot be increased.

Item Limit Notes
Maximum number of Cloud Routers per combination of VPC network and region 5 If you have sufficient project quota, you can create up to five Cloud Routers in a given VPC network and region.
Maximum number of BGP peers for each Cloud Router in a given VPC network and region 128 The BGP peer can be a Cloud VPN tunnel using dynamic routing or a VLAN attachment for Dedicated Interconnect or Partner Interconnect.
For a given Cloud Router, maximum number of subnet route advertisements per BGP session No restriction Cloud Routers do not have a limit for the number of subnet routes they can advertise. The number of subnet routes are determined by the number of subnets, which are controlled by VPC network quotas and limits.
For a given Cloud Router, maximum number of custom route advertisements per BGP session 200 If the custom route advertisements are identical for all BGP sessions on a Cloud Router, this limit represents the total number of unique custom route advertisements for the Cloud Router. In this case, each session receives the same set of custom route advertisements.
Maximum number of assured unique destinations for learned routes that can be applied to subnets in a given region by all Cloud Routers in the same region 100

For both limits on the maximum assured number of unique destinations for learned routes:

Routes are grouped by unique destinations. Routes with identical destinations but different next hops only count as a single destination. Routes with identical destinations and identical next hops also only count as a single destination.

For networks in global dynamic routing mode, it is possible to reach one of the maximum number of unique destination limits without reaching the other. When either of the limits has been reached, you can experience intermittent connectivity issues when the routes are dropped. For details, see the learned route example.

For more information about these limits, including metrics that you can use to understand your current limits and usage, see Check quotas and limits in Troubleshooting.

If you need to increase either of these limits, contact your Google Cloud sales team.

Only applicable to VPC networks in global dynamic routing mode:

Maximum number of assured unique destinations for learned routes that can be applied to subnets in a given region by Cloud Routers from different regions

100

Learned route example

The following examples illustrate the route dropping behavior that you can encounter when the regional or global limit is exceeded.

Suppose you have Cloud Routers in the us-east1 region and Cloud Routers in the us-west1 region in the same VPC network, and global dynamic routing is enabled. The Cloud Routers in each region learn a set of routes for 100 unique destinations. For the purpose of this example, the Cloud Routers in each region don’t learn any of the same destinations.

Regardless of which Cloud Routers learn the routes within each region, each region’s regional limit is exhausted because 100 of 100 unique destinations are learned by the Cloud Routers in each region. The global limits for both regions are exhausted because the Cloud Routers in each region import 100 unique destinations from the Cloud Routers in the other region. If the example VPC network used regional dynamic routing, the global limits in each region would not apply because the regional dynamic routing mode does not propagate learned custom dynamic routes from one region to another.

Exceeding a region’s regional limit

Suppose your on-premises router that's connected to a Cloud Router in us-west1 advertises a new route with a 101 destination. Cloud Routers in the us-west1 region pick the routes for 100 of the 101 unique destinations following a deterministic order. The routes that use these selected (100 unique) destinations are made available to resources in the us-west1 region. Those same routes are made available to other regions, subject to each other region’s global limit.

Exceeding a region’s global limit

When 101 unique destinations are learned by Cloud Routers in the us-west1 region, routes for 100 of those 101 unique destinations from us-west1 are made available to resources in the us-east1 region, because the us-east1 region’s global limit can only accept 100 unique destinations.

Suppose that you create a Cloud Router in a third region, us-central1, in the same VPC network. Suppose that the new Cloud Router learns 10 unique destinations from its BGP peer. Although the us-central1 region’s regional destination limit has not been exceeded, the us-central1 region’s global unique destination limit has been exceeded because a total of 200 unique destinations are provided by the other two regions (100 from us-east1 and a different 100 from us-west1). In each region, the deterministic route order selects routes for no more than 100 unique destinations from other regions, as indicated in the following table.

Region Unique destinations local to the region
(usage of region’s regional limit)
Unique destinations from other regions
(usage of region’s global limit)
us-west1 101 received. 100 of the 101 are considered according to the deterministic route dropping. Only the 100 selected prefixes are advertised to remote regions. 110 received (100 from us-east1, 10 from us-central1). 100 of these 110 are considered according to the deterministic route dropping.
us-east1 100 received. All 100 are considered and advertised to remote regions. 110 received (100 from us-west1, 10 from us-central1). 100 of these 110 are considered according to the deterministic route dropping.
us-central1 10 received. All 10 are considered. 200 received (100 from us-west1, 100 from us-east1). 100 of these 200 are considered according to the deterministic route dropping.

Although the us-central1 region’s global limit is exceeded, its regional quota can accept routes whose next hops are in the us-central1 region.

Deterministic route dropping behavior

Cloud Router implements a deterministic route dropping behavior so that, as long as the same prefixes are received in each region, a consistent set of routes are made available to resources within that region. This consistency is preserved when Cloud Router tasks restart. If a limit is exceeded, Cloud Router drops prefixes according to a predictable algorithm regardless of when the routes were learned or the MED values of these routes. A new route can cause a previously learned route to be dropped by the algorithm.

As shown in exceeding a region’s global limit, the deterministic dropping behavior is applied independently to each region’s regional limit and each region’s global limit. The set of 100 unique prefixes that are not dropped in each region due to reaching each region’s global limit (the last column) is not guaranteed to be the same.

Avoiding route dropping

During route dropping, you lose connectivity for the prefixes that are dropped. To avoid route dropping, monitor each region’s regional and global prefix usage by using Cloud Monitoring or Cloud Logging, and make sure not to advertise more unique destinations than each limit.

Consider aggregating prefixes (for example, by aggregating prefixes into a prefix of smaller length) to reduce the number of unique destinations. If aggregating prefixes isn’t possible, contact your Google Cloud Sales team to discuss alternative options.

Router appliance

Quotas

Quotas that apply to network routes for Cloud Router also apply to routes for Router appliance spokes attached to Network Connectivity Center hubs.

For more information, see Cloud Router quotas.

Limits

The following limits for Cloud Router also apply to Router appliance:

  • The maximum number of Cloud Routers per combination of VPC network and region
  • The maximum number of BGP peers for each Cloud Router in a given VPC network and region

For more information, see Cloud Router limits.

Network Connectivity Center

Quotas

Quotas that apply to network routes for Cloud Router also apply to routes for Network Connectivity Center hubs and spokes. For more information, see Cloud Router Quotas.

Item Quota Notes
Number of VPN tunnel spokes Quota For HA VPN only and for each project in the specific region
Number of VLAN attachment spokes Quota For each project in the specific region
Number of Router appliance spokes Quota For each project in the specific region

Limits

Network Connectivity Center enforces the following usage limits.

Item Value
Number of hubs that a project can have 1
Number of VPN tunnels that can be linked to a spoke 8
Number of VLAN attachments that can be linked to a spoke 6
Number of router appliance instances that can be linked to a spoke 8

Managing quotas

Google Cloud enforces quotas on resource usage for various reasons. For example, quotas protect the community of Google Cloud users by preventing unforeseen spikes in usage. Quotas also help users who are exploring Google Cloud with the free tier to stay within their trial.

All projects start with the same quotas, which you can change by requesting additional quota. Some quotas may increase automatically based on your use of a product.

Permissions

To view quotas or request quota increases, Identity and Access Management (IAM) principals need one of the following roles.

Task Required role
Check quotas for a project One of the following:
Modify quotas, request additional quota One of the following:

Checking your quota

Console

  1. In the Cloud Console, go to the Quotas page.

    Go to Quotas

  2. To search for the quota that you want to update, use the Filter table. If you don't know the name of the quota, use the links on this page instead.

gcloud

Using the gcloud command-line tool, run the following command to check your quotas. Replace PROJECT_ID with your own project ID.

      gcloud compute project-info describe --project PROJECT_ID
    

To check your used quota in a region, run the following command:

      gcloud compute regions describe example-region
    

Errors when exceeding your quota

If you exceed a quota with a gcloud command, gcloud outputs a quota exceeded error message and returns with the exit code 1.

If you exceed a quota with an API request, Google Cloud returns the following HTTP status code: HTTP 413 Request Entity Too Large.

Requesting additional quota

To increase or decrease most quotas, use the Google Cloud Console. Some quotas can't be increased above their default values.

For more information, see the following sections of Working with quotas:

Console

  1. In the Cloud Console, go to the Quotas page.

    Go to Quotas

  2. On the Quotas page, select the quotas that you want to change.
  3. At the top of the page, click Edit quotas.
  4. Fill out your name, email, and phone number, and then click Next.
  5. Fill in your quota request, and then click Done.
  6. Submit your request. Quota requests take 24 to 48 hours to process.

Resource availability

Each quota represents a maximum number for a particular type of resource that you can create, if that resource is available. It's important to note that quotas do not guarantee resource availability. Even if you have available quota, you can't create a new resource if it is not available.

For example, you might have sufficient quota to create a new regional, external IP address in the us-central1 region. However, that is not possible if there are no available external IP addresses in that region. Zonal resource availability can also affect your ability to create a new resource.

Situations where resources are unavailable in an entire region are rare. However, resources within a zone can be depleted from time to time, typically without impact to the service level agreement (SLA) for the type of resource. For more information, review the relevant SLA for the resource.