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Use MD5 authentication

Cloud Router uses Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) to exchange routes between a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) network and a peer network. By default, Cloud Router BGP sessions are unauthenticated. However, when you use Cloud Router with certain products, you can optionally configure your BGP sessions to use MD5 authentication.

Products that can use MD5 authentication include the following:

You can also use MD5 authentication with third-party network virtual appliances. For more information, see Router appliance in the Network Connectivity Center documentation.

When you configure a session to use MD5 authentication, you provide a secret shared key—a key that you use when configuring Cloud Router and again when you configure your peer router. After you complete the required setup steps, Cloud Router uses that key to authenticate the BGP peer. Cloud Router enforces MD5 authentication by using the model described in RFC 2385.

You can add MD5 authentication when you create a peer. You can also add authentication to an existing session, change the key that a session uses, or remove authentication.

Before you begin

  1. Sign in to your Google Cloud account. If you're new to Google Cloud, create an account to evaluate how our products perform in real-world scenarios. New customers also get $300 in free credits to run, test, and deploy workloads.
  2. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Cloud project. Learn how to check if billing is enabled on a project.

  4. Install and initialize the Google Cloud CLI.
  5. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  6. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Cloud project. Learn how to check if billing is enabled on a project.

  7. Install and initialize the Google Cloud CLI.
  1. If you are using the Google Cloud CLI, set your project ID by running the following command. The gcloud instructions on this page assume that you have set your project ID.
    gcloud config set project PROJECT_ID
        
  1. Confirm that the ID was set by running the following command:
    gcloud config list --format='text(core.project)'
        

Create a session that uses authentication

For some Network Connectivity products, you can configure a BGP peer to use MD5 authentication while you are creating the resource. These products include HA VPN and Dedicated Interconnect.

For more information, see the following sections:

If you are creating a Layer 2 Partner Interconnect VLAN attachment, create the attachment first, and then update the BGP peer to add MD5 authentication. For information about how to add authentication while updating a BGP session, see the following section. If you have a Layer 3 connection, contact your service provider for instructions.

Add authentication to an existing session

To add authentication to an existing BGP peer, use one of the following procedures. When you add authentication, make sure that the key that you use is identical to the one used by your peer router.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Cloud Routers page.

    Go to Cloud Routers

  2. In the Name field, click the name of the appropriate Cloud Router.

  3. On the Router details page, click the name of the BGP session that you want to modify.

  4. On the BGP session details page, click Edit.

  5. To add MD5 authentication:

    1. In the MD5 Authentication section, select Enabled. The page updates to include a text field.
    2. Enter a security key or, to generate a new security key, click Generate and copy.
    3. Make a note of the key. After you leave this page, you cannot retrieve the key.

  6. Click Save.

gcloud

To update the session by using gcloud CLI, use the gcloud beta compute routers update-bgp-peer command:

  gcloud beta compute routers update-bgp-peer ROUTER_NAME \
     --peer-name=PEER_NAME \
     --region=REGION \
     --md5-authentication-key=SECRET_KEY
 

Replace the following values:

  • ROUTER_NAME: the name of the Cloud Router
  • PEER_NAME: the name of the BGP peer
  • REGION: the Google Cloud region
  • SECRET_KEY: your secret shared MD5 authentication key

API

To update the session by using the API, use the compute.routers.patch method. When you use this method to add authentication to the session, your request must do two things:

  • Add an entry for the key in the md5AuthenticationKeys array. When you add the entry, you provide both a name and a value for the key.
  • Update the bgpPeers array to include a value for the md5AuthenticationKeyName field. This field references the key by name.

When you patch the md5AuthenticationKeys array, you must provide the name of each item in the array (unless you want to remove some items). However, you do not have to provide the value for each item's key field. If you omit this value, Cloud Router retains the previous value that was used. This behavior is designed to protect the secrecy of keys. It differs from other patch methods, which typically require you to specify a value for each field on an array item.

When you patch the bgpPeers array, you do have to provide values for every field on every item (unless you want to remove some peers or some values).

For example, suppose the Cloud Router has two peers, one that uses MD5 authentication and one that doesn't. If you want to leave the first peer unchanged but add MD5 authentication to the second peer, you would use a request like the following:

  PATCH https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/beta/projects/PROJECT_ID/regions/REGION/routers/ROUTER_NAME
  {
    "md5AuthenticationKeys": [
      {
        "name": "KEY_NAME_1",
      },
      {
        "name": "KEY_NAME_2",
        "key": "SECRET_KEY"
      }
    ],
    "bgpPeers": [
      {
        "name": "PEER_NAME_1",
        "md5AuthenticationKeyName": "KEY_NAME_1",
        "interfaceName": "INTERFACE_NAME_1",
        "ipAddress": "IP_ADDRESS_1",
        "peerIpAddress": "PEER_IP_ADDRESS_1",
        "peerAsn": "PEER_ASN_1"
      },
      {
        "name": "PEER_NAME_2",
        "md5AuthenticationKeyName": "KEY_NAME_2",
        "interfaceName": "INTERFACE_NAME_2",
        "ipAddress": "IP_ADDRESS_2",
        "peerIpAddress": "PEER_IP_ADDRESS_2",
        "peerAsn": "PEER_ASN_2"
      }
    ],
  }
 

Replace the following values:

  • PROJECT_ID: the project that contains the Cloud Router
  • REGION: the Google Cloud region
  • ROUTER_NAME: the name of the Cloud Router
  • KEY_NAME_1: The name of the key that is in current use (byPEER_NAME_1)
  • KEY_NAME_2: the name of the new key that you want to add for PEER_NAME_2. Make a note of the name. If you want to make changes later by using the API, you need the name.
  • SECRET_KEY: your secret MD5 authentication key that you are adding for PEER_NAME_2
  • PEER_NAME_1: the name of the BGP peer that you are not changing
  • INTERFACE_NAME_1: the name of the interface for the BGP peering session that is not changing
  • IP_ADDRESS_1: the IP address on the Cloud Router (for the peer that is not changing)
  • PEER_IP_ADDRESS_1: the IP address of the peer that is not changing
  • PEER_ASN_1: the BGP autonomous system number (ASN) for the peer that is not changing
  • PEER_NAME_2: the name of the BGP peer that you want to update so that it uses MD5 authentication
  • INTERFACE_NAME_2: the name of the interface for the BGP peering session
  • IP_ADDRESS_2: the IP address on the Cloud Router
  • PEER_IP_ADDRESS_2: the IP address of the peer router
  • PEER_ASN_2: the BGP autonomous system number (ASN) for this BGP peer

Update the authentication key

To change the key that Cloud Router uses for a peering session, use one of the following procedures. When you update the key on the Cloud Router, make sure that the key that you use is identical to the one used by your peer router.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Cloud Routers page.

    Go to Cloud Routers

  2. In the Name field, click the name of the appropriate Cloud Router.

  3. On the Router details page, click the name of the BGP session that you want to modify.

  4. On the BGP session details page, click Edit.

  5. In the MD5 Authentication section, click Update MD5 Authentication Key.

  6. In the MD5 Authentication key field, enter the new secret authentication key or, to populate the field, click Generate and copy.

  7. Make a note of the key. After you leave this page, you cannot retrieve the key.

  8. Click Save.

gcloud

To update the session, use the gcloud beta compute routers update-bgp-peer command.

  gcloud beta compute routers update-bgp-peer ROUTER_NAME \
     --peer-name=PEER_NAME \
     --region=REGION \
     --md5-authentication-key=SECRET_KEY
 

Replace the following values:

  • ROUTER_NAME: the name of the Cloud Router
  • PEER_NAME: the name of the BGP peer
  • REGION: the Google Cloud region
  • SECRET_KEY: the new secret MD5 authentication key that you want to use

API

To update the session, use the compute.routers.patch method. For example, use a request like the following.

This example replaces the entire peer array, not just the specific peer that is identified. That is, it removes all peers except PEER_NAME. It removes all keys except KEY_NAME.

  POST https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/beta/projects/PROJECT_ID/regions/REGION/routers/ROUTER_NAME
  {
    "md5AuthenticationKeys": [
      {
        "name": "KEY_NAME"
      }
    ],
    "bgpPeers": [
      {
        "name": "PEER_NAME",
        "md5AuthenticationKeyName": "KEY_NAME",
        "interfaceName": "INTERFACE_NAME",
        "ipAddress": "IP_ADDRESS",
        "peerIpAddress": "PEER_IP_ADDRESS",
        "peerAsn": "PEER_ASN"
      }
    ],
  }
 

Replace the following values:

  • PROJECT_ID: the project that contains the Cloud Router
  • REGION: the Google Cloud region
  • ROUTER_NAME: the name of the Cloud Router
  • KEY_NAME: the name of the key you want to update; whenever you work with MD5 authentication by using the API, you must refer to the key by its name
  • UPDATED_SECRET_KEY: your new secret MD5 authentication key
  • PEER_NAME: the name of the BGP peer
  • INTERFACE_NAME: the name of the interface for the BGP peering session
  • IP_ADDRESS: the IP address on the Cloud Router
  • PEER_IP_ADDRESS: the IP address of the peer router
  • PEER_ASN: the BGP autonomous system number (ASN) for this BGP peer

Check authentication status

Use the following steps to check the status of MD5 authentication. See also View Cloud Router details.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Cloud Routers page.

    Go to Cloud Routers

  2. In the Name field, click the name of the appropriate Cloud Router.

  3. On the Router details page, look for the MD5 Authentication column. For each session, the value in this column indicates whether MD5 authentication is enabled.

gcloud

To check the session by using gcloud CLI, use the gcloud beta compute routers get-status command.

  gcloud beta compute routers get-status ROUTER_NAME \
     --project=PROJECT \
     --region=REGION \
 

Replace the following values:

  • ROUTER_NAME: the name of the Cloud Router
  • PROJECT: the name of the project
  • REGION: the Google Cloud region

The output includes the result.bgpPeerStatus[] object, which contains information about the Cloud Router's BGP sessions. The data about each session includes the following two fields:

  • md5AuthEnabled—a boolean field that indicates whether MD5 authentication is enabled for the session
  • statusReason—a field that describes the status of the session

API

Use the routers.getRouterStatus method:

GET https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/beta/projects/PROJECT_ID/regions/REGION/routers/ROUTER_NAME/getRouterStatus

Replace the following:

  • PROJECT_ID: the project that contains the Cloud Router
  • REGION: the region where the Cloud Router is located
  • ROUTER_NAME: the name of the Cloud Router

The output includes information about each BGP session. The data about each session includes the following two fields:

  • md5AuthEnabled: a boolean field that indicates whether MD5 authentication is enabled for the session
  • statusReason: a field that describes the status of the session. This field is displayed only when there is a problem with MD5 authentication. (In that case, the value of the field is MD5_AUTH_INTERNAL_PROBLEM.)

To set up continuous monitoring of your BGP sessions, use Cloud Logging. Logging records information about MD5 authentication status in the BGP event, which is part of the Info log.

Remove authentication from a session

If you want to remove MD5 authentication from a BGP session, you must remove MD5 authentication from both the Cloud Router and your peer router.

To remove MD5 authentication from the BGP session on the Cloud Router, use one of the following procedures.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Cloud Routers page.

    Go to Cloud Routers

  2. In the Name field, click the name of the appropriate Cloud Router.

  3. On the Router details page, click the name of the BGP session that you want to modify.

  4. On the BGP session details page, click Edit.

  5. For MD5 Authentication, click Disabled.

  6. Click Save. The Disable MD5 Authentication key dialog box appears.

  7. In the confirmation dialog, click Confirm.

gcloud

To remove MD5 authentication, use the gcloud beta compute routers update-bgp-peer command:

   gcloud beta compute routers update-bgp-peer ROUTER_NAME \
     --peer-name=PEER_NAME \
     --region=REGION \
     --clear-md5-authentication-key

Replace the following values:

  • ROUTER_NAME: the name of the Cloud Router
  • PEER_NAME: the name of the BGP peer
  • REGION: the Google Cloud region

API

To remove MD5 authentication, use the compute.routers.patch method.

When you remove authentication by using the API, your update must do two things:

  • Update the md5AuthenticationKeys array
  • Remove the md5AuthenticationKey value from the relevant bgpPeers entry

For example, if your Cloud Router has two BGP peers and you want to remove MD5 authentication from one of them. In this case, use a request like the following:

  PATCH https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/beta/projects/PROJECT_ID/regions/REGION/routers/ROUTER_NAME
  {
    "md5AuthenticationKeys": [
        "name": "KEY_NAME_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER",
        ],
    "bgpPeers": [
      {
        "name": "NAME_OF_UPDATED_PEER",
        "interfaceName": "INTERFACE_NAME_FOR_UPDATED_PEER",
        "ipAddress": "IP_ADDRESS_FOR_UPDATED_PEER",
        "peerIpAddress": "PEER_IP_ADDRESS_FOR_UPDATED_PEER",
        "peerAsn": "PEER_ASN_FOR_UPDATED_PEER"
      },
      {
        "name": "NAME_OF_UNCHANGED_PEER",
        "interfaceName": "INTERFACE_NAME_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER",
        "ipAddress": "IP_ADDRESS_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER",
        "peerIpAddress": "PEER_IP_ADDRESS_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER",
        "peerAsn": "PEER_ASN_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER"
        "md5AuthenticationKeyName": "KEY_NAME_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER"
      }
    ],
    ],
  }
 

Replace the following values:

  • PROJECT_ID: the project that contains the Cloud Router
  • REGION: the Google Cloud region where the Cloud Router is located
  • ROUTER_NAME: the name of the Cloud Router
  • NAME_OF_UPDATED_PEER: the name of the peering session you want to modify
  • INTERFACE_NAME_FOR_UPDATED_PEER: the name of the interface for the BGP peer that you want to modify
  • IP_ADDRESS_FOR_UPDATED_PEER: the IP address on the Cloud Router that is used by the peer you want to modify
  • PEER_IP_ADDRESS_FOR_UPDATED_PEER: the IP address of the peer router for the peering session you want to modify
  • PEER_ASN: the BGP autonomous system number (ASN) for this BGP peer you want to modify
  • NAME_OF_UNCHANGED_PEER: the name of the peering session you want to keep as is
  • INTERFACE_NAME_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER: the name of the interface for the BGP peer that you want to keep as is
  • IP_ADDRESS_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER: the IP address on the Cloud Router that is used by the peer that you want to keep as is
  • PEER_IP_ADDRESS_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER: the IP address of the peer router for the peering session that you want to keep as is
  • PEER_ASN_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER: the BGP autonomous system number (ASN) for the BGP peer that you want to keep as is
  • KEY_NAME_FOR_UNCHANGED_PEER: the name of the MD5 authentication key for the BGP peer that you want to keep as is

Remove a session that uses authentication

To remove a peering session that uses MD5 authentication, use one of the following procedures.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Cloud Routers page.

    Go to Cloud Routers

  2. Select the router that you want to remove a BGP session from.
  3. For BGP sessions, select the BGP session that you want to remove.
  4. At the top of the page, click Delete, and then confirm the deletion.

gcloud

To remove a BGP session with MD5 authentication enabled, use the gcloud beta compute routers remove-bgp-peer command.

For more information, see Disable or remove BGP sessions.

API

To remove a BGP session with MD5 authentication enabled, use the compute.routers.patch method.

When you remove a BGP session with MD5 authentication by using the API, your update must do two things: remove the key from md5AuthenticationKeys array and remove the bgpPeer itself.

For example, suppose the Cloud Router has two peers and you want to remove one of them. In this case, use a request like the following:

  PATCH https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/beta/projects/PROJECT_ID/regions/REGION/routers/ROUTER_NAME
  {
    "md5AuthenticationKeys": [
        "name": "KEY_NAME_FOR_RETAINED_PEER",
        ],
    "bgpPeers": [
      {
        "name": "NAME_OF_RETAINED_PEER",
        "interfaceName": "INTERFACE_FOR_RETAINED_PEER",
        "ipAddress": "IP_ADDRESS_FOR_RETAINED_PEER",
        "peerIpAddress": "PEER_IP_ADDRESS_FOR_RETAINED_PEER",
        "peerAsn": "PEER_ASN_FOR_RETAINED_PEER",
        "md5AuthenticationKeyName": "KEY_NAME_FOR_RETAINED_PEER"
      }
    ],
  }
 

Replace the following values:

  • PROJECT_ID: the project that contains the Cloud Router
  • REGION: the Google Cloud region
  • ROUTER_NAME: the name of the Cloud Router
  • KEY_NAME_FOR_RETAINED_PEER: the name of the key used by the peer that you are keeping
  • NAME_OF_RETAINED_PEER: the name of the BGP peer that you are keeping
  • INTERFACE_FOR_RETAINED_PEER: the name of the interface for the BGP peer that you are keeping
  • IP_ADDRESS_FOR_RETAINED_PEER: the IP address on the Cloud Router for the peer that you are keeping
  • PEER_IP_ADDRESS_FOR_RETAINED_PEER: the IP address of the peer that you are keeping
  • PEER_ASN_FOR_RETAINED_PEER: the BGP autonomous system number (ASN) for the peer that you are keeping
  • KEY_NAME_FOR_RETAINED_PEER: the name of the MD5 authentication key for the BGP peer that you are keeping

For example, suppose you created the following peers:

  PATCH https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/beta/projects/project_id/regions/region_name/routers/cloud_router_name
  {
    "md5AuthenticationKeys": [
      {
        "name":  "first_key_name",
        "key":  "first_secret_key_value"
      },
      {
        "name":  "second_key_name",
        "key":  "second_secret_key_value"
      }
    ],
    "bgpPeers": [
      {
        "name": "first_peer",
        "md5AuthenticationKeyName": "first_key_name",
        "interfaceName": "first_interface",
        "ipAddress": "first_address",
        "peerIpAddress": "first_peer_interface",
        "peerAsn": "first_peer_asn"
      },
      {
        "name": "second_peer",
        "md5AuthenticationKeyName": "second_key_name",
        "interfaceName": "second_interface",
        "ipAddress": "second_address",
        "peerIpAddress": "second_peer_interface",
        "peerAsn": "second_peer_asn"
      }
    ],
  }
 

If you then wanted to remove the second peer, you would use a request like the following:

  PATCH https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/beta/projects/project_id/regions/region_name/routers/cloud_router_name
  {
    "md5AuthenticationKeys": [
      {
        "name":  "first_key_name",
      }
    ],
    "bgpPeers": [
      {
        "name": "first_peer",
        "md5AuthenticationKeyName": "first_key_name",
        "interfaceName": "first_interface",
        "ipAddress": "first_address",
        "peerIpAddress": "first_peer_interface",
        "peerAsn": "first_peer_asn"
      }
    ],
  }
 

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