The original Linux service manager for Migrate for Anthos and GKE relied
sysv init and
systemd. The simplified Linux service manager
replaces it with a simplified, container friendly alternative.
This simplified Linux service manager adds functionality that lets you deploy your migrated container workloads to:
GKE Autopilot clusters
The simplified Linux service manager also resolves compatibility issues with Kubernetes plugins.
For example the simplified Linux service manager removes the requirement of defining a
/sys/fs/cgroup in the
deployment_spec.yaml file, the need to create privileged containers,
and the configuration changes required when deploying containers to
Anthos clusters on AWS that use workload identity.
About GKE Autopilot clusters
Autopilot is a mode of operation in Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) that is designed to reduce the operational cost of managing clusters, optimize your clusters for production, and yield higher workload availability. In Autopilot mode, GKE provisions and manages the cluster's underlying infrastructure, including nodes and node pools, giving you an optimized cluster with a hands-off experience.
See Autopilot overview for more details.
About Cloud Run
Cloud Run is a managed compute platform that enables you to run stateless containers that are invocable by web requests or Pub/Sub events. The simplified Linux service manager lets you deploy your migrated container workloads on Cloud Run.
About Anthos clusters on AWS and workload identity
Workload identity for Anthos clusters on AWS lets you bind Kubernetes service accounts to AWS IAM accounts with specific permissions. Workload identity uses AWS IAM permissions to block unwanted access to cloud resources.
The current runtime lets you deploy your migrated workloads to Anthos clusters on AWS that use workload identity. However, you must perform additional steps to configure your deployment environment by setting the following environment variables for your specific init system:
AWS_ROLE_ARN: The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the IAM role.
AWS_WEB_IDENTITY_TOKEN_FILE: The path where the token is stored.
The simplified Linux service manager lets you deploy your containers without performing this additional configuration.
Changes from the existing runtime
To use the simplified Linux service manager, you should be aware of the following changes and limitations from the existing runtime.
New services-config.yaml artifact file added
If you enable the simplified Linux service manager, Migrate for Anthos and GKE creates a new artifact file,
services-config.yaml, when you generate the migration artifacts. Use this file to control
application initialization on a deployed container. See Using services-config.yaml
for more information.
When using the current runtime, Migrate for Anthos and GKE adds a readiness probe in
deployment_spec.yaml file. When you enable the simplified Linux service manager,
no readiness probe is added.
If you want to add a readiness probe, we recommend that you use an HTTP readiness probe. See Define readiness probes for more information.
readinessProbe: exec: command: - /.m4a/gamma status
However, this probe might return a false negative result.
The simplified Linux service manager creates a Unix socket at
/dev/log to support the syslog.
The simplified Linux service manager forwards these log messages to
stdout so that they are
recorded by Kubernetes as container logs.
You should be aware of the following limitations when using the simplified Linux service manager.
The simplified Linux service manager works best with the following types of workloads:
|Compute Engine Ubuntu 12.04||Ubuntu 12.04||apache2|
|Compute Engine Ubuntu 14.04||Ubuntu 14.04||redis, mysql, apache2|
|Compute Engine Ubuntu 18.04||Ubuntu 18.04||apache2, mysql, redis-server, tomcat|
|RHEL SAP 7.4||Red Hat||httpd|
|Compute Engine Memcached image||Debian 10.9||bitnami|
|Compute Engine Marketplace wordpress||Debian 9.13||apache2, mysql, php|
|Compute Engine Marketplace tomcat||Debian 9.13||tomcat8|
|Compute Engine Marketplace jenkins||Debian 10.9||apache2, jenkins|
|Compute Engine Marketplace moodle||Debian 9.13||apache2, mysql, php7.4-fpm, phpsessionclean|
|Compute Engine Marketplace Odoo||Debian 9.13||odoo, nginx|
|Compute Engine Marketplace Opencart||Debian 9.13||apache2, mysql, php7.0-fpm, supervisor, mariadb|
|Compute Engine Marketplace Erpnext||Debian 10.9||nginx, redis-server, supervisor, mariadb|
|Compute Engine Marketplace wildfly||Debian 10.10||wildfly, cron|
If you are using
systemd as your init system, be aware of the following limitations:
systemdservice types of
notifyare treated as
execservice. That means the service is considered started if
Notify sockets are supported for
You can provide other readiness checks if needed. For example, HTTP check or other types of check.
Socket type unit files are not supported. Sockets are not created and no environment variables are created.
Updates for version 1.9.0
The simplified Linux service manager for version 1.9.0 contains the following updates:
The Linux service manager has been released for general availability, and is no longer in Public Preview.
The procedure to Convert existing container workloads to support Autopilot has been changed. You now need to edit both the Dockerfile and the
deployment_spec.yamlfile for an existing migration to convert it.
config.yamlfile has been renamed to
Updates for version 1.8.1
The simplified Linux service manager was originally released in Public Preview as part of Migrate for Anthos and GKE version 1.8. The simplified Linux service manager for version 1.8.1 contains the following updates:
You no longer set an annotation in the migration plan to enable the simplified Linux service manager. Instead, you now set
v2kServiceManager. See Deploy containers to Autopilot clusters for more.
The environment variable
HC_GAMMA_RUNTIMEhas been renamed to
poststartentries in the
services-config.yamlfile now automatically populated. See Using services-config.yaml for more.
Added support to the
services-config.yamlfile that lets you specify environment variables at the global level or at the application level. See Using services-config.yaml for more.
Added logging support that lets you customize log data written to Cloud Logging. See Customize log data written to Cloud Logging for more.