Autenticar para usar bibliotecas de cliente

Nesta página, descrevemos como usar bibliotecas de cliente e credenciais padrão do aplicativo para acessar as APIs do Google.

As bibliotecas de cliente facilitam o acesso a APIs do Google Cloud usando uma linguagem compatível. É possível usar as APIs do Google Cloud diretamente fazendo solicitações brutas ao servidor, mas as bibliotecas de cliente oferecem simplificações que reduzem significativamente a quantidade de código que você precisa escrever. Isso é especialmente verdadeiro para a autenticação, porque as bibliotecas de cliente oferecem suporte a Application Default Credentials (ADC).

Se você quer usar uma chave de API, não use o ADC. Para mais informações, consulte Como usar uma chave de API com bibliotecas de cliente.

Usar o Application Default Credentials com as bibliotecas de clientes

Para usar o Application Default Credentials para autenticar um aplicativo, primeiro configure o ADC para o ambiente em que o aplicativo está em execução. Quando você usa a biblioteca de cliente para criar um cliente, essa biblioteca verifica e usa automaticamente as credenciais fornecidas ao ADC para autenticação nas APIs usadas pelo seu código. Seu aplicativo não precisa autenticar ou gerenciar tokens explicitamente. esses requisitos são gerenciados automaticamente pelas bibliotecas de autenticação.

Para um ambiente de desenvolvimento local, é possível configurar o ADC com suas credenciais de usuário usando a CLI gcloud. Para ambientes de produção, configure o ADC anexando uma conta de serviço.

Exemplo de criação de cliente

As amostras de código a seguir criam um cliente para o serviço do Cloud Storage. É provável que seu código precise de clientes diferentes. Estas amostras servem apenas para mostrar como criar um cliente e usá-lo sem qualquer código para autenticar explicitamente.

Antes de executar os exemplos a seguir, configure o ADC para seu ambiente e instale a biblioteca de cliente do Cloud Storage.

Go

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

// authenticateImplicitWithAdc uses Application Default Credentials
// to automatically find credentials and authenticate.
func authenticateImplicitWithAdc(w io.Writer, projectId string) error {
	// projectId := "your_project_id"

	ctx := context.Background()

	// NOTE: Replace the client created below with the client required for your application.
	// Note that the credentials are not specified when constructing the client.
	// The client library finds your credentials using ADC.
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewClient: %w", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	it := client.Buckets(ctx, projectId)
	for {
		bucketAttrs, err := it.Next()
		if err == iterator.Done {
			break
		}
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Bucket: %v\n", bucketAttrs.Name)
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Listed all storage buckets.\n")

	return nil
}

Java


import com.google.api.gax.paging.Page;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Bucket;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Storage;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageOptions;
import java.io.IOException;

public class AuthenticateImplicitWithAdc {

  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
    // TODO(Developer):
    //  1. Before running this sample,
    //  set up Application Default Credentials as described in
    //  https://cloud.google.com/docs/authentication/external/set-up-adc
    //  2. Replace the project variable below.
    //  3. Make sure you have the necessary permission to list storage buckets
    //  "storage.buckets.list"
    String projectId = "your-google-cloud-project-id";
    authenticateImplicitWithAdc(projectId);
  }

  // When interacting with Google Cloud Client libraries, the library can auto-detect the
  // credentials to use.
  public static void authenticateImplicitWithAdc(String project) throws IOException {

    // *NOTE*: Replace the client created below with the client required for your application.
    // Note that the credentials are not specified when constructing the client.
    // Hence, the client library will look for credentials using ADC.
    //
    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
    // once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
    Storage storage = StorageOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(project).build().getService();

    System.out.println("Buckets:");
    Page<Bucket> buckets = storage.list();
    for (Bucket bucket : buckets.iterateAll()) {
      System.out.println(bucket.toString());
    }
    System.out.println("Listed all storage buckets.");
  }
}

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer):
 *  1. Uncomment and replace these variables before running the sample.
 *  2. Set up ADC as described in https://cloud.google.com/docs/authentication/external/set-up-adc
 *  3. Make sure you have the necessary permission to list storage buckets "storage.buckets.list"
 *    (https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/access-control/iam-permissions#bucket_permissions)
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID';

const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

async function authenticateImplicitWithAdc() {
  // This snippet demonstrates how to list buckets.
  // NOTE: Replace the client created below with the client required for your application.
  // Note that the credentials are not specified when constructing the client.
  // The client library finds your credentials using ADC.
  const storage = new Storage({
    projectId,
  });
  const [buckets] = await storage.getBuckets();
  console.log('Buckets:');

  for (const bucket of buckets) {
    console.log(`- ${bucket.name}`);
  }

  console.log('Listed all storage buckets.');
}

authenticateImplicitWithAdc();

Python


from google.cloud import storage

def authenticate_implicit_with_adc(project_id="your-google-cloud-project-id"):
    """
    When interacting with Google Cloud Client libraries, the library can auto-detect the
    credentials to use.

    // TODO(Developer):
    //  1. Before running this sample,
    //  set up ADC as described in https://cloud.google.com/docs/authentication/external/set-up-adc
    //  2. Replace the project variable.
    //  3. Make sure that the user account or service account that you are using
    //  has the required permissions. For this sample, you must have "storage.buckets.list".
    Args:
        project_id: The project id of your Google Cloud project.
    """

    # This snippet demonstrates how to list buckets.
    # *NOTE*: Replace the client created below with the client required for your application.
    # Note that the credentials are not specified when constructing the client.
    # Hence, the client library will look for credentials using ADC.
    storage_client = storage.Client(project=project_id)
    buckets = storage_client.list_buckets()
    print("Buckets:")
    for bucket in buckets:
        print(bucket.name)
    print("Listed all storage buckets.")

Ruby

def authenticate_implicit_with_adc project_id:
  # The ID of your Google Cloud project
  # project_id = "your-google-cloud-project-id"

  ###
  # When interacting with Google Cloud Client libraries, the library can auto-detect the
  # credentials to use.
  # TODO(Developer):
  #   1. Before running this sample,
  #      set up ADC as described in https://cloud.google.com/docs/authentication/external/set-up-adc
  #   2. Replace the project variable.
  #   3. Make sure that the user account or service account that you are using
  #      has the required permissions. For this sample, you must have "storage.buckets.list".
  ###

  require "google/cloud/storage"

  # This sample demonstrates how to list buckets.
  # *NOTE*: Replace the client created below with the client required for your application.
  # Note that the credentials are not specified when constructing the client.
  # Hence, the client library will look for credentials using ADC.
  storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new project_id: project_id
  buckets = storage.buckets
  puts "Buckets: "
  buckets.each do |bucket|
    puts bucket.name
  end
  puts "Plaintext: Listed all storage buckets."
end

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