This example demonstrates how to use URL redirects to redirect all requests from port 80 (HTTP) to port 443 (HTTPS).
HTTPS uses TLS (SSL) to encrypt HTTP requests and responses, making it
safer and more secure. A website that uses HTTPS has
https:// in the beginning
of its URL instead of
To redirect HTTP traffic to HTTPS, you must do the following:
- (Prerequisite) You must have an external HTTPS load balancer (called here LB1) that is already serving HTTPS traffic on port 443.
Create a partial external HTTP load balancer (called here LB2). The LB2 setup has the following:
- No backend
- The same frontend IP address used by LB1
- A redirect configured in the URL map
This architecture is shown in the following diagram.
Prerequisite: Set up an external HTTPS load balancer (LB1)
If you don't already have an external HTTPS load balancer configured, use one of the following guides to complete that setup. Select a procedure for your backend type:
- Compute Engine backend
- Backend bucket
- Cloud Run, App Engine, or Cloud Functions backend
- External backend
If you already have a functioning HTTPS load balancer, skip to Redirecting traffic to your HTTPS load balancer.
Redirecting traffic to your HTTPS load balancer
After you have verified that your external HTTPS load balancer (LB1) is working, you can create the partial external HTTP load balancer (LB2) with its frontend configured to redirect traffic to LB1.
This example uses the 301 response code. You can instead use a different response code.
To configure the redirect with
gcloud, you must import a YAML file and make
sure that your target HTTP proxy points to the URL map that redirects
traffic. If you're using the Cloud Console, this is
handled for you.
Start the configuration
- In the Google Cloud Console, go to the Load balancing page. Go to Load balancing
- Under HTTP(S) load balancing, click Start configuration.
- Select From Internet to my VMs, and then click Continue.
- For the Name of the load balancer, enter something like
- Keep the window open to continue.
Skip the backend configuration
- Skip the Backend Configuration section. This load balancer doesn't need a backend.
Configure the redirect in the URL map
- In the left column of the page, click Host and path rules.
- Select Advanced host and path rule (URL redirect, URL rewrite).
- Under Action, select Redirect the client to different host/path.
- Leave the Prefix redirect field blank.
- Under Path redirect, select Prefix redirect.
- Leave the Path value field blank.
- Under Redirect response code, select 301 - Moved Permanently.
- Under HTTPS redirect, select Enable.
- Click Done.
- Keep the load balancer configuration page open to continue.
Configure the HTTP forwarding rule with the same IP address used in LB1
- On the load balancer configuration page, click Frontend configuration.
- Set Protocol to HTTP.
- Set IP address to the same IP address that you use for your HTTPS load balancer.
- Ensure that Port is set to 80 to allow HTTP traffic.
- Click Done.
- Keep the window open to continue.
Review the configuration
- In the left panel, click Review and finalize.
- Compare your settings to what you intended to create.
- If everything looks correct, click Create.
Create a YAML file
/tmp/web-map-http.yaml. This example uses MOVED_PERMANENTLY_DEFAULT as the response code.
kind: compute#urlMap name: web-map-http defaultUrlRedirect: redirectResponseCode: MOVED_PERMANENTLY_DEFAULT httpsRedirect: True tests: - description: Test with no query parameters host: foobar path: /test/ expectedOutputUrl: https://foobar/test/ expectedRedirectResponseCode: 301 - description: Test with query parameters host: foobar path: /test/?parameter1=value1¶meter2=value2 expectedOutputUrl: https://foobar/test/?parameter1=value1¶meter2=value2 expectedRedirectResponseCode: 301
Validate the URL map.
gcloud compute url-maps validate --source /tmp/web-map-http.yaml
If the tests pass and the command outputs a success message, save the changes to the URL map.
Create the HTTP load balancer's URL map by importing the YAML file. The name for this URL map is
gcloud compute url-maps import web-map-http \ --source /tmp/web-map-http.yaml \ --global
If you are updating an existing URL map, the following prompt appears:
Url Map [web-map-http] will be overwritten. Do you want to continue (Y/n)?
To continue, press Y.
Verify that the URL map is updated. Your HTTP load balancer's URL map should look something like this:
gcloud compute url-maps describe web-map-http
creationTimestamp: '2020-03-23T10:53:44.976-07:00' defaultUrlRedirect: httpsRedirect: true redirectResponseCode: MOVED_PERMANENTLY_DEFAULT fingerprint: 3A5N_RLrED8= id: '2020316695093397831' kind: compute#urlMap name: web-map-http selfLink: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/PROJECT_ID/global/urlMaps/web-map-http
Create a new target HTTP proxy or update an existing target HTTP proxy, using
web-map-httpas the URL map.
gcloud compute target-http-proxies create http-lb-proxy \ --url-map=web-map-http \ --global
gcloud compute target-http-proxies update http-lb-proxy \ --url-map=web-map-http \ --global
Create a global forwarding rule to route incoming requests to the proxy. The
lb-ipv4-1, which is the same IP address used for the external HTTPS load balancer.
gcloud compute forwarding-rules create http-content-rule \ --address=lb-ipv4-1 \ --global \ --target-http-proxy=http-lb-proxy \ --ports=80
When you are finished, the Cloud Console displays two load balancers, as follows.
The Cloud Console displays information about your
load balancer as follows.
Adding a custom header
Optionally, add the HTTP
header to your HTTPS load balancer's backend service, as follows:
- Header name:
- Header value:
max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload
This setting sends the custom header to the client so that the next time the client tries to access the URL through HTTP, the browser does the redirect.
To add the custom header to the backend service configuration, use the
--custom-response-header flag, as shown here:
gcloud compute backend-services update BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME_LB1 \ --global \ --custom-response-header='Strict-Transport-Security:max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload'
For more information, see Creating custom headers.
Testing the HTTP-to-HTTPS redirect
Note the reserved IP address that you are using for both load balancers.
gcloud compute addresses describe lb-ipv4-1 \ --format="get(address)" \ --global
In this example, assume that the reserved IP address is
http://18.104.22.168/ URL redirects to
After a few minutes have passed, you can test this by running the following
curl -v http://hostname.com
* Connected to 22.214.171.124 (126.96.36.199) port 80 (#0) > GET / HTTP/1.1 > Host: hostname.com > User-Agent: curl/7.64.0 > Accept: */* > < HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently < Cache-Control: private < Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 < Referrer-Policy: no-referrer < Location: https://hostname.com < Content-Length: 220 < Date: Fri, 30 Jul 2021 21:32:25 GMT < <HTML><HEAD><meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8"> <TITLE>301 Moved</TITLE></HEAD><BODY> <H1>301 Moved</H1> The document has moved <A HREF="https://hostname.com">here</A>. </BODY></HTML> * Connection #0 to host hostname.com left intact
To use Terraform, see the HTTP-to-HTTPS redirect tab.
For GKE, see the HTTP-to-HTTPS redirects in the GKE documentation.
For internal HTTP(S) load balancers, see Setting up HTTP-to-HTTPS redirect for internal HTTP(S) load balancers.
For other types of redirects, see URL redirects.