Deploy your app to upload and run it on App Engine. When you deploy your apps, you create versions of those apps and their corresponding services in App Engine. You can deploy entire apps, including all the source code and configuration files, or you can deploy and update individual versions or configuration files.
To programmatically deploy your apps, use the Admin API.
Before you begin
Before you can deploy your app:
Ensure that your user account includes the required privileges.
gcloud command line tool
To deploy your app with the
gcloud tool, you must download, install, and
initialize the Cloud SDK.
If you already have the
gcloud tool installed and want
to configure it to use a GCP project ID other than the one
that you initialized it to, see
Managing Cloud SDK Configurations.
Using a proxy
If you are running the deployment command from a system which uses an HTTP or HTTPS proxy, you must configure the tool so that it can communicate via the proxy.
Run the following commands to configure the
gcloud config set proxy/type [PROXY_TYPE] gcloud config set proxy/address [PROXY_ADDRESS] gcloud config set proxy/port [PROXY_PORT]
You can also set a
password for the proxy. For more
information, see gcloud config.
Set the environment variable that corresponds to your proxy:
- Mac / Linux
export HTTP_PROXY="http://cache.example.com:3128" export HTTPS_PROXY="http://cache.example.com:3128"
set HTTP_PROXY=http://cache.example.com:3128 set HTTPS_PROXY=http://cache.example.com:3128
Deploying an app
Choosing unique version IDsFor manually-scaled instances, the ID of your version should begin with a letter to distinguish them from numeric instance IDs. This ensures that requests are routed to the correct destination and avoids the ambiguity with URL patterns like
123.my-service.appspot.com, which can be interpreted two ways:
- If version
123exists, the request is routed to version
- If version
123does not exist, the request is instead routed to instance ID
123where the versions of the
my-serviceservice are running.
You can name your versions however you like for instances that are configured for auto scaling or basic scaling because targeting those instances is not supported.
gcloud app deploy [YOUR_DEPLOYMENTS]
[YOUR_DEPLOYMENTS] is one or more configuration file's path and
name. You separate each configuration file that you specify with a single
white space. By default, the
app.yaml is deployed when no configuration
file is specified.
- Include the
--versionflag to specify a custom version ID, otherwise one is generated for you.
- To deploy your app without automatically routing all traffic to that
version, include the
- Include the
--projectflag to specify an alternate GCP project ID to what you initialized as the default in the
gcloud app deploy gcloud app deploy app.yaml dos.yaml index.yaml gcloud app deploy --version [YOUR_VERSION_ID] --no-promote --project [YOUR_PROJECT_ID]
By default, each version that you deploy is automatically configured to
receive 100% of traffic. For configuration options, see the
gcloud app deploy reference.
gcloud help from the command line for a complete list of
arguments and flags.
After you install the original App Engine SDK for PHP 5, you can run the following command:
appcfg.py -A [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] -V [YOUR_VERSION_ID] update [YOUR_APP_DIR]
By default, the initial version that you deploy to a service is automatically configured to receive 100% of traffic. However, all subsequent versions that you deploy to the same service must be manually configured, otherwise they receive no traffic.
Deploying multiple service applications
When your application is factored into multiple services, you can deploy and update individually targeted services or all the services simultaneously. Deploying updates to services can include updating individual configuration files or updating the source code in the corresponding versions.
For example, you can deploy and create two versions in App Engine, where each version runs in their own service. The first version serves as the frontend service and the other as the backend of your app. You can then deploy individual configuration files to update only the settings of a service. You can also choose to deploy a new version to a service in order to update the source code of the frontend, backend, or both simultaneously.
Requirements for multiple services
You use the same deployment commands for deploying and updating the multiple services of your application with the following requirements:
You must initially deploy a version of your app to the
defaultservice before you can create and deploy subsequent services.
You must specify the ID of your service in the
app.yamlconfiguration file of the corresponding version. To specify the service ID, you include the
service: [YOUR_SERVICE_ID]element definition in each configuration file. By default, excluding this element definition from your configuration file deploys the version to the
You must specify all the corresponding
app.yamlconfiguration files in your deployment command to simultaneously deploy multiple services.
To deploy multiple services
From the root directory of the application where the configuration files are
located, you run the deployment command and specify the relative paths and file
names for each service's
gcloud app deploy [DEPLOYMENTS]
appcfg.py update [DEPLOYMENTS]
[DEPLOYMENTS] is one or more configuration file's path and name
separated by a single whitespace.
gcloud app deploy main/app.yaml service1/app.yaml service2/app.yaml
appcfg.py update main/app.yaml service1/app.yaml service2/app.yaml
You will receive verification via the command line as each service is successfully deployed.
The following are common error messages that you might encounter:
PERMISSION_DENIED: Operation not allowed
The "appengine.applications.create" permission is required.
- If the GCP project does not include the required
gcloud app deploycommand can fail when it tries to run the
gcloud app createcommand. Only accounts with Owner role have the necessary permissions to create App Engine applications.
Command not found
If you did not create symlinks for the
dev_appserver.shtools when you installed the (deprecated) App Engine SDK, you might need to specify the full directory path to run the tool, for example:
Note: To use
appcfg.pyyou must download and install the original App Engine SDK for PHP 5.
If you installed both the Cloud SDK as well as the original App Engine SDK, the entries to your PATH might conflict with one another and cause import errors. If you received errors when running Cloud SDK commands, try explicitly using the original App Engine SDK. You can move the entry for the original App Engine SDK to earlier in your PATH so that those commands have priority. Alternatively, you can run the command by specifying the full directory path:
Tip: On Linux or Mac, you can run
which dev_appserver.pyto determine which SDK is first in your PATH.
 The first service (module) you upload to a new application must be the 'default' service (module)
Before you can deploy and create the multiple services of your application, you must first deploy and create the
defaultservice. For details about how to deploy a version to the
defaultservice, see Deploying multiple service applications.
Too Many Versions (403)
App Engine has a limit on the number of deployed versions of your application. These differ for free applications and deployed applications. You can use the GCP Console to delete an older version and then upload your latest code.