Use a registry mirror to create clusters

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This page explains how to create clusters using images pulled from a registry mirror rather than from a public registry, such as gcr.io.

A registry mirror is a local copy of a public registry that copies or mirrors the file structure of the public registry. For example, let's say that the path to your local registry mirror is 172.18.0.20:5000. When containerd encounters a request to pull an image such as gcr.io/kubernetes-e2e-test-images/nautilus:1.0, containerd attempts to pull that image, not from gcr.io, but from your local registry at the following path: 172.18.0.20:5000/kubernetes-e2e-test-images/nautilus:1.0. If the image isn't in this local registry path, the image is pulled automatically from the public registry gcr.io.

Using a registry mirror provides the following benefits:

  • Protects you from public registry outages.
  • Speeds up pod creation.
  • Allows you to conduct your own vulnerability scanning.
  • Avoids limits imposed by public registries on how frequently you can issue commands to them.

Before you begin

  • You must have a container registry server set up in your network.
  • If your registry server runs a private TLS certificate, you must have the certificate authority (CA) file.
  • If your registry server needs authentication, you must have the proper login credentials or Docker configuration file.
  • To use a registry mirror, you must set the container runtime to containerd.

Download all required images for Anthos clusters on bare metal

Download the latest version of the bmctl tool and images package from the Downloads page.

Upload container images to your registry server

Upload the images from the images package to your registry server by running:

[HTTPS_PROXY=http://PROXY_IP:PORT] ./bmctl push images \
    --source=./bmpackages_VERSION.tar.xz \
    --private-registry=REGISTRY_IP:PORT \
    [--cacert=CERT_PATH] \
    [--need-credential=false]

Replace the following:

  • PROXY_IP:PORT with the IP address and port of the proxy if you need a proxy to upload the images from your workstation to the registry server.
  • VERSION with the version of the images package you downloaded from the Downloads page.
  • REGISTRY_IP:PORT with the IP address and port of the private registry server.
  • CERT_PATH with the path of the CA cert file if your registry server uses a private TLS certificate.

Enter your username and password when prompted or select a Docker configuration file. If your registry server doesn't require credentials, then specify --need-credential=false.

For more information on the bmctl push images command, run:

bmctl push images --help

Use your own namespace

If you want to use your own namespace in your registry server instead of the root namespace, containerd can pull from this namespace if you provide the API endpoint for your private registry in registryMirrors.endpoint. The endpoint is usually in the format of <REGISTRY_IP:PORT>/v2/<NAMESPACE>. Check your private registry's user guide for specific details.

For example, if you only have access to 172.18.0.20:5000/test-namespace/, you can use the following command to upload all the images under namespace test-namespace:

./bmctl push images \
    --source=./bmpackages_VERSION.tar.xz \
    --private-registry=172.18.0.20:5000/test-namespace
    --username=<USERNAME>
    --password=<PASSWORD>
    --cacert <path/to/cert.crt>

Then in the cluster configuration file, you can add the following to make containerd pull from the namespace:

registryMirrors:
  - endpoint: https://172.18.0.20:5000/v2/test-namespace

Create clusters from the registry mirror

The following sample cluster configuration file specifies that images are to be pulled from a local registry mirror whose endpoint is https://172.18.0.20:5000. Some of the fields appearing at the beginning of this configuration file are described in the following sections.

# Sample cluster config with registry mirror:
---
gcrKeyPath: /bmctl/bmctl-workspace/.sa-keys/my-gcp-project-anthos-baremetal-gcr.json
sshPrivateKeyPath: /root/ssh-key/id_rsa
registryMirrors:
  - endpoint: https://172.18.0.20:5000
    caCertPath: /root/ca.crt
    pullCredentialConfigPath: /root/.docker/config.json
    hosts:
      - somehost.io
      - otherhost.io
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: cluster-admin1
---
apiVersion: baremetal.cluster.gke.io/v1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: admin1
  namespace: cluster-admin1
spec:
  nodeConfig:
    containerRuntime: containerd
...

hosts field

containerd checks the hosts section of the cluster configuration file to discover which hosts are mirrored locally. In the example configuration file, the public registries listed in the hosts section are somehost.io and otherhost.io. Because these public registries appear in the hosts section, containerd checks the private registry mirror first when it encounters pull requests for images from somehost.io or otherhost.io.

For example, let's say containerd comes across a pull command to somehost.io/kubernetes-e2e-test-images/nautilus:1.0. Because somehost.io is listed as one of the hosts in the hosts section of the cluster configuration file, containerd looks in the local registry mirror for the kubernetes-e2e-test-images/nautilus:1.0 image. If somehost.io isn't listed in the hosts section, containerd doesn't know that a local mirror of somehost.io exists. In that case, containerd doesn't check the mirror for the image, and it simply pulls the image from the somehost.io public registry.

Note that by default, Anthos clusters on bare metal automatically mirrors images from gcr.io so you don't need to list gcr.io as a host in the hosts section.

gcrKeyPath field

If you want Anthos clusters on bare metal to automatically use Container Registry (gcr.io) to pull images that don't appear in your local registry, you must specify the path to the Container Registry service account key. Anthos clusters on bare metal doesn't have a mechanism for providing keys for other public registries.

If you don't plan on using the feature in which images are pulled from gcr.io when they don't appear in your local registry, then you don't need to add a gcrKeyPath to the cluster configuration file.

caCertPath field

If your registry doesn't require a private TLS certificate, then you can leave the caCertPath field blank.

pullCredentialConfigPath field

If your registry server doesn't require an authentication Docker configuration file, then you can leave the pullCredentialConfigPath field blank.

Create user cluster from the registry mirror

User clusters don't automatically pull images from a registry mirror if their admin cluster has been configured to do so. To have user clusters pull from a registry mirror, you need to configure them individually as described in Create clusters from the registry mirror.

Update registry mirror endpoints, certificates, and pull credentials

To update registry mirror endpoints, certificates, or pull credentials:

  1. In the cluster configuration file, update the endpoint, CA certificate file, pull credential configuration file path.

  2. Apply the changes by running:

    bmctl update cluster -c CLUSTER_NAME --kubeconfig=ADMIN_KUBECONFIG
    

    Replace the following:

    • CLUSTER_NAME with the name of the cluster you want to update.
    • ADMIN_KUBECONFIG with the path of its admin cluster's configuration file.

Verify images are pulled from registry mirror

This section describes two methods you can use to verify whether containerd is pulling images from your local registry mirror rather than from a public registry.

Method #1: compare repository digests

This method involves comparing repository digests to determine whether an image has been pulled from your registry mirror.

Keep in mind that a registry has a unique identifier called the repository digest, and an image has a unique identifier called the container image digest. Two images that are identical have the same container image digest, even if the images come from different registries. However, if images come from different registries, they have different repository digests.

  1. Log into a cluster node using SSH.

  2. Choose an image whose origin you want to verify.

  3. Pull the image from the public registry you use by running the following command:

    crictl pull PUBLIC_ENDPOINT
    

    Replace PUBLIC_ENDPOINT with the image's path in the public registry. For example: gcr.io/anthos-baremetal-release/kube-rbac-proxy:v0.6.0-gke.0.

  4. Pull the same image from your registry mirror by running the following command:

    crictl pull MIRROR_ENDPOINT
    

    Replace MIRROR_ENDPOINT with the image's path in your registry mirror. For example: 10.168.15.224:5007/test-namespace/anthos-baremetal-release/kube-rbac-proxy:v0.6.0-gke.0.

  5. Run the following command to display the repository digests of the two images you pulled in the previous steps:

    crictl inspecti PUBLIC_OR_MIRROR_ENDPOINT | grep -A 3 repoDigests
    

    Replace PUBLIC_OR_MIRROR_ENDPOINT with either the image's public endpoint or the image's registry mirror endpoint. Either one is fine because the crictl inspecti command looks at the container image digest of the argument you pass to it. Since the image from the public registry is identical to the image from the registry mirror, they both have the same container image digest.

    Output from the command might look like this:

     "repoDigests": [
       "gcr.io/anthos-baremetal-release/kube-rbac-proxy@sha256:27be66fb9140d83c4af8794a234b998c90e844e3414108ce72db603f4f6ea0b3",
       "10.168.15.224:5007/test-namespace/anthos-baremetal-release/kube-rbac-proxy@sha256:27be66fb9140d83c4af8794a234b998c90e844e3414108ce72db603f4f6ea0b3"
     ],
    
  6. Compare the repository digests that appear in bold in the output from the preceding step. If the digests are identical, then the nodes in your cluster are pulling from your registry mirror. Otherwise, your cluster nodes are pulling images from a public registry.

Method #2: examine config.toml file

You can determine whether containerd is pulling images from your local registry by examining the contents of a config.toml file as shown in the following steps:

  1. Log into a node and examine the contents of the following file: /etc/containerd/config.toml

  2. Check the plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.mirrors section of the config.toml file to see whether your registry server is listed in the endpoint field. Here's an excerpt from an example config.toml file in which the endpoint field appears in bold:

version = 2
root = "/var/lib/containerd"
state = "/run/containerd"
...
[plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry]
  [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.configs]
    [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.configs."gcr.io"]
      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.configs."privateregistry2.io".tls]
        ca_file = '/etc/containerd/certs.d/privateregistry2.io/ca.crt'
  [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.mirrors]
    [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.mirrors."gcr.io"]
      endpoint = ["http://privateregistry.io", "http://privateregistry2.io"]
...

If your registry mirror appears in the endpoint field, then the node is pulling images from your registry mirror rather than from a public registry.