Eventarc overview

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Eventarc lets you build event-driven architectures without having to implement, customize, or maintain the underlying infrastructure. Eventarc offers a standardized solution to manage the flow of state changes, called events, between decoupled microservices. When triggered, Eventarc routes these events through Pub/Sub subscriptions to various destinations (in this document, see Event destinations) while managing delivery, security, authorization, observability, and error-handling for you.

You can manage Eventarc from the Google Cloud console, from the command line using the gcloud CLI, or by using the Eventarc API.

Eventarc is compliant with these certifications and standards.

Eventarc architecture

1 Events from Google Cloud providers are either sent directly from the source (Cloud Storage, for example) or through Cloud Audit Logs entries, and use Pub/Sub as the transport layer. Events from Pub/Sub sources can use an existing Pub/Sub topic or Eventarc will automatically create a topic and manage it for you.

2 Events for Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) destinations—including Cloud Run for Anthos (CRfA) services running in a GKE cluster—use Eventarc's event forwarder to pull new events from Pub/Sub and forward it to the destination. This component acts as a mediator between the Pub/Sub transport layer and the target service. It works on existing services and also supports signaling services (including those not exposed outside of the fully-managed cluster) while simplifying setup and maintenance. Note that the event forwarder's lifecycle is managed by Eventarc, and if you accidentally delete the event forwarder, Eventarc will restore this component.

3 Events for a workflow execution are transformed and passed to the workflow as runtime arguments. Workflows can combine and orchestrate Google Cloud and HTTP-based API services in an order that you define.

Key use cases

Eventarc supports many use cases for destination applications. Some examples are:

Configure and monitor
  • System configuration: Install a configuration management tool on a new VM when it is started.
  • Automated remediation: Detect if a service is not responding properly and automatically restart it.
  • Alerts and notifications: Monitor the balance of a cryptocurrency wallet address and trigger notifications.
Harmonize
  • Directory registrations: Activate an employee badge when a new employee joins a company.
  • Data synchronization: Trigger an accounting workflow when a prospect is converted in a CRM system.
  • Resource labeling: Label and identify the creator of a VM when it is created.
Analyze
  • Sentiment analysis: Use the Cloud Natural Language API to train and deploy an ML model that attaches a satisfaction score to a customer service ticket when it is completed.
  • Image retouching and analysis: Remove the background and automatically categorize an image when a retailer adds it to an object store.

Events

An event is a data record expressing an occurrence and its context. An event is a discrete unit of communication, independent of other events. For example, an event might be a change to data in a database, a file added to a storage system, or a scheduled job.

See Event types supported by Eventarc.

Event providers

Events are routed from an event provider (the source) to interested event consumers. The routing is performed based on information contained in the event, but an event does not identify a specific routing destination. Currently, Eventarc supports events from the following providers:

  • More than 130 Google Cloud providers. These providers send events:
    • Directly from the source (Cloud Storage, for example)
    • Through Cloud Audit Logs entries.
  • Third-party providers. These providers send events directly from the source (third-party SaaS providers such as Check Point CloudGuard platform, for example).
  • Pub/Sub providers. These providers send events to Eventarc using Pub/Sub messages.

Event destinations

Events are routed to a specific destination (the target) known as the event receiver (or consumer) through Pub/Sub push subscriptions.

Cloud Functions (2nd gen)

All event-driven functions in Cloud Functions (2nd gen) use Eventarc triggers to deliver events. An Eventarc trigger enables a function to be triggered by any event type supported by Eventarc. You can configure Eventarc triggers when you deploy a Cloud Function using the Cloud Functions interface.

Cloud Run

Learn how to build an event receiver service that can be deployed to Cloud Run.

To determine how best to route events to a Cloud Run service, see Event routing options.

GKE

Eventarc supports creating triggers that target Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) services. This includes private and public Cloud Run for Anthos services running in a GKE cluster.

  • For Eventarc to target and manage services in any given cluster, you must grant the Eventarc service account any necessary permissions.

  • You need to enable Workload Identity on the GKE cluster that the destination service is running on. Workload Identity is required to properly set up the event forwarder and is the recommended way to access Google Cloud services from applications running within GKE due to its improved security properties and manageability. For more information, see Using Workload Identity.

Workflows

An execution of your workflow is triggered either by messages published to a Pub/Sub topic, when an audit log is created that matches the trigger's filter criteria, or in response to various events inside a Cloud Storage bucket—object creation, deletion, archiving, and metadata updates.

Workflows requires an IAM service account email that your Eventarc trigger will use to invoke the workflow executions. We recommend using a service account with the least privileges necessary to access the required resources. To learn more about service accounts, see Create and manage service accounts.

Event format and libraries

Eventarc delivers events, regardless of provider, to the target destination in a CloudEvents format using an HTTP request in binary content mode. CloudEvents is a specification for describing event metadata in a common way, under the Cloud Native Computing Foundation and organized by the foundation's Serverless Working Group.

Cloud Functions, Cloud Run, and GKE target destinations consume events in the HTTP format. However, for Workflows destinations, the Workflows service converts the event to a JSON object (following the JSON CloudEvents specification) and passes the event into the workflow execution as a runtime argument.

Using a standard way to describe event metadata ensures consistency, accessibility, and portability. Event consumers can read these events directly, or you can use Google CloudEvents SDKs and libraries in various languages (including C#, Go, Java, Node.js, and Python) to read and parse the events:

Eventarc parsing libraries

The structure of the HTTP body for all events is available in the Google CloudEvents GitHub repository.

Backwards-compatibility

Eventarc considers the addition of the following attributes and fields backwards-compatible:

  • Optional filtering attributes or output-only attributes
  • Optional fields to the event payload

Eventarc triggers

Events occur whether or not a target destination reacts to them. You create a response to an event with a trigger. A trigger is a declaration that you are interested in a certain event or set of events. When you create a trigger, you specify filters for the trigger that let you capture and act on those specific events, including their routing from an event source to a target destination. For more information, see the REST representation of a trigger resource, and learn how to create a trigger.

Note that Pub/Sub subscriptions created for Eventarc persist regardless of activity and do not expire. To change the subscription properties, see Manage subscriptions.

Eventarc supports triggers for these event types:

Cloud Audit Logs (CAL) events
DescriptionCloud Audit Logs provide Admin Activity and Data Access audit logs for each Cloud project, folder, and organization. Google Cloud services write entries to these logs. This list of supported events includes a directory of serviceName and methodName values.
Event filter typeEventarc triggers with type=google.cloud.audit.log.v1.written send requests to your service or workflow when an audit log is created that matches the trigger's filter criteria.
Cloud Pub/Sub events
DescriptionEventarc can be triggered by messages published to Pub/Sub topics. Pub/Sub is a globally distributed message bus that automatically scales as you need it. Because Eventarc can be invoked by messages on a Pub/Sub topic, you can easily integrate Eventarc with any other service that supports Pub/Sub as a destination.
Event filter typeEventarc triggers with type=google.cloud.pubsub.topic.v1.messagePublished send requests to your service or workflow when a message is published to the specified Pub/Sub topic.
Direct events
DescriptionEventarc can be triggered by various direct events such as an update to a Cloud Storage bucket, an update to a Firebase Remote Config template, or changes to resources on Google Cloud services.
Event filter typeEventarc triggers with specific event filter types send requests to your service or workflow when an event occurs that matches the trigger's filter criteria; for example, type=google.cloud.storage.object.v1.finalized.

Trigger location

Google Cloud services such as Cloud Storage can be set up to be regional or multi-regional. Some services, such as Cloud Build can be set up globally.

Eventarc lets you create regional triggers or, for some events, you can create a global trigger and receive events from all regions. For more information, see Understand Eventarc locations.

You should specify the location of the Eventarc trigger to match the location of the Google Cloud service that is generating events and avoid any performance and data residency issues caused by a global trigger.

You can specify trigger locations using a --location flag with each command. If a --destination-run-region flag is not specified, it is assumed that the service is in the same region as the trigger. For more information, see the Google Cloud CLI reference.

Reliability and delivery

Delivery expectations are as follows:

  • Events using Cloud Audit Logs are delivered in under a minute. (Note that although a Cloud Audit Logs trigger is created immediately, it can take up to two minutes for a trigger to propagate and filter events.)
  • Events using Pub/Sub are delivered in seconds.

There is no in-order, first-in-first-out delivery guarantee. Note that having strict ordering would undermine Eventarc's availability and scalability features which match those of its transport layer, Cloud Pub/Sub. For more information, see Ordering messages.

Latency and throughput are best effort. They vary based on multiple factors, including whether the Eventarc trigger is regional, multi-regional, or global; the configuration of a particular service; and the network load on resources in a Google Cloud region.

Note that there are usage quotas and limits that apply generally to Eventarc. There are also usage quota and limits that are specific to Workflows.

Event retry policy

The retry characteristics of Eventarc match that of its transport layer, Cloud Pub/Sub. For more information, see Retry requests and Push backoff.

The default message retention duration set by Eventarc is 24 hours with an exponential backoff delay.

You can update the retry policy through the Pub/Sub subscription associated with the Eventarc trigger: Open the Trigger details page, click the topic, and then the Subscriptions tab. Any subscription automatically created by Eventarc will have this format: projects/PROJECT_ID/subscriptions/eventarc-REGION-TRIGGER_ID-sub-SUBSCRIPTION_ID. For more information on subscription limits, see Pub/Sub resource limits.

If Pub/Sub attempts to deliver a message but the destination can't acknowledge it, Pub/Sub will send the message again with a minimum exponential backoff of 10 seconds. If the destination continues to not acknowledge the message, more time is added to the delay in each retry (up to a maximum of 600 seconds) and the message is resent to the destination. If the destination does not receive the message, you can forward undelivered messages to a dead-letter topic (also known as a dead-letter queue). For more information, see Handling message failures.

When applications use Pub/Sub as the event source and the event is not delivered, the event is automatically retried, except for errors that do not warrant retries. Note that Workflows acknowledges events as soon as the workflow execution starts. Events to the workflow destination from any source won't be retried if the workflow does not execute. If the workflow execution starts but later fails, the executions are not retried. To resolve such service issues, you should handle errors and retries within the workflow.

Duplicate events

Duplicate events might be delivered to event handlers. According to the CloudEvents specification, the combination of source and id attributes is considered unique, and therefore any events with the same combination are considered duplicates. You should implement idempotent event handlers as a general best practice.

Observability

Detailed logs for Eventarc, Cloud Run, GKE, Pub/Sub, and Workflows are available from Cloud Audit Logs.

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