Create CAI constraints

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Before you begin

Constraint Framework

gcloud beta terraform vet uses Constraint Framework policies, which consist of constraints and constraint templates. The difference between the two is as follows:

  • A constraint template is like a function declaration; it defines a rule in Rego and optionally takes input parameters.
  • A constraint is a file that references a constraint template and defines the input parameters to pass to it and the resources covered by the policy.

This allows you to avoid repetition. You can write a constraint template with a generic policy, then write any number of constraints that provide different input parameters or different resource matching rules.

CAI Assets vs Terraform resources

Cloud Asset Inventory Assets are a standard Google data export format that is available for many GCP resources. CAI data is only usually available after a resource has been created or updated. However, by converting Terraform resource changes to CAI Asset data, gcloud beta terraform vet allows you to write a policy one time and use it both before apply and as an audit check with compatible tools.

Compatible tools

The following tools are not official Google products and are not supported. However, they may be compatible with policies written for gcloud beta terraform vet.

Create a constraint template

Before you develop your constraint template, verify that the Asset you want to write a policy for is supported by both Cloud Asset Inventory and by gcloud beta terraform vet.

Creating a constraint template takes the following steps:

  1. Collect sample data.
  2. Write Rego.
  3. Test your Rego.
  4. Set up a constraint template skeleton.
  5. Inline your Rego.
  6. Set up a constraint.

Collect sample data

In order to write a constraint template, you need to have sample data to operate on. CAI-based constraints operate on CAI Asset data. Gather sample data by creating resources of the appropriate type and exporting those resources as JSON, as described in the CAI quickstart.

Here is an example JSON export for a Compute Address:

[
  {
    "name": "//compute.googleapis.com/projects/789/regions/us-central1/addresses/my-internal-address",
    "asset_type": "compute.googleapis.com/Address",
    "ancestors: [
      "organization/123",
      "folder/456",
      "project/789"
    ],
    "resource": {
      "version": "v1",
      "discovery_document_uri": "https://www.googleapis.com/discovery/v1/apis/compute/v1/rest",
      "discovery_name": "Address",
      "parent": "//cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/projects/789",
      "data": {
        "address": "10.0.42.42",
        "addressType": "INTERNAL",
        "name": "my-internal-address",
        "region": "projects/789/global/regions/us-central1"
      }
    }
  },
]

Write Rego

After you have sample data, you can write the logic for your constraint template in Rego. Your Rego must have a violations rule. The asset being reviewed is available as input.review. Constraint parameters are available as input.parameters. For example, to require that compute.googleapis.com/Address assets have an allowed addressType, write:

# validator/gcp_compute_address_address_type_allowlist_constraint_v1.rego
package templates.gcp.GCPComputeAddressAddressTypeAllowlistConstraintV1

violation[{
  "msg": message,
  "details": metadata,
}] {
  asset := input.review
  asset.asset_type == "compute.googleapis.com/Address"

  allowed_address_types := input.parameters.allowed_address_types
  count({asset.resource.data.addressType} & allowed_address_types) >= 1
  message := sprintf(
    "Compute address %s has a disallowed address_type: %s",
    [asset.name, asset.resource.data.addressType]
  )
  metadata := {"asset": asset.name}
}

Name your constraint template

The previous example uses the name GCPComputeAddressAddressTypeAllowlistConstraintV1. This is a unique identifier for each constraint template. We recommend following these naming guidelines:

  • General format: GCP{resource}{feature}Constraint{version}. Use CamelCase. (In other words, capitalize each new word.)
  • For single-resource constraints, follow gcloud group names for resource naming. For example, use "compute" instead of "gce", "sql" instead of "cloud-sql", and "container-cluster" instead of "gke".
  • If a template applies to more than one type of resource, omit the resource part and only include the feature (example: "GCPAddressTypeAllowlistConstraintV1").
  • The version number does not follow semver form; it is just a single number. This effectively makes every version of a template an unique template.

We recommend using a name for your Rego file that matches the constraint template name, but using snake_case. In other words, convert the name to lowercase separate words with _. For the previous example, the recommended filename is gcp_compute_address_address_type_allowlist_constraint_v1.rego

Test your Rego

You can test your Rego manually with the Rego Playground. Make sure to use non-sensitive data.

We recommend writing automated tests. Put your collected sample data in validator/test/fixtures/<constraint filename>/assets/data.json and reference it in your test file like this:

# validator/gcp_compute_address_address_type_allowlist_constraint_v1_test.rego
package templates.gcp.GCPComputeAddressAddressTypeAllowlistConstraintV1

import data.test.fixtures.gcp_compute_address_address_type_allowlist_constraint_v1_test.assets as assets

test_violation_with_disallowed_address_type {
  parameters := {
    "allowed_address_types": "EXTERNAL"
  }
  violations := violation with input.review as assets[_]
    with input.parameters as parameters
  count(violations) == 1
}

Place your Rego and your test in the validator folder in your policy library.

Set up a constraint template skeleton

After you have a working and tested Rego rule, you must package it as a constraint template. Constraint Framework uses Kubernetes Custom Resource Definitions as the container for the policy Rego.

The constraint template also defines what parameters are allowed as inputs from constraints, using the OpenAPI V3 schema.

Use the same name for the skeleton as you used for your Rego. In particular:

  • Use the same filename as for your Rego. Example: gcp_compute_address_address_type_allowlist_constraint_v1.yaml
  • spec.crd.spec.names.kind must contain the template name
  • metadata.name must contain the template name, but lower-cased

Place the constraint template skeleton in policies/templates.

For the example above:

# policies/templates/gcp_compute_address_address_type_allowlist_constraint_v1.yaml
apiVersion: templates.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: ConstraintTemplate
metadata:
  name: gcpcomputeaddressaddresstypeallowlistconstraintv1
spec:
  crd:
    spec:
      names:
        kind: GCPComputeAddressAddressTypeAllowlistConstraintV1
      validation:
        openAPIV3Schema:
          properties:
            allowed_address_types:
              description: "A list of address_types allowed, for example: ['INTERNAL']"
              type: array
              items:
                type: string
  targets:
    - target: validation.gcp.forsetisecurity.org
      rego: |
            #INLINE("validator/gcp_compute_address_address_type_allowlist_constraint_v1.rego")
            #ENDINLINE

Inline your Rego

At this point, following the previous example, your directory layout looks like this:

| policy-library/
|- validator/
||- gcp_compute_address_address_type_allowlist_constraint_v1.rego
||- gcp_compute_address_address_type_allowlist_constraint_v1_test.rego
|- policies
||- templates
|||- gcp_compute_address_address_type_allowlist_constraint_v1.yaml

If you cloned the Google-provided policy-library repository, you can run make build to automatically update your constraint templates in policies/templates with the Rego defined in validator.

Set up a constraint

Constraints contain three pieces of information that gcloud beta terraform vet needs to properly enforce and report violations:

  • severity: low, medium, or high
  • match: parameters for determining if a constraint applies to a particular resource. The following match parameters are supported:
    • ancestries: A list of ancestry paths to include using glob-style matching
    • excludedAncestries: (Optional) A list of ancestry paths to exclude using glob-style matching.
  • parameters: Values for the constraint template's input parameters.

Make sure that kind contains the constraint template name. We recommend setting metadata.name to a descriptive slug.

For example, to only allow INTERNAL address types using the previous example constraint template, write:

# policies/constraints/gcp_compute_address_internal_only.yaml
apiVersion: constraints.gatekeeper.sh/v1beta1
kind: GCPComputeAddressAddressTypeAllowlistConstraintV1
metadata:
  name: gcp_compute_address_internal_only
spec:
  severity: high
  match:
    ancestries:
    - "**"
  parameters:
    allowed_address_types:
    - "INTERNAL"

Matching examples:

Ancestry path matcher Description
organizations/** All organizations
organizations/123/** Everything in organization 123
organizations/123/folders/** Everything in organization 123 that is under a folder
organizations/123/folders/456 Everything in folder 456 in organization 123
organizations/123/folders/456/projects/789 Everything in project 789 in folder 456 in organization 123

If a resource address matches values in ancestries and excludedAncestries, it is excluded.

Limitations

Terraform plan data gives the best available representation of actual state after apply; however, in many cases the state after apply may not be known because it is calculated on the server side. In these cases the data is not available in the converted CAI Assets either.

Supported resources

If you want gcloud beta terraform vet to add support for a resource that is not on this list, open an enhancement request and consider contributing code.

The list of supported resources depends on which version of gcloud beta terraform vet is installed. The current list of supported resources follows:

Terraform resource Cloud Asset Inventory Assets
google_access_context_manager_access_policy_iam_binding accesscontextmanager.googleapis.com/AccessPolicy
google_access_context_manager_access_policy_iam_member accesscontextmanager.googleapis.com/AccessPolicy
google_access_context_manager_access_policy_iam_policy accesscontextmanager.googleapis.com/AccessPolicy
google_access_context_manager_service_perimeter accesscontextmanager.googleapis.com/ServicePerimeter
google_apigee_environment_iam_binding apigee.googleapis.com/Environment
google_apigee_environment_iam_member apigee.googleapis.com/Environment
google_apigee_environment_iam_policy apigee.googleapis.com/Environment
google_bigquery_dataset bigquery.googleapis.com/Dataset
google_bigquery_dataset_iam_binding bigquery.googleapis.com/Dataset
google_bigquery_dataset_iam_member bigquery.googleapis.com/Dataset
google_bigquery_dataset_iam_policy bigquery.googleapis.com/Dataset
google_bigquery_table bigquery.googleapis.com/Table
google_bigquery_table_iam_binding bigquery.googleapis.com/Table
google_bigquery_table_iam_member bigquery.googleapis.com/Table
google_bigquery_table_iam_policy bigquery.googleapis.com/Table
google_bigtable_instance bigtableadmin.googleapis.com/Cluster, bigtableadmin.googleapis.com/Instance
google_binary_authorization_attestor_iam_binding binaryauthorization.googleapis.com/Attestor
google_binary_authorization_attestor_iam_member binaryauthorization.googleapis.com/Attestor
google_binary_authorization_attestor_iam_policy binaryauthorization.googleapis.com/Attestor
google_cloud_run_domain_mapping run.googleapis.com/DomainMapping
google_cloud_run_service run.googleapis.com/Service
google_cloud_run_service_iam_binding run.googleapis.com/Service
google_cloud_run_service_iam_member run.googleapis.com/Service
google_cloud_run_service_iam_policy run.googleapis.com/Service
google_cloudfunctions_function cloudfunctions.googleapis.com/CloudFunction
google_cloudfunctions_function_iam_binding cloudfunctions.googleapis.com/CloudFunction
google_cloudfunctions_function_iam_member cloudfunctions.googleapis.com/CloudFunction
google_cloudfunctions_function_iam_policy cloudfunctions.googleapis.com/CloudFunction
google_compute_address compute.googleapis.com/Address
google_compute_backend_service_iam_binding compute.googleapis.com/BackendService
google_compute_backend_service_iam_member compute.googleapis.com/BackendService
google_compute_backend_service_iam_policy compute.googleapis.com/BackendService
google_compute_disk compute.googleapis.com/Disk
google_compute_disk_iam_binding compute.googleapis.com/Disk
google_compute_disk_iam_member compute.googleapis.com/Disk
google_compute_disk_iam_policy compute.googleapis.com/Disk
google_compute_firewall compute.googleapis.com/Firewall
google_compute_forwarding_rule compute.googleapis.com/ForwardingRule
google_compute_global_address compute.googleapis.com/GlobalAddress
google_compute_global_forwarding_rule compute.googleapis.com/GlobalForwardingRule
google_compute_image_iam_binding compute.googleapis.com/Image
google_compute_image_iam_member compute.googleapis.com/Image
google_compute_image_iam_policy compute.googleapis.com/Image
google_compute_instance compute.googleapis.com/Instance
google_compute_instance_iam_binding compute.googleapis.com/Instance
google_compute_instance_iam_member compute.googleapis.com/Instance
google_compute_instance_iam_policy compute.googleapis.com/Instance
google_compute_network compute.googleapis.com/Network
google_compute_region_backend_service_iam_binding compute.googleapis.com/RegionBackendService
google_compute_region_backend_service_iam_member compute.googleapis.com/RegionBackendService
google_compute_region_backend_service_iam_policy compute.googleapis.com/RegionBackendService
google_compute_region_disk_iam_binding compute.googleapis.com/RegionDisk
google_compute_region_disk_iam_member compute.googleapis.com/RegionDisk
google_compute_region_disk_iam_policy compute.googleapis.com/RegionDisk
google_compute_security_policy compute.googleapis.com/SecurityPolicy
google_compute_snapshot compute.googleapis.com/Snapshot
google_compute_ssl_policy compute.googleapis.com/SslPolicy
google_compute_subnetwork compute.googleapis.com/Subnetwork
google_compute_subnetwork_iam_binding compute.googleapis.com/Subnetwork
google_compute_subnetwork_iam_member compute.googleapis.com/Subnetwork
google_compute_subnetwork_iam_policy compute.googleapis.com/Subnetwork
google_container_cluster container.googleapis.com/Cluster
google_container_node_pool container.googleapis.com/NodePool
google_data_catalog_entry_group_iam_binding datacatalog.googleapis.com/EntryGroup
google_data_catalog_entry_group_iam_member datacatalog.googleapis.com/EntryGroup
google_data_catalog_entry_group_iam_policy datacatalog.googleapis.com/EntryGroup
google_data_catalog_tag_template_iam_binding datacatalog.googleapis.com/TagTemplate
google_data_catalog_tag_template_iam_member datacatalog.googleapis.com/TagTemplate
google_data_catalog_tag_template_iam_policy datacatalog.googleapis.com/TagTemplate
google_dns_managed_zone dns.googleapis.com/ManagedZone
google_dns_policy dns.googleapis.com/Policy
google_endpoints_service_consumers_iam_binding servicemanagement.googleapis.com/ServiceConsumers
google_endpoints_service_consumers_iam_member servicemanagement.googleapis.com/ServiceConsumers
google_endpoints_service_consumers_iam_policy servicemanagement.googleapis.com/ServiceConsumers
google_endpoints_service_iam_binding servicemanagement.googleapis.com/Service
google_endpoints_service_iam_member servicemanagement.googleapis.com/Service
google_endpoints_service_iam_policy servicemanagement.googleapis.com/Service
google_filestore_instance file.googleapis.com/Instance
google_folder_iam_binding cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Folder
google_folder_iam_member cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Folder
google_folder_iam_policy cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Folder
google_folder_organization_policy cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Folder
google_healthcare_consent_store_iam_binding healthcare.googleapis.com/ConsentStore
google_healthcare_consent_store_iam_member healthcare.googleapis.com/ConsentStore
google_healthcare_consent_store_iam_policy healthcare.googleapis.com/ConsentStore
google_iap_tunnel_iam_binding iap.googleapis.com/Tunnel
google_iap_tunnel_iam_member iap.googleapis.com/Tunnel
google_iap_tunnel_iam_policy iap.googleapis.com/Tunnel
google_iap_tunnel_instance_iam_binding iap.googleapis.com/TunnelInstance
google_iap_tunnel_instance_iam_member iap.googleapis.com/TunnelInstance
google_iap_tunnel_instance_iam_policy iap.googleapis.com/TunnelInstance
google_iap_web_iam_binding iap.googleapis.com/Web
google_iap_web_iam_member iap.googleapis.com/Web
google_iap_web_iam_policy iap.googleapis.com/Web
google_kms_crypto_key cloudkms.googleapis.com/CryptoKey
google_kms_crypto_key_iam_binding cloudkms.googleapis.com/CryptoKey
google_kms_crypto_key_iam_member cloudkms.googleapis.com/CryptoKey
google_kms_crypto_key_iam_policy cloudkms.googleapis.com/CryptoKey
google_kms_key_ring cloudkms.googleapis.com/KeyRing
google_kms_key_ring_iam_binding cloudkms.googleapis.com/KeyRing
google_kms_key_ring_iam_member cloudkms.googleapis.com/KeyRing
google_kms_key_ring_iam_policy cloudkms.googleapis.com/KeyRing
google_monitoring_alert_policy monitoring.googleapis.com/AlertPolicy
google_monitoring_notification_channel monitoring.googleapis.com/NotificationChannel
google_notebooks_instance_iam_binding notebooks.googleapis.com/Instance
google_notebooks_instance_iam_member notebooks.googleapis.com/Instance
google_notebooks_instance_iam_policy notebooks.googleapis.com/Instance
google_notebooks_runtime_iam_binding notebooks.googleapis.com/Runtime
google_notebooks_runtime_iam_member notebooks.googleapis.com/Runtime
google_notebooks_runtime_iam_policy notebooks.googleapis.com/Runtime
google_organization_iam_binding cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Organization
google_organization_iam_custom_role iam.googleapis.com/Role
google_organization_iam_member cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Organization
google_organization_iam_policy cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Organization
google_organization_policy cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Organization
google_privateca_ca_pool_iam_binding privateca.googleapis.com/CaPool
google_privateca_ca_pool_iam_member privateca.googleapis.com/CaPool
google_privateca_ca_pool_iam_policy privateca.googleapis.com/CaPool
google_privateca_certificate_template_iam_binding privateca.googleapis.com/CertificateTemplate
google_privateca_certificate_template_iam_member privateca.googleapis.com/CertificateTemplate
google_privateca_certificate_template_iam_policy privateca.googleapis.com/CertificateTemplate
google_project cloudbilling.googleapis.com/ProjectBillingInfo, cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Project
google_project_iam_binding cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Project
google_project_iam_custom_role iam.googleapis.com/Role
google_project_iam_member cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Project
google_project_iam_policy cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Project
google_project_organization_policy cloudresourcemanager.googleapis.com/Project
google_project_service serviceusage.googleapis.com/Service
google_pubsub_lite_reservation pubsublite.googleapis.com/Reservation
google_pubsub_lite_subscription pubsublite.googleapis.com/Subscription
google_pubsub_lite_topic pubsublite.googleapis.com/Topic
google_pubsub_schema pubsub.googleapis.com/Schema
google_pubsub_subscription pubsub.googleapis.com/Subscription
google_pubsub_subscription_iam_binding pubsub.googleapis.com/Subscription
google_pubsub_subscription_iam_member pubsub.googleapis.com/Subscription
google_pubsub_subscription_iam_policy pubsub.googleapis.com/Subscription
google_pubsub_topic pubsub.googleapis.com/Topic
google_pubsub_topic_iam_binding pubsub.googleapis.com/Topic
google_pubsub_topic_iam_member pubsub.googleapis.com/Topic
google_pubsub_topic_iam_policy pubsub.googleapis.com/Topic
google_redis_instance redis.googleapis.com/Instance
google_secret_manager_secret_iam_binding secretmanager.googleapis.com/Secret
google_secret_manager_secret_iam_member secretmanager.googleapis.com/Secret
google_secret_manager_secret_iam_policy secretmanager.googleapis.com/Secret
google_spanner_database spanner.googleapis.com/Database
google_spanner_database_iam_binding spanner.googleapis.com/Database
google_spanner_database_iam_member spanner.googleapis.com/Database
google_spanner_database_iam_policy spanner.googleapis.com/Database
google_spanner_instance spanner.googleapis.com/Instance
google_spanner_instance_iam_binding spanner.googleapis.com/Instance
google_spanner_instance_iam_member spanner.googleapis.com/Instance
google_spanner_instance_iam_policy spanner.googleapis.com/Instance
google_sql_database sqladmin.googleapis.com/Database
google_sql_database_instance sqladmin.googleapis.com/Instance
google_storage_bucket storage.googleapis.com/Bucket
google_storage_bucket_iam_binding storage.googleapis.com/Bucket
google_storage_bucket_iam_member storage.googleapis.com/Bucket
google_storage_bucket_iam_policy storage.googleapis.com/Bucket
google_vpc_access_connector vpcaccess.googleapis.com/Connector