Working with quotas

Google Cloud enforces quotas on resource usage for project owners, setting a limit on how much of a particular Google Cloud resource your project can use. Quotas fall under two categories:

  • Rate quotas, such as the number of API requests per day. This quota resets after a time interval that is specific to the service, such as a minute or a day.
  • Allocation quotas, such as the number of virtual machine (VM) instances or load balancers used by your project at a given time. This quota does not reset over time, but this quota must be explicitly released when you no longer want to use the resource—for example, by deleting a GKE cluster.

Each quota limit represents a specific countable resource, such as the number of API requests made per day to the number of load balancers used concurrently by your application.

Quotas are enforced for a variety of reasons:

  • To protect the community of Google Cloud users by preventing unforeseen spikes in usage.
  • To help you manage resources. For example, you can set your own limits on service usage while developing and testing your applications.

Different projects can have different quotas for the same services. For example, if you are using a free trial account to explore the platform, your quotas are more limited. Enabling billing for your project increases quotas for most services; you can also explicitly request more quota for a specific service. Quotas can also increase as your use of Google Cloud expands over time.

Quota limits in your project can be affected by quota overrides that are applied by the service owner, project owner, or quota administrator. To learn more about how quota limits are calculated, see the Service quota model.

You can configure monitoring and alerts to track quota usage and send you an alert in the event of quota expiration or unusual usage.

This document describes how to work with quotas in your projects, including how to find and modify your existing quota limits, how to request higher quota, and how to monitor quota usage. To learn how to view other API usage metrics, see Monitoring your API usage.

To find the quota documentation for a product or service, use the Search option on any Google Cloud documentation page, and search for the relevant service name and quota. For example, a search for "GKE quota" returns that service's Quotas and limits page as a first result.

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Permissions

Permissions for viewing project quota

To view your project quota in the Google Cloud Console or to access project quota programmatically, you must have the following IAM permissions:

  • resourcemanager.projects.get
  • resourcemanager.folders.get (if you want to view quota for an entire Folder)
  • resourcemanager.organizations.get (if you want to view quota for an entire Organization)
  • serviceusage.quotas.get

To learn which roles include these permissions by default, see the IAM permissions reference.

Permissions for changing project quota

To change your quota at the project, folder, or organization level, you must have the following permission:

This permission is included by default for the following roles: Owner, Editor, Quota Administrator, and Service Usage Admin.

Viewing your quota in the Cloud Console

You can view your current quota limits in two different areas of the Google Cloud Console:

  • The Quotas page, which lists all quota usage and limits for your project
  • The Cloud Console API dashboard, which lists quota information for a particular API, including resource usage over time

You can also view and manage your quota programmatically and from the command line, which you can find out more about later in this document.

For information about how to monitor your quota usage and how to set quota alerts, see Monitoring and alerting on quota metrics.

Viewing all project quotas

To view quota usage and limits for all resources in your project:

  1. In the Google Cloud Console, go to the Quotas page.

    Go to Quotas

    The list includes one line item for each type of quota available in each service.

  2. Sort and filter the results to focus on the information you need:

    • To view a specific property, click Filter table.
    • To sort the lists alphabetically, hold the pointer over the Service, Limit name, Quota status, or Details heading.
    • By default, the list is sorted to show your most used quota first (in terms of peak usage over the last seven days), which helps you see limits that are at risk of being exceeded. To view the least used first, toggle the Quota status arrow.
    • To learn more about your Current Usage for a particular quota, in the Details column, click All Quotas.

The quotas usage metrics listed on the Quotas page are calculated as follows:

  • Rate quotas:
    • For day-rate quotas, the number listed represents the total usage so far in the current 24-hour period.
    • For per-minute or per-100-seconds quota, the number listed represents the average usage in the past 24 hours.
  • Allocation quotas: The number listed represents the resource quantity (such as the number of load balancers) currently in use by your project.

You can learn more about quotas for a specific service by reading the documentation for that service. For example, Compute Engine quota is documented in Resource quotas.

API-specific quota

To view detailed quota information for a particular API, including usage over time, visit the API's quota page in the Cloud Console. Depending on the API, these limits can include requests per day, requests per minute, and requests per minute per user. Some APIs set very low limits until you enable billing on your project.

You can view the current limits for a particular API in two different areas of the Cloud Console:

  • On the Cloud Console Quotas page as described in the Viewing all project quotas section.

  • On the Cloud Console APIs & Services Dashboard page. On this page, select your project, click the API name, and then click Quotas. The Quotas page shows the quota names for the API. You can expand each quota to see detailed usage over time, as well as your current limit. By default, the limits displayed are those imposed by Google. You can cap usage as described in the Capping usage section. If there is no Google-imposed limit on a given quota, the limit is displayed as Unlimited.

    Some quotas do not appear on an API-specific quota page. For example, requests to the Compute Engine API have an API-specific quota page, but this doesn't include Compute Engine compute resource usage (allocation quota). In addition, if you are using a service in multiple locations, the API-specific quota page does not show regional or zonal quota limits and their usage. For a complete list of your project's quota usage that you can filter by location, see the project Quotas page.

Managing your quota using the Cloud Console

Depending on your resource usage, you may want to adjust your project's quota limits up or down. This section describes how to change your provided quota limits. To see your quota limits, in the Details column, click All Quotas.

Filtering quotas

To filter the list of quotas by specific properties:

  1. Go to the Quotas page in the Google Cloud Console:

    Go to Quotas

  2. Click Filter table to query your quota by a specific property.

Requesting a higher quota limit

You can request an increase to most quota limits in the Google Cloud Console using the steps below. You may encounter one of the following exceptions:

  • In some cases, the Google Cloud Console redirects you to a separate form to request an increased limit. After you submit the form, Google Cloud acknowledges your request by email.
  • Some quotas cannot be updated using the Google Cloud Console. If you find that you cannot change a quota from the console, request the increase from Cloud Customer Care. The Billing team does not handle quota limit increases.

To request a higher quota limit from the Google Cloud Console:

  1. Go to the Quotas page:

    Go to Quotas

  2. Select the quota you want to change as follows:

    1. Click ALL QUOTAS in the row of the quota you want to change. In the QUOTA PANEL, click the Global checkbox.
    2. Alternatively, you can click warning if it displays in the Quota status column. In the QUOTA PANEL, click the checkbox next to the quota you want to change.
  3. On the main Quotas page, click EDIT QUOTAS.

  4. Complete the request form that displays to the right as follows:

    1. In the New limit field, enter the increased quota you are requesting.
    2. In the Request description field, enter the reason for your request. It's useful to include information such as future growth plans, region or zone spread, and any additional requirements or dependencies.
    3. Click NEXT.
    4. In the Contact details panel, enter your phone number in the Phone field.
    5. Click DONE.
  5. Click SUBMIT REQUEST.

After you submit your request in the Google Cloud Console, Google Cloud sends you an email acknowledging your request. You can respond to this email if you need further assistance. Cloud Customer Care processes your request, typically within 2-3 business days, then sends you a second email notifying you whether the quota increase was approved or denied. The email provides the effective date of the increase, if applicable.

Capping usage

You might want to limit usage of a particular resource by setting your own quota limits. For example, to prevent getting billed for usage beyond the free courtesy usage limits, you can request per-day caps. To cap quota, edit the limits on the API-specific quota page.

  1. In the Google Cloud Console, go to the Quotas page.

    Go to Quotas

  2. Click Filter table to query your quota by a specific property.

  3. Click ALL QUOTAS for the usage you want to cap.

  4. Click the checkbox to select the property you want to edit.

  5. Click EDIT QUOTAS.

  6. Complete the request form.

  7. Enter your revised quota limit, and optionally, a description.

  8. Click DONE.

  9. Click SUBMIT REQUEST.

If you want to cap a quota that doesn't appear on this page, or set a limit higher than the provided maximum, then edit your limits as described in Requesting higher quota.

Managing your quota using the gcloud command-line tool (alpha)

You can use the gcloud command-line tool to get current quotas and limit quota usage for some Google Cloud APIs and services, including project-, folder-, and organization-level quotas where available.

To use this approach, first ensure that you have installed and initialized the latest version of the Cloud SDK, including the alpha commands component. If you are using Cloud Shell to interact with Google Cloud, the Cloud SDK is installed for you.

To view a project's quota for a particular service, run the following command, substituting your project ID and service name:

gcloud alpha services quota list \
    --service=SERVICE_NAME.googleapis.com \
    --consumer=projects/PROJECT_ID

To view the same service's quota details for an organization:

gcloud alpha services quota list \
    --service=SERVICE_NAME.googleapis.com \
    --consumer=organizations/ORG_ID

For a complete list of gcloud quota commands and flags, see the Cloud SDK reference.

In addition to gcloud quota, some services have their own command-line access to quota and resource usage information. For example, Compute Engine lets you access quota information with gcloud compute.

Managing your quota using the Service Usage API

You can use the Service Usage APIs to get current quotas and limit the quota usage for some Google Cloud APIs and services. For more information about Service Usage, see the following:

You cannot use the Service Usage API to request a higher quota. For this activity, you must use the Cloud Console.

Monitoring and alerting on quota metrics

The Cloud Monitoring API and UI lets you monitor quota usage, limits, and errors in greater depth. You can use these metrics to create custom dashboards and alerts, so you can monitor quota usage over time and receive alerts when, for example, you are approaching a quota limit.

Cloud Monitoring supports a wide variety of metrics that you can combine with filters and aggregations for new and insightful views into your quota usage. For example, you can combine a metric for allocation quota usage with a quota_metric filter on Cloud TPU names.

To use Metrics Explorer to view the metrics for a monitored resource, follow these steps:

  1. In the Google Cloud Console, go to the Monitoring page.

    Go to Monitoring

  2. In the Monitoring navigation pane, click Metrics Explorer.
  3. Ensure that Metric is the selected tab.
  4. In the Find resource type and metric field, select from the menu or enter the name for the resource and metric. Use the following information to complete the fields:
    1. For the Resource, select or enter Consumer Quota.
    2. For the Metric, select or enter Allocation quota usage or Rate quota usage, depending upon the type of quota you want to monitor.
  5. To modify how the data is displayed, use the Filter, Group By, and Aggregator menus. For example, you can group by resource or metric labels. For more information, see Selecting metrics.

Similarly, to see quota limits or exceeded errors, first select Consumer Quota as the resource type and then select Quota limit or Quota exceeded error.

After you've found the quota usage information you want, you can use Cloud Monitoring to create custom dashboards and alerts to help you monitor and maintain a robust application. For more information, see the following documents:

For examples of common quota-specific alerting policies, see Using quota metrics.

The Cloud Monitoring reference guide includes a detailed reference for quota metrics.

Checking quota metric support

Not all services support quota metrics in Cloud Monitoring. To see applicable quota metrics for supported services, select Consumer Quota as the resource type when building a chart or creating an alerting policy. Services that don't support quota metrics aren't displayed.

  • Common services that support quota metrics include Compute Engine, Dataflow, Cloud Spanner, Pub/Sub, Cloud Vision, Speech-to-Text, Cloud Monitoring, and Cloud Logging.

  • Common services that do not support quota metrics include App Engine, Cloud Storage, and Cloud SQL.

Quota errors

If your project exceeds a quota while using a service, Google Cloud returns an error based on how you accessed the service:

  • If you exceeded a quota with an HTTP/REST request, Google Cloud returns an HTTP 429 TOO MANY REQUESTS status code.
  • If you exceed a quota with an API request, Google Cloud returns an HTTP 413 REQUEST ENTITY TOO LARGE status code.
  • If you exceeded a quota using gRPC, Google Cloud returns a ResourceExhausted error. How this error appears to you depends on the service.
  • If you exceeded a quota using a gcloud command-line tool command, the gcloud tool outputs a quota-exceeded error message and returns with the exit code 1.

Rate quotas reset after a predefined time interval that is specific to each service. For more information, see the quotas documentation for the specific service.

If you want to be alerted when errors happen in future, you can create custom alerts for specific quota errors, as described in Monitoring quota metrics.