An overview of App Engine

Region ID

The REGION_ID is an abbreviated code that Google assigns based on the region you select when you create your app. The code does not correspond to a country or province, even though some region IDs may appear similar to commonly used country and province codes. For apps created after February 2020, REGION_ID.r is included in App Engine URLs. For existing apps created before this date, the region ID is optional in the URL.

Learn more about region IDs.

An App Engine app is made up of a single application resource that consists of one or more services. Each service can be configured to use different runtimes and to operate with different performance settings. Within each service, you deploy versions of that service. Each version then runs within one or more instances, depending on how much traffic you configured it to handle.

Components of an application

Your App Engine app is created under your Google Cloud project when you create an application resource. The App Engine application is a top-level container that includes the service, version, and instance resources that make up your app. When you create your App Engine app, all your resources are created in the region that you choose, including your app code along with a collection of settings, credentials, and your app's metadata. Learn more about "application resources" ( standard | flexible ) and in which regions you can create them.

Each App Engine application includes at least one service, the default service, which can hold many versions, depending on your app's billing status. For more information, see Limits below.

The following diagram illustrates the hierarchy of an App Engine app running with multiple services. In this diagram, the app has two services that contain multiple versions, and two of those versions are actively running on multiple instances:

Hierarchy graph of an app's services, versions, and instances

Other Google Cloud services, for example Datastore, are shared across your App Engine app. For more information, see "Structuring web services" ( standard | flexible ).


Use services in App Engine to factor your large apps into logical components that can securely share App Engine features and communicate with one another. Generally, your App Engine services behave like microservices. Therefore, you can run your whole app in a single service or you can design and deploy multiple services to run as a set of microservices.

For example, an app that handles your customer requests might include separate services that each handle different tasks, such as:

  • API requests from mobile devices
  • Internal, administration-type requests
  • Backend processing such as billing pipelines and data analysis

Each service in App Engine consists of the source code from your app and the corresponding App Engine configuration files. The set of files that you deploy to a service represent a single version of that service and each time that you deploy to that service, you are creating additional versions within that same service.


Having multiple versions of your app within each service allows you to quickly switch between different versions of that app for rollbacks, testing, or other temporary events. You can route all traffic to a specific version of your app by "migrating traffic" ( standard | flexible ) or route to multiple versions of your app by "splitting traffic" ( standard | flexible ).


The versions within your services run on one or more instances. By default, App Engine scales your app to match the load. Your apps will scale up the number of instances that are running to provide consistent performance, or scale down to minimize idle instances and reduces costs. For more information about instances, see "How instances are managed" ( standard | flexible ).

In the App Engine flexible environment, instances are backed by Compute Engine resources. Some of the resources used by instances in the App Engine flexible environment, such as disk, CPU, and memory, count towards the Compute Engine API quotas of your project. For more details on how App Engine uses Compute Engine resources, see the App Engine flexible environment overview.

Application requests

Each of your app's services and each of the versions within those services must have a unique name. You can then use those unique names to target and route traffic to specific resources using URLs, for example:

Incoming user requests are routed to the services or versions that are configured to handle traffic. You can also target and route requests to specific services and versions. For more information, see "Communicating between Services" ( standard | flexible ).

Logging application requests

When your application handles a request, it can also write its own logging messages to stdout and stderr. For details about your app's logs, see "Writing Application Logs" ( standard | flexible ).


Both the flexible environment and the standard environment share the same limits for services and versions. For example, if you have standard versions and flexible versions in the same app, those versions count towards the same limit. For details, see "Quotas and limits" ( standard | flexible ).