Membuat tugas App Engine

Halaman ini menunjukkan cara membuat tugas App Engine secara terprogram dan menempatkannya di antrean Cloud Tasks. Dengan proses ini, Anda dapat secara eksplisit menentukan layanan dan pengendali yang harus memproses tugas, dan secara opsional meneruskan data khusus tugas ke pengendali. Layanan Cloud Tasks meneruskan permintaan tugas ke pengendali, tetapi pekerja ini berada di dalam App Engine. Jadi, semua antrean yang menargetkan pengendali App Engine harus memiliki aplikasi App Engine. Pengendali harus dijalankan di region tempat aplikasi App Engine dijalankan. Region ini juga berfungsi sebagai parameter LOCATION_ID untuk permintaan Cloud Tasks Anda. Untuk mengetahui informasi selengkapnya, lihat Antrean Cloud Tasks dengan target App Engine.

Anda juga dapat menyesuaikan konfigurasi untuk tugas tersebut, seperti menjadwalkan waktu di masa mendatang kapan tugas harus dijalankan atau membatasi berapa kali tugas tersebut harus dicoba lagi jika gagal. Jika Anda memilih untuk menentukan nama untuk tugas, Cloud Tasks dapat menggunakan nama tersebut untuk memastikan penghapusan duplikat tugas, meskipun pemrosesan yang diperlukan dapat menambah latensi.

Aturan firewall App Engine

Di lingkungan standar App Engine, firewall App Engine dapat mengizinkan traffic internal tertentu untuk mengabaikan firewall. Artinya, jika Anda menetapkan aturan default ke deny, permintaan dari layanan tertentu yang ditujukan untuk lingkungan standar App Engine tidak akan diblokir. Ini adalah semua jenis traffic yang diminta dalam konfigurasi aplikasi itu sendiri, atau dikirim dari aplikasi yang sama. Permintaan yang mengabaikan aturan firewall dengan cara ini juga mencakup tugas App Engine di Cloud Tasks (termasuk Task Queue App Engine).

Untuk mengizinkan permintaan masuk, berikut adalah rentang IP untuk tugas App Engine di Cloud Tasks (termasuk Task Queue App Engine):

  • Rentang IP untuk permintaan yang dikirim ke lingkungan standar App Engine: 0.1.0.2/32 (mengabaikan aturan firewall default jika ditetapkan untuk menolak)

  • Rentang IP untuk permintaan yang dikirim ke lingkungan fleksibel App Engine: 0.1.0.2/32

Membuat tugas menggunakan library klien

Anda membuat tugas dalam bentuk permintaan HTTP, yang dapat dibuat sesuai keinginan. Namun, menggunakan library klien, seperti yang dilakukan pada contoh berikut, dapat membantu Anda mengelola detail komunikasi tingkat rendah dengan server, termasuk mengautentikasi dengan Google. Untuk menambahkan tugas ke antrean, lihat Menambahkan tugas ke antrean Cloud Tasks

C#


using Google.Cloud.Tasks.V2;
using Google.Protobuf;
using Google.Protobuf.WellKnownTypes;
using System;

class CreateAppEngineTask
{
    public string CreateTask(
        // TODO<developer>: call this method by passing correct values for
        // the following parameters or change the parameters' default values.
        string projectId = "YOUR-PROJECT-ID",
        string location = "us-central1",
        string queue = "my-queue",
        string payload = "Hello World!",
        int inSeconds = 0)
    {
        CloudTasksClient client = CloudTasksClient.Create();
        QueueName parent = new QueueName(projectId, location, queue);

        var response = client.CreateTask(new CreateTaskRequest
        {
            Parent = parent.ToString(),
            Task = new Task
            {
                AppEngineHttpRequest = new AppEngineHttpRequest
                {
                    HttpMethod = HttpMethod.Post,
                    RelativeUri = "/log_payload",
                    Body = ByteString.CopyFromUtf8(payload)
                },
                ScheduleTime = Timestamp.FromDateTime(
                    DateTime.UtcNow.AddSeconds(inSeconds))
            }
        });

        Console.WriteLine($"Created Task {response.Name}");
        return response.Name;
    }
}

Python

"""Create a task for a given queue with an arbitrary payload."""

from google.cloud import tasks_v2
from google.protobuf import timestamp_pb2
import datetime
import json

# Create a client.
client = tasks_v2.CloudTasksClient()

# TODO(developer): Uncomment these lines and replace with your values.
# project = 'my-project-id'
# queue = 'my-appengine-queue'
# location = 'us-central1'
# payload = 'hello' or {'param': 'value'} for application/json
# in_seconds = None

# Construct the fully qualified queue name.
parent = client.queue_path(project, location, queue)

# Construct the request body.
task = {
    "app_engine_http_request": {  # Specify the type of request.
        "http_method": tasks_v2.HttpMethod.POST,
        "relative_uri": "/example_task_handler",
    }
}
if payload is not None:
    if isinstance(payload, dict):
        # Convert dict to JSON string
        payload = json.dumps(payload)
        # specify http content-type to application/json
        task["app_engine_http_request"]["headers"] = {
            "Content-type": "application/json"
        }
    # The API expects a payload of type bytes.
    converted_payload = payload.encode()

    # Add the payload to the request.
    task["app_engine_http_request"]["body"] = converted_payload

if in_seconds is not None:
    # Convert "seconds from now" into an rfc3339 datetime string.
    d = datetime.datetime.now(tz=datetime.timezone.utc) + datetime.timedelta(
        seconds=in_seconds
    )

    # Create Timestamp protobuf.
    timestamp = timestamp_pb2.Timestamp()
    timestamp.FromDatetime(d)

    # Add the timestamp to the tasks.
    task["schedule_time"] = timestamp

# Use the client to build and send the task.
response = client.create_task(parent=parent, task=task)

print(f"Created task {response.name}")
return response

Perhatikan file requirements.txt:

Flask==3.0.0; python_version > '3.6'
Flask==2.0.3; python_version < '3.7'
gunicorn==20.1.0
google-cloud-tasks==2.13.1
Werkzeug==2.3.7

Java

import com.google.cloud.tasks.v2.AppEngineHttpRequest;
import com.google.cloud.tasks.v2.CloudTasksClient;
import com.google.cloud.tasks.v2.HttpMethod;
import com.google.cloud.tasks.v2.QueueName;
import com.google.cloud.tasks.v2.Task;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import com.google.protobuf.Timestamp;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import java.time.Clock;
import java.time.Instant;

public class CreateTask {
  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "my-project-id";
    String queue = "my-appengine-queue";
    String location = "us-central1";
    String payload = "hello";
    int seconds = 0; // Scheduled delay for the task in seconds
    createTask(projectId, queue, location, payload, seconds);
  }

  // This is an example snippet for showing best practices.
  public static void createTask(
      String projectId, String queueName, String location, String payload, int seconds)
      throws IOException {
    // Instantiates a client.
    try (CloudTasksClient client = CloudTasksClient.create()) {
      // Construct the fully qualified queue name.
      String queuePath = QueueName.of(projectId, location, queueName).toString();

      // Construct the task body.
      Task.Builder taskBuilder =
          Task.newBuilder()
              .setAppEngineHttpRequest(
                  AppEngineHttpRequest.newBuilder()
                      .setBody(ByteString.copyFrom(payload, Charset.defaultCharset()))
                      .setRelativeUri("/tasks/create")
                      .setHttpMethod(HttpMethod.POST)
                      .build());

      // Add the scheduled time to the request.
      taskBuilder.setScheduleTime(
          Timestamp.newBuilder()
              .setSeconds(Instant.now(Clock.systemUTC()).plusSeconds(seconds).getEpochSecond()));

      // Send create task request.
      Task task = client.createTask(queuePath, taskBuilder.build());
      System.out.println("Task created: " + task.getName());
    }
  }
}

Perhatikan file pom.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!--
Copyright 2019 Google LLC

 Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 You may obtain a copy of the License at

       http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 limitations under the License.
-->
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  <packaging>war</packaging>
  <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <groupId>com.example.appengine</groupId>
  <artifactId>appengine-tasks-j11</artifactId>

  <!--
    The parent pom defines common style checks and testing strategies for our samples.
    Removing or replacing it should not affect the execution of the samples in anyway.
  -->
  <parent>
    <groupId>com.google.cloud.samples</groupId>
    <artifactId>shared-configuration</artifactId>
    <version>1.2.0</version>
    <relativePath></relativePath>
  </parent>

  <properties>
    <maven.compiler.target>11</maven.compiler.target>
    <maven.compiler.source>11</maven.compiler.source>
  </properties>

  <!--  Using libraries-bom to manage versions.
  See https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/cloud-opensource-java/wiki/The-Google-Cloud-Platform-Libraries-BOM -->
  <dependencyManagement>
    <dependencies>
      <dependency>
        <groupId>com.google.cloud</groupId>
        <artifactId>libraries-bom</artifactId>
        <version>26.32.0</version>
        <type>pom</type>
        <scope>import</scope>
      </dependency>
    </dependencies>
  </dependencyManagement>

  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>com.google.cloud</groupId>
      <artifactId>google-cloud-tasks</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <!-- Test dependencies -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>junit</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
      <version>4.13.2</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>com.google.truth</groupId>
      <artifactId>truth</artifactId>
      <version>1.4.0</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>
  <build>
    <finalName>tasks</finalName>
    <plugins>
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>3.4.0</version>
        <configuration>
          <failOnMissingWebXml>false</failOnMissingWebXml>
        </configuration>
      </plugin>

      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.codehaus.mojo</groupId>
        <artifactId>exec-maven-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>3.1.1</version>
        <configuration>
          <mainClass>com.example.task.CreateTask</mainClass>
          <cleanupDaemonThreads>false</cleanupDaemonThreads>
        </configuration>
      </plugin>
    </plugins>
  </build>
</project>

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Tasks\V2\AppEngineHttpRequest;
use Google\Cloud\Tasks\V2\CloudTasksClient;
use Google\Cloud\Tasks\V2\HttpMethod;
use Google\Cloud\Tasks\V2\Task;

/** Uncomment and populate these variables in your code */
// $projectId = 'The Google project ID';
// $locationId = 'The Location ID';
// $queueId = 'The Cloud Tasks App Engine Queue ID';
// $payload = 'The payload your task should carry to the task handler. Optional';

// Instantiate the client and queue name.
$client = new CloudTasksClient();
$queueName = $client->queueName($projectId, $locationId, $queueId);

// Create an App Engine Http Request Object.
$httpRequest = new AppEngineHttpRequest();
// The path of the HTTP request to the App Engine service.
$httpRequest->setRelativeUri('/task_handler');
// POST is the default HTTP method, but any HTTP method can be used.
$httpRequest->setHttpMethod(HttpMethod::POST);
// Setting a body value is only compatible with HTTP POST and PUT requests.
if (isset($payload)) {
    $httpRequest->setBody($payload);
}

// Create a Cloud Task object.
$task = new Task();
$task->setAppEngineHttpRequest($httpRequest);

// Send request and print the task name.
$response = $client->createTask($queueName, $task);
printf('Created task %s' . PHP_EOL, $response->getName());

Perhatikan file composer.json:

{
    "require": {
        "google/cloud-tasks": "^1.4.0"
    }
}

Go


// Command create_task constructs and adds a task to an App Engine Queue.
package main

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"

	cloudtasks "cloud.google.com/go/cloudtasks/apiv2"
	taskspb "cloud.google.com/go/cloudtasks/apiv2/cloudtaskspb"
)

// createTask creates a new task in your App Engine queue.
func createTask(projectID, locationID, queueID, message string) (*taskspb.Task, error) {
	// Create a new Cloud Tasks client instance.
	// See https://godoc.org/cloud.google.com/go/cloudtasks/apiv2
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := cloudtasks.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("NewClient: %w", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Build the Task queue path.
	queuePath := fmt.Sprintf("projects/%s/locations/%s/queues/%s", projectID, locationID, queueID)

	// Build the Task payload.
	// https://godoc.org/google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/tasks/v2#CreateTaskRequest
	req := &taskspb.CreateTaskRequest{
		Parent: queuePath,
		Task: &taskspb.Task{
			// https://godoc.org/google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/tasks/v2#AppEngineHttpRequest
			MessageType: &taskspb.Task_AppEngineHttpRequest{
				AppEngineHttpRequest: &taskspb.AppEngineHttpRequest{
					HttpMethod:  taskspb.HttpMethod_POST,
					RelativeUri: "/task_handler",
				},
			},
		},
	}

	// Add a payload message if one is present.
	req.Task.GetAppEngineHttpRequest().Body = []byte(message)

	createdTask, err := client.CreateTask(ctx, req)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("cloudtasks.CreateTask: %w", err)
	}

	return createdTask, nil
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud Tasks library.
const {CloudTasksClient} = require('@google-cloud/tasks');

// Instantiates a client.
const client = new CloudTasksClient();

async function createTask() {
  // TODO(developer): Uncomment these lines and replace with your values.
  // const project = 'my-project-id';
  // const queue = 'my-appengine-queue';
  // const location = 'us-central1';
  // const payload = 'Hello, World!';

  // Construct the fully qualified queue name.
  const parent = client.queuePath(project, location, queue);

  const task = {
    appEngineHttpRequest: {
      headers: {
        'Content-Type': 'text/plain', // Set content type to ensure compatibility your application's request parsing
      },
      httpMethod: 'POST',
      relativeUri: '/log_payload',
    },
  };

  if (payload) {
    task.appEngineHttpRequest.body = Buffer.from(payload).toString('base64');
  }

  if (inSeconds) {
    // The time when the task is scheduled to be attempted.
    task.scheduleTime = {
      seconds: inSeconds + Date.now() / 1000,
    };
  }

  console.log('Sending task:');
  console.log(task);

  // Send create task request.
  const request = {parent: parent, task: task};
  const [response] = await client.createTask(request);
  const name = response.name;
  console.log(`Created task ${name}`);
}

createTask();

Perhatikan file package.json:

{
  "name": "appengine-cloudtasks",
  "description": "Google App Engine Cloud Tasks example.",
  "license": "Apache-2.0",
  "author": "Google Inc.",
  "private": true,
  "engines": {
    "node": ">=16.0.0"
  },
  "files": [
    "*.js"
  ],
  "scripts": {
    "test": "c8 mocha -p -j 2 --timeout 30000",
    "start": "node server.js"
  },
  "dependencies": {
    "@google-cloud/tasks": "^4.0.0",
    "express": "^4.16.3"
  },
  "devDependencies": {
    "c8": "^8.0.0",
    "chai": "^4.2.0",
    "mocha": "^10.0.0",
    "uuid": "^9.0.0"
  }
}

Ruby

require "google/cloud/tasks"

# Create an App Engine Task
#
# @param [String] project_id Your Google Cloud Project ID.
# @param [String] location_id Your Google Cloud Project Location ID.
# @param [String] queue_id Your Google Cloud App Engine Queue ID.
# @param [String] payload The request body of your task.
# @param [Integer] seconds The delay, in seconds, to process your task.
def create_task project_id, location_id, queue_id, payload: nil, seconds: nil
  # Instantiates a client.
  client = Google::Cloud::Tasks.cloud_tasks

  # Construct the fully qualified queue name.
  parent = client.queue_path project: project_id, location: location_id, queue: queue_id

  # Construct task.
  task = {
    app_engine_http_request: {
      http_method:  "POST",
      relative_uri: "/log_payload"
    }
  }

  # Add payload to task body.
  if payload
    task[:app_engine_http_request][:body] = payload
  end

  # Add scheduled time to task.
  if seconds
    timestamp = Google::Protobuf::Timestamp.new
    timestamp.seconds = Time.now.to_i + seconds.to_i
    task[:schedule_time] = timestamp
  end

  # Send create task request.
  puts "Sending task #{task}"
  response = client.create_task parent: parent, task: task

  puts "Created task #{response.name}" if response.name
end

Langkah selanjutnya