Migrate a CDC table to another region

This page describes best practices for a use case where you've set up Datastream replication to BigQuery but configured the destination dataset in an incorrect region. You then want to move the dataset to another region (or multi-region) without having to re-synchronise all of the data from the source database to BigQuery.

Before you begin

Before you start migrating your data to another region, consider the following:

  • Migration takes time, and you must temporarily pause the stream during the operation. To maintain data integrity, the source database must retain the change logs when the stream is paused. To estimate how long to pause the stream, combine the value of max_staleness in the dataset and the longest-running merge operation:
    • For information about how long it might take for merge operations to finish, see Recommended table max_staleness value.
    • To find the maximum max_staleness in the dataset, see Determine the current max_staleness value of a table and adjust the query to your specific needs.
    • If the estimated pause is too long for your source database to support, you might want to consider temporarily reducing the value of max_staleness for the tables in the dataset.
  • Verify that the user performing the migration has sufficient BigQuery resources in the destination region (query reservation and background reservation). For more information about reservations, see Reservation assignments.
  • Verify that the user performing the migration has sufficient permissions to perform this operation, such as Identity and Access Management (IAM) controls or VPC Service Controls.

Migration steps

To initiate dataset migration, use BigQuery data replication:

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the BigQuery Studio page.

    Go to BigQuery Studio

  2. Create a BigQuery dataset replica in the new region:


    Replace the following:

    • DATASET_NAME: the name of the dataset that you want to create.
    • NEW_REGION: the name of the region where you want to create your dataset. For example, region-us.
  3. Monitor the migration progress, and wait until the copy watermark in the replica is within a few minutes of the primary. You can run this query on the BigQuery INFORMATION_SCHEMA to check the migration progress:

    catalog_name as project_id,
    schema_name as dataset_name,
    replication_time as dataset_replica_staleness
    catalog_name = PROJECT_ID
    AND schema_name = DATASET_NAME
    AND location = NEW_REGION;

    Replace the following:

    • PROJECT_ID: the ID of your Google Cloud project.
    • DATASET_NAME: the name of your dataset.
    • DATASET_REPLICA_STALENESS: the staleness configuration of the tables in the dataset replica that you created.
    • NEW_REGION: the region where you created your dataset.
  4. Pause the existing Datastream stream. For more information, see Pause the stream.

  5. Wait for the stream to drain and take note of the time when the stream entered the PAUSED state.

  6. Confirm that the latest CDC changes have been applied to the BigQuery table by checking the upsert_stream_apply_watermark for the table. Run the following query and ensure that the watermark timestamp is 10 minutes later then when the stream was paused:

    SELECT table_name, upsert_stream_apply_watermark

    To run the query only for a specific table, add the following WHERE clause:

    WHERE table_name = 'TABLE_NAME'

    Replace the following:

    • DATASET_NAME: the name of your dataset.
    • TABLE_NAME: optional. The table for which you want to check the upsert_stream_apply_watermark.
  7. Use the query from step 3 to verify that the new region copy watermark is later than the upsert_stream_apply_watermark captured in step 6.

  8. Optionally, manually compare several tables in the primary dataset in the original region with the replica in the new region to verify that all data is correctly copied.

  9. Promote the BigQuery dataset replica by running the following command in BigQuery Studio:

    SET OPTIONS(primary_replica = 'NEW_REGION');

    Replace the following:

    • DATASET_NAME: the name of your dataset.
    • NEW_REGION: the region where you created your dataset.
  10. Optionally, if you no longer need the original dataset (now the replica), and don't want to incur extra charges, then go to BigQuery Studio and drop the original BigQuery dataset:


    Replace the following:

    • DATASET_NAME: the name of the original dataset.
    • ORIGINAL_REGION: the region of the original dataset.
  11. Create a new stream with the exact same configuration but with new BigQuery destination location.

  12. Start the new stream.

    To prevent replicating duplicate events, start the stream from a specific position:

    • For MySQL and Oracle sources: you can identify the log position by examining the logs of the original stream and finding the last position from which the stream read successfully. For information about starting the stream from a specific position, see Manage streams.
    • For PostgreSQL sources: the new stream starts reading changes from the first log sequence number (LSN) in the replication slot. Because the original stream might have already processed some of these changes, manually change the pointer of the replication slot to the last LSN from which Datastream read. You can find this LSN in the Datastream consumer logs.
  13. Optionally, delete the original stream.